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Isaiah 17:10

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Explanation of Isaiah 17      

By Rev. John H. Smithson

THE EXPLANATION of Isaiah Chapter 17

(Note: Rev. Smithson's translation of the Isaiah text is appended below the explanation)

1. THE burden of Damascus. Behold, Damascus is rejected, so as to be no city; and it is become a heap of ruins.

Verse 1. Behold, Damascus is rejected, so as to be no city, etc. - By "Aram" or Syria [of which Damascus was the capital], are signified the knowledges of Good. The same appears also from Ezekiel:

"Aram was your merchant, in the multitude of your works: they occupied in your fairs with emeralds, purple, and broidered work, and fine linen, and coral, and agate"; (Ezekiel 27:16) speaking of "Tyre", or the possession of knowledges; where "works, emeralds, purple, broidered work, fine linen, coral, and agate", signify nothing else but the knowledges of Good. So in Hosea:

"Jacob fled into the country of Aram and Israel served for a wife, and for a wife he kept sheep; and by a prophet Jehovah brought up Israel out of Egypt, and by a prophet was he preserved; Ephraim provoked Him to anger with bitterness"; (Hosea 12:12-14),

where "Jacob" signifies the external church, and "Israel" the spiritual internal church; "Aram" denotes the knowledges of Good; "Egypt" denotes perverted science; and "Ephraim", perverted intelligence; - the signification of which names could never appear from the literal sense, but only from the internal sense, in which names signify things relating to the church, as has been already observed.

So in Isaiah :

"Behold, Damascus is rejected, so as to be no city; and it is become a heap of ruins: and the fortress shall cease from Ephraim, and the kingdom from Damascus; and the remnant of Aram [or Syria] shall be as the glory of the sons of Israel"; (Isaiah 17:1, 3),

where the "remnant of Aram" signifies the knowledges of Good, which are called "the glory of the sons of Israel"; "Aram", or Syria, signifies also, in an opposite sense, the knowledges of Good perverted, according to what is usual in the Word, where the same expression is frequently applied in a two-fold signification.

That "Aram" is thus used in the opposite sense, may be seen in Isaiah 7:4-6; 9:12; Deuteronomy 26:5. Arcana Coelestia 1232.

See above, as to "Syria", Isaiah 7:4, the Exposition.

How important it is to acquire the knowledges of Truth and Good [signified by "Syria" from the Word, may appear from the following considerations:

That by truths cometh love to the Lord,
- by truths we receive love to our neighbour,
- by truths we have heavenly intelligence and wisdom,
- by truths regeneration is effected,
- by truths man has power against evils and falsities, and consequently against hell,
- by truths there is purification from evils and falsities,
- by truths the church exists;
- by truths heaven exists;
- by truths is the innocence of wisdom;
- by truths a man has conscience;
- by truths order is established;
- by truths cometh the beauty of angels, and also of men with respect to the interiors of their spirits,
- and that by virtue of truths man is a man.

But by all this is meant truths grounded in good, and not by truths without good, and by good from the Lord. Hence everyone can see the great importance of acquiring the knowledges of Truth and Goodness. Apocalypse Revealed 161.

2. The cities of Aroer are deserted: they shall be for the flocks, and they shall lie down, and none shall make them afraid.

Verse 2. [" Aroer" was the plain of Syria, and its "cities" or towns, as subordinate to Damascus, signified various doctrinals of Truth and Goodness, which when thus "deserted and devastated", become the possession of those who can make a proper use of them, denoted by "the flocks that shall lie down, and by none making them afraid", of whom, as the "remnant of Syria", (verse 3.) a New Church can be formed. It does not appear that Swedenborg has quoted this verse. See above, Chapter 5:17, note, where a similar passage occurs. The "glory of the sons of Israel", are the knowledges of Truth and Good applied to the life for the purposes of salvation.]

3. And the fortress shall cease from Ephraim, and the kingdom from Damascus; and the remnant of Syria shall be as the glory of the sons of Israel, says Jehovah of Hosts

Verse 3. As to the meaning of "Ephraim", see above, Chapter 7:2, the Exposition.

4. And it shall be in that day, the glory Jacob shall be made thin, and the fatness of his flesh shall be made lean.

Verse 4. To be "made thin" or slender, is to be deprived of the truths of faith; "the fatness of his flesh shall be made lean", signifies to be deprived of the good of charity. Arcana Coelestia 5200, 5204. b

[As to the theological leanness which prevails in the church at this day, from the want of the knowledges of Truth, see True Christian Religion 391.]

5. And it shall be as when one gathers the standing harvest, and his arm reaps the ears; or as when one gleans ears in the valley of Rephaim.

Verses 5, 6, 11. The subject treated of in this chapter is concerning the knowledges of Truth and Good appertaining to the church, has being destroyed. Those knowledges are siguified by "Damascus", which is here treated of, and by Aroer"; their being destroyed is described by gleanings being left in it, as in the shaking of the olive-tree; two [orJ three berrles on the head of the uppermost bough, four [orJ five on the fruitful branches; likewise by "the harvest being a heap in the day of possession", namely, that there shall be no more than one heap, wherefore it is also called "desperate sorrow." Hence it is evident that by "harvest" is here signified the last state of the church; that state is also signified by "morning", for when the last state of the church is at hand, it is then morning to those who will be of the New Church, and evening and night to those who are of the Old; that this is here understood by "morning", appears from the last verse of the chapter, where it is said "At the time of evening, behold terror! before the morning, it [terror] is no more." (Isaiah 17:14) "Terror" signifies destruction. Apocalypse Explained 911.

6. There shall be left gleanings in it, as in the shaking of the olive-tree; two [or] three berries on the head of the uppermost bough; four [orJ five on the fruitful branches, says Jehovah the God of Israel.

Verse 6. The devastation of the church is here treated of and this is said of the remaining few who are in Good and Truth. A comparison is made with "the shaking of the olive-tree", because by the "olive-tree" is signified the church as to the good of love and its "branches" the truths thence derived. "Two, three" signify the few 'who are in good, and thence in truths; "two" signify good, and "three" truths; and "four, five" signify the few who are in good; "four" those who are in good, and "five" a few; and because "four, five" signify the few who are in good, therefore it is said "Four, five on the fruitful branches"; for the "fruit-bearing olive-tree" signifies those in the church who are in good as to life. As these things are signified by those numbers, therefore it is said "two, three" and "four, five", and not "two and three" and "four and five." Apocalypse Explained 332. -

7. In that day shall a man regard his Maker; and his eyes shall look towards the Holy One of Israel:

8. And he shall not regard the altars, the work of his hands; and what his fingers have made, he shall not respect; nor the groves, nor the solar statues.

9. In that day shall the cities of his refuge be as a forsaken bough, and an uppermost branch, which they left before the sons of Israel: and there shall be desolation.

Verses 7, 8. 10. The subject here treated of is concerning the establishment of a New Church by the Lord. That they shall then be led into goods of life, and informed in truths of doctrine, is understood by "a man in that day having regard to his; Maker, and his eyes looking towards the Holy One of Israel"; the Lord is called "Maker", by reason that He leads into goods of life, for these make a man: and He is called the "Holy One of Israel", by reason that He teaches truths of doctrine, wherefore it is also said- "In that day shall a man regard his Maker, and his eyes shall look towards the Holy One of Israel"; man being called "man" [homo] , from the good of life, and "eyes" being predicated of the understanding of truth, thus of the truths of doctrine. That in such a case there will be no worship from self-love, in which evils of life originate, nor from self-derived intelligence, in which originate falsos of doctrine, is understood by his "not having regard to the altars, the work of his hands, and not having respect to what his fingers have made." By "the altars, the work of his hands", is understood worship grounded in self-love, from which evils of life are derived; and by "what his fingers have made", is understood worship grounded in self-derived intelligence, from which are derived falsities of doctrine; by "the groves and solar statues of the groves" is signiiled the religious principle grounded in falsities and thence in evils; by "groves", the religious principle grounded in falsities, and by "solar statues", such as is grounded in the evils of the false. Apocalypse Explained 391.

Hence by these words is understood that the all of doctrine should be from the Lord, and not from the proprium of man, which is the case when a man is in the spiritual affection of Truth, that is, when he loves Truth itself, because it is Truth, and not principally because thereby he can acquire fame and a name. Apocalypse Explained 585.

10. Because you have forgotten the God of your salvation, and have not remembered the Rock of your strength, therefore shalt you plant plants of delights, and shalt set it with strange slips: .

11. In the day when you shalt have made your plants to grow, and in the morning when you shalt have made your seed to flourish; even in the day of possession shall the harvest be a heap, and there shall be desperate sorrow.

Verse 10. The Rock of your strength, etc. - See above, Chapter 16:1, the Exposition.

Verses 10, 11. Because you have forgotten the God of your salvation, therefore shalt you plant plants of delights, and set stranqe slips, etc. That to "sow" the land or the field, signifies, in the Word, to teach and to learn the truths and goods of faith, which are of the church; and that the "increase of the field" are the goods and truths thence derived, is evident from many passages in the Word, as in Isaiah 17:10, 11; here such things as grow upon the earth are mentioned, and that the things of the church are understood thereby is evident, namely.by "planting plants of delights", as said of those who have " forgotten, the God of their salvation", are understood such things as favour the affections [of the merely natural man]; and that by "setting the earth with strange slips", is to teach truths which are not genuine, [the end of which will, be "desperate sorrow."] Arcana Coelestia 9272.

12. Woe to the tumult of many peoples, who make a noise like the noise of the seas; and to the roaring of the nations, who make a roaring like the roaring of many waters!

Verse 12. Woe to the tumult, etc. - As to "what is meant by the denunciation "Woe!" see above, Chapter 1:4, the Exposition.

[" The tumult of many peoples, the noise of the seas, and the roaring of the nations", etc., signify, by correspondence, the tumultuous collisions and reasonings which take place at the time of judgment, when the external or natural mind is laid open, and its falsities and evils exposed and dispersed, as "chaff and stubble", by the power of divine Truth. See Apocalypse Explained 706.]

13. Like the roaring of many waters do the nations roar; but He shall rebuke them, and they shall flee far away; and they shall be driven like the chaff of the mountains before the wind, and like the stubble before the whirlwind.

Verse 13. And they shall be driven like the chaff of the mountains before the wind, and like the stubble before the whirlwind. - In the spiritual world, as well as in the natural world, there exist strong winds and storms; but the storms in the spiritual world exist from the influx of the Divine [Principle] into the lower parts of that world, where they are who are in evils and falsities. That influx, as it descends -out of the heavens towards the earths, which are below, becomes more dense, and appears as clouds, and with the evil, dense and opaque, according to the quantity and quality of their evil; these clouds are appearances of the false from evil, arising from the spheres of their life; every angel and spirit being encompassed by such a sphere. When therefore the Divine [Principle] is sent forth powerfully from the Lord as a sun, and flows in into these dense and opaque clouds, there arises a storm, which is perceived by the spirits there, in like manner as storms are perceived by men in the world. It has been given me sometimes to perceive these storms, and also the "east wind", by which the evil were dissipated and cast into the hells, when the last Judgment was performed. From these considerations it may appear what "storms", "tempests", and "impetuous winds" signify in the following passages. Thus in Isaiah :

"You shalt disperse them, and the wind shall carry them away, and the storm shall dissipate them." (Isaiah 41:16)

And in Jeremiah:

"From the storm of Jehovah anger went forth, and a whirlwind threatening to rush in; upon the head of the wicked it shall rush." (Jeremiah 23:19; 30:23)

And in David:

"I would hasten my escape from the windy storm and tempest." (Psalmlv. 8.) Apocalypse Explained 419.

Like the chaff and the stubble, etc. - "Wheat" denotes the goods of love and charity; "chaff" signifies what contains nothing of good.. Arcana Coelestia 3941.

14. At the time of evening, behold terror! before the morning, it is no more. This is the portion of those that spoil us, and the lot of those that plunder us.

Verse 14. "Evening" signifies the last time of the church, when there is nothing but evils and falsities, which are called "terror", because they are hell; but the "morning " signifies the first time of the church, when evils and falsities are not; wherefore it is said, "Before the morning, terror is no more." Apocalypse Explained 677.

5. And the throne shall be established in mercy: and in truth shall He sit thereon, in the tabernacle of David, a Judge, searching out judgment, and despatching justice.

Verse 5. These things are said of the Lord. Heaven, which was established by Him, and the church thence derived, are signified by "the throne established in mercy"; that the Lord there reigns by Divine Truth from Divine Good, is signified by " sitting upon it in truth, in the tabernacle of David"; by "David" is meant the Lord as to His royalty, which is Divine Truth; find by his "tabernacle" is signified the Divine Good; by "judgment" is signified the truth of doctrine, because all judgment is from that truth; and by "justice" is signified the good of love, both from the Lord with those who are in heaven and in the church. Apocalypse Explained 799.

6. We have heard of the pride of Moab: he is very proud; of his haughtiness, and his pride, and his anger: vain are his lies.

Verse 6. By "pride" is understood the love of self, and the love and faith of what is false with those who are of the church. Apocalypse Explained 653, 675.

Vain are his lies. - "Lies" are the falsities of faith, because "Moab" signifies those who are in the evil of self-love, and who thence falsify Truths. Arcana Coelestia 8908.

7. Therefore shall Moab howl; for Moab shall everyone howl: for the foundations of Kir-hare-seth shall you moan; surely they are stricken.

8. For the fields of Heshbon are withered; [as to] the vine of Sibmah, the lords of the nations have broken down the branches thereof; they reached unto Jazer; they strayed through the desert; her branches are plucked up; they passed over the sea.

Verses 7-9. For Moab shall everyone howl; for the foundations of Kir-hareseth shall you make a moan, etc. - Very many of the prophecies, as the above, are of such a nature that, if they had not an internal sense, they would be of no use; whereas it is necessary that, as the Word is divine, it should contain within itself the laws of the heavenly kingdom into which man is about to come. Arcana Coelestia 2608.

9. Wherefore I will weep, as with the weeping of Jazer, for the vine of Sibmah: I will water you with my tears, O Heshbon and Elealeh! for upon your summer fruits, and upon your vintage, the shout [of war] has fallen.

Verse 9. By "harvest" here also is signified the last state of the church, for by "shouting" is signified the end, when upon finishing the vintage and gathering in the harvest, they were wont to triumph and make a shouting, but in the present case to lament, because it is said "it has fallen." By "Jazer", the "vine of Sibmah", and by "Heshbon and Elealeh", are signified the men of the external church, who explain the Word to favour the loves of the world, for those places were given for an inheritance to the tribes of Reuben and Gad, by whom, inasmuch as they dwelt on the outside of Jordan, the external church was represented; the "vine of Sibmah" signifies their church; their destruction, when the Lord should come and accomplish judgment, is also described in this chapter. Apocalypse Explained 911.

10. And joy and gladness are taken away from Carmel; and in the vineyards they shall not sing, they shall not shout: in the vats the treader shall not tread out the wine; I have made the shouting to cease.

11. Wherefore my bowels for Moab like a harp shall sound; and mine inward parts for Kir-haresh.

Verse 10. In these words is described the taking away of celestial delight originating in Good, and the truths thence derived, in consequence of the deprivation of genuine Good and Truth. The Good of the church is understood by "Carmel", · and the Truth thence derived by "vineyards", and by the "treading of the wine in the wine-press"; the delights thereof, which are taken away, are signified by "joy, exultation, singing, and vintage-shouting"; for it was a custom to sing in the vineyards, and in the wine-presses, when the grapes were trodden into wine, on account of the representation of the delights derived from truths, which were signified by ", vine." Apocalypse Explained 376. See also Arcana Coelestia 1071; Apocalypse Revealed 316.

12. And it shall be, when Moab shall see that he has wearied himself out on the high place, that he shall enter his sanctuary to pray; but he shall not prevail.

13. This is the Word which Jehovah spake concerning Moab at that time :

Verse 12. He shall enter his sanctuary to pray, but he shall not prevail. - [These words imply that those represented by Moab who, at the period of Judgment, are in external worship without an internal principle of love to the Lord and their neighbour, will have recourse to their "sanctuary", or to externals of worship, in order to avoid the impending destruction, but "will not prevail"; as all prayers and all external acts of worship and piety, which have not an internal principle, will be of no avail to salvation. See below, Chapter 18:7, the Exposition, where the true nature of Saving Worship and Piety are shown; see also above, Chapter 1:11-19, the Exposition.]

14. But now has Jehovah spoken, saying, Within three years, as the years of a hireling, the glory of Moab shall be reviled, in all his great multitude; and the remnant shall be few, small, and without strength.

Verse 14. By "Moab" are here understood those who are in falsities from evil; by his" glory", and by his "great multitude", are understood those falsities; by "the three years after which his glory shall be reviled", is signified what is complete and consummated; wherefore it is said that "the remnant shall be few, small, and without strength", by which is signified that it shall be no more. "Three years" are mentioned, whereby is understood consummation, thus, from beginning to end. It is to be observed that the same is signified by "three years" as by "three months, "three weeks, "three days", and "three hours", inasmuch as "times", in the spiritual sense, signify states, and "three times", whether greater or less, a full state. Apocalypse Explained 532.

Of a hireling. - They who learn and imbibe truths from the Word, or from the doctrine of the church, or from any other sources whatsoever, even from themselves by conclusions, for the sake of gain, that is, that they may gain honours or wealth, or likewise, that they may merit heaven, - these are they who, in the internal sense, are meant by "hirelings." To the man of the church, gains ought to be in the last place, not in the first; when they are in the last place, they are then servants; but if in the first place, they are lords. He who respects gains in the first place, is an inverted man, and also is represented as inverted in the other life, with his head in hell; but he who respects charity and faith in the first place, thus the Lord and his neighbour, he is an erect man, and also is presented erect in the other life, with his head in heaven. Arcana Coelestia 9180.

Within three years, as the years of a hireling, etc. - [These words involve the idea, by correspondence, that at the period of judgment, when the states of those in the church signified by Moab are consummated, as denoted by "three years", all such will be reduced to a merely hireling and mercenary condition, that is, they will study and embrace the truths of the Word from merely selfish motives, relating to honour and gain; when this is the case, the end is come and judgment ensues.]

---
Isaiah Chapter 17

1. THE burden of Damascus. Behold, Damascus is rejected, so as to be no city; and it is become a heap of ruins.

2. The cities of Aroer are deserted: they shall be for the flocks, and they shall lie down, and none shall make them afraid.

3. And the fortress shall cease from Ephraim, and the kingdom from Damascus; and the remnant of Syria shall be as the glory of the sons of Israel, says Jehovah of Hosts

4. And it shall be in that day, the glory Jacob shall be made thin, and the fatness of his flesh shall be made lean.

5. And it shall be as when one gathers the standing harvest, and his arm reaps the ears; or as when one gleans ears in the valley of Rephaim.

6. There shall be left gleanings in it, as in the shaking of the olive-tree; two [or] three berries on the head of the uppermost bough; four [orJ five on the fruitful branches, says Jehovah the God of Israel.

7. In that day shall a man regard his Maker; and his eyes shall look towards the Holy One of Israel:

8. And he shall not regard the altars, the work of his hands; and what his fingers have made, he shall not respect; nor the groves, nor the solar statues.

9. In that day shall the cities of his refuge be as a forsaken bough, and an uppermost branch, which they left before the sons of Israel: and there shall be desolation.

10. Because you have forgotten the God of your salvation, and have not remembered the Rock of your strength, therefore shalt you plant plants of delights, and shalt set it with strange slips: .

11. In the day when you shalt have made your plants to grow, and in the morning when you shalt have made your seed to flourish; even in the day of possession shall the harvest be a heap, and there shall be desperate sorrow.

12. Woe to the tumult of many peoples, who make a noise like the noise of the seas; and to the roaring of the nations, who make a roaring like the roaring of many waters!

13. Like the roaring of many waters do the nations roar; but He shall rebuke them, and they shall flee far away; and they shall be driven like the chaff of the mountains before the wind, and like the stubble before the whirlwind.

14. At the time of evening, behold terror! before the morning, it is no more. This is the portion of those that spoil us, and the lot of those that plunder us.

Das Obras de Swedenborg

Principais explicações provenientes das obras de Swedenborg:

The Inner Meaning of the Prophets and Psalms 17


Outras referências de Swedenborg para este versículo:

Arcana Coelestia 8581, 9272


Referências das obras de Swedenborg não publicadas:

Coronis (An Appendix to True Christian Religion) 56

Scriptural Confirmations 4, 40

Ir para Versículos Bíblicos Semelhantes

Deuteronomy 6:12, 32:18

Psalms 106:21

Isaiah 44:8, 51:13

Ezekiel 22:12

Hosea 8:14

Comentário

 

Explanation of Isaiah 17      

By Rev. John H. Smithson

THE EXPLANATION of Isaiah Chapter 17

(Note: Rev. Smithson's translation of the Isaiah text is appended below the explanation)

1. THE burden of Damascus. Behold, Damascus is rejected, so as to be no city; and it is become a heap of ruins.

Verse 1. Behold, Damascus is rejected, so as to be no city, etc. - By "Aram" or Syria [of which Damascus was the capital], are signified the knowledges of Good. The same appears also from Ezekiel:

"Aram was your merchant, in the multitude of your works: they occupied in your fairs with emeralds, purple, and broidered work, and fine linen, and coral, and agate"; (Ezekiel 27:16) speaking of "Tyre", or the possession of knowledges; where "works, emeralds, purple, broidered work, fine linen, coral, and agate", signify nothing else but the knowledges of Good. So in Hosea:

"Jacob fled into the country of Aram and Israel served for a wife, and for a wife he kept sheep; and by a prophet Jehovah brought up Israel out of Egypