4286. 'And he said, Your name will no longer be called Jacob, but Israel' means the Divine celestial-spiritual at this point, for 'Israel' is the celestial-spiritual man within the natural, and so is the natural man, whereas the celestial[- spiritual] man proper - that is, the rational man - is 'Joseph'. This becomes clear from what is said below about Jacob and Israel, and also about Joseph, for one must begin here by stating what the celestial-spiritual is. At the present day within the Church the existence of the spiritual man and the natural man, or the internal man and the external, is indeed well known; but as to what the spiritual or internal man may be, this is not as yet so well known. Still less is it known what the celestial man is and the fact that this is distinct and separate from the spiritual man. And as this is not known it is impossible to know what the celestial-spiritual man is, meant here by 'Israel', and therefore a brief statement about it must be made.
(:Ссылки Genesis 37:3)
 It is well known that there are three heavens - the inmost heaven, the middle heaven, and the ultimate heaven, or what amounts to the same, the third, second, and first heavens. The inmost or third heaven is celestial, the angels there being called celestial because they are governed by love to the Lord and as a consequence are the ones most closely linked to the Lord. And that being so they excel all other angels in wisdom. They are innocent and are for that reason called embodiments of innocence and wisdom. These angels are divided into internal and external, the internal being more celestial than the external. The middle or second heaven is spiritual, the angels there being called spiritual because they are governed by charity towards the neighbour, that is, by mutual love, the nature of which is such that one angel loves another more than himself. And because their nature is such, intelligence is present within them and for that reason they are called embodiments of intelligence. These angels too are divided into internal and external, the internal being more spiritual than the external. But the ultimate or first heaven is also celestial and spiritual, though not in the same degree as the previous ones; for the natural is closely associated with them, and so for that reason they are called celestial-natural and spiritual-natural. They too are governed by mutual love, but they do not love others more than themselves, only as themselves. What governs them is an affection for good and a knowledge of truth. They also are divided into internal and external.
 But what the celestial-spiritual is must also be stated briefly. The term celestial-spiritual applies to those who have been called spiritual immediately above and who are in the middle or second heaven. They are given the name celestial because of their mutual love, and spiritual because of their intelligence arising out of this. The internal members of that heaven are represented by Joseph, and also in the Word are actually called 'Joseph', whereas its external members are represented by Israel, and also in the Word are actually called 'Israel'. The former, namely the internal members who are called Joseph, partake of the rational, whereas the external members who are called Israel partake of the natural, for they are half-way between the rational and the natural. These are the reasons why it has been said that 'Israel' is the celestial-spiritual man within the natural man, and so is the natural man, and that 'Joseph' is the celestial-spiritual man proper, which is the rational man. For in the universal sense all good which flows from love and charity is called celestial, and all truth which derives from this and constitutes faith and intelligence is referred to as spiritual.
 These things have been stated so that people may know what is meant by 'Israel'. But by 'Israel' the Lord's Divine celestial-spiritual is meant in the highest sense, whereas the Lord's spiritual kingdom in heaven and on earth is meant in the internal sense. The Lord's spiritual kingdom on earth is the Church, which is called the spiritual Church. And as 'Israel' means the Lord's spiritual kingdom, 'Israel' also means the spiritual man, for the Lord's kingdom exists within all who are spiritual, since each is heaven and also the Church in the smallest form these can take, 4279. As for Jacob, in the highest sense he represents the Lord's natural, both His celestial-natural and His spiritual-natural, and in the internal sense the Lord's kingdom as it exists in the ultimate or first heaven, and so also the corresponding area of the Church. Good within the natural is that which is called celestial here, and truth within it that which is called spiritual. From all this one may see what 'Israel' and 'Jacob' mean in the Word, and also why Jacob received the name Israel.
 But these ideas that have been stated will inevitably seem obscure, the chief reason being that few people know what the spiritual man is, and scarcely any what the celestial man is, or consequently that there is any difference between the spiritual man and the celestial man. The reason why they do not know is that no clear difference is perceived between good which is the good of love and charity, and truth which is the truth of faith. And the reason why these are not perceived is that genuine charity does not exist any longer. When something is non-existent no perception of it is possible. And a further reason why they are not perceived is that people do not bother very much about the things that have to do with the life after death, and so about those to do with heaven, but much about things to do with life in the body, and so with things which belong to the world. If people did bother about the things that have to do with the life after death, and so about those which have to do with heaven, they would easily grasp all that has been mentioned above, for that which a person loves he absorbs and grasps with ease, but that which he does not love with difficulty.
 The fact that 'Jacob' has one meaning and 'Israel' another is quite evident from the Word, for in its historical sections, and in the prophetical ones too, Jacob is used at one point, Israel at another; and sometimes the two names occur in the same verse. From this it becomes clear that there is an internal sense to the Word, and that without that sense this matter could in no way be known. The use of Jacob at one point, Israel at another is clear from the following,
Jacob dwelt in the land of his father's sojournings. These are the generations of Jacob. Joseph was a son of seventeen years. And Israel loved Joseph more than all his sons. Genesis 37:1-3.
Here Jacob is first called 'Jacob' and immediately after that 'Israel' - Israel being used when Joseph is referred to. Elsewhere,
Jacob saw that there was grain in Egypt; Jacob said to his sons . . . And the sons of Israel came to buy in the midst of others who came. Genesis 42:1, 5.
And after this,
They went up out of Egypt and came to the land of Canaan, to Jacob their father. When they told him all Joseph's words which he had spoken to them the spirit of Jacob their father revived. And Israel said, Enough; Joseph my son is still alive. Genesis 45:25, 27-28.
And Israel set out and all that he had. God spoke to Israel in visions in the night and said, Jacob, Jacob. And he said, Behold, here I am. And Jacob rose up from Beersheba; and the sons of Israel carried away 1 Jacob their father. Genesis 46:1-2, 5.
And in the same chapter,
These are the names of the sons of Israel who came into Egypt, Jacob and his sons. Genesis 46:8.
Joseph brought in Jacob his father and placed him before Pharaoh. Pharaoh said to Jacob . . . and Jacob said to Pharaoh . . . Genesis 47:7-10.
And in the same chapter,
And Israel dwelt in the land of Goshen. And Jacob lived in the land of Egypt seventeen years. And Israel's days drew near when he must die; he called his son Joseph. Genesis 47:27-29.
And someone reported to Jacob and said, Behold, your son Joseph has come to you, and Israel found some strength in himself and sat up on his bed. And Jacob said to Joseph, God Shaddai appeared to me in Luz. Genesis 48:2-3.
The name Israel is again used in the same chapter in verses 8, 10, 11, 13, 14, 20-21. And finally,
Jacob called his sons and said, Gather together, and hear, O sons of Jacob; and hearken to Israel your father. And when Jacob had finished commanding his sons . . . Genesis 49:1-2, 33.
From all these places it becomes clear that Jacob is called Jacob at one point, Israel at another, thus that Jacob has one meaning, Israel another, that is, one thing is meant when he is called Jacob, another when he is called Israel. They also make it quite clear that this arcanum can in no way be known except from the internal sense.
 What 'Jacob' means however, and what 'Israel', has been stated above. In general 'Jacob' in the Word means the external aspect of the Church and 'Israel' the internal, for every Church has an external aspect and it has an internal one, that is, it is internal and also external. And because that which constitutes the Church is meant by 'Jacob' and by 'Israel' and because the Church in its entirety originates in the Lord, both Jacob and Israel therefore mean the Lord in the highest sense - 'Jacob' the Lord's Divine natural, 'Israel' His Divine spiritual. Consequently the external aspect of the Lord's kingdom and of His Church is meant by 'Jacob' and the internal by 'Israel', as becomes additionally clear from the following places in which again each name is used in its own sense. In the prophecy uttered by Jacob, who by then was Israel,
By the hands of the Mighty One of Jacob; from there is the Shepherd, the Stone of Israel. Genesis 49:24.
Hear, O Jacob My servant, and Israel whom I have chosen. Fear not, O My servant Jacob, and Jeshurun whom I have chosen. I will pour out My spirit upon your seed, and My blessing upon your sons. This one will say, I am Jehovah's, and another will call himself by the name of Jacob: and he will write with his hand, Jehovah's, and surname himself by the name of Israel. Isaiah 44:1-3, 5.
Here 'Jacob' and 'Israel' plainly stand for the Lord, while Jacob or Israel's 'seed' and 'sons' stand for those whose faith is in Him. In Balaam's prophecy in Moses,
Who will count the dust of Jacob, and its number together with a fourth part of Israel? Numbers 23:10.
There is no divination against Jacob, nor enchantments against Israel. At that time it will be said to Jacob and to Israel, What has God done? Numbers 23:23.
How fine are your tabernacles, O Jacob; your dwelling-places, O Israel. Numbers 24:5.
A star will arise out of Jacob, and a sceptre out of Israel. Numbers 24:17.
My glory will I not give to another. Hearken to me, O Jacob, and O Israel whom I called: I am the same; I am the first; I am also the last. Isaiah 48:11-12.
In the same prophet,
Those who are to come Jacob will cause to take root. Israel will blossom and flower, and the face of the earth will be filled with produce. Isaiah 27:6.
Do not fear, O My servant Jacob, and do not be dismayed, O Israel, for behold, I have saved you from afar. Jeremiah 30:9-10.
I will surely gather Jacob, all of you, I will surely assemble the remnant of Israel, I will put them together, like the sheep of Bozrah. Micah 2:12.
 The reason why Jacob received the name Israel is clear from the actual words used when he was given it, which are these,
Your name will no longer be called Jacob, but Israel, for as a prince you have contended with God and with men, and have prevailed.
Israel in the original language means 'one contending as a prince with God', and these words mean in the internal sense that he overcame in the conflicts that accompany temptations; for it was through temptations and the conflicts which take place in temptations 2 that the Lord made His Human Divine, 1737, 1813, and elsewhere. And it is temptations and victories in temptations that make the spiritual man. This is why Jacob first received the name Israel after his wrestling - 'wrestling' meaning to undergo temptation, see 4274. It is well known that the Church, or the member of the Christian Church, calls itself Israel, but no one in the Church is an Israel except the one who has become a spiritual man through temptations. The name itself also implies the same. A subsequent confirmation of the fact that Jacob was to be called Israel was also given to him, as is clear from the following words further on,
And God appeared again to Jacob when coming from Paddan Aram, and blessed him; and God said to him, Your name is Jacob; your name will no longer be called Jacob, but Israel will be your name. And He called his name Israel. Genesis 35:9-10.
The reason for this confirmation will be discussed below.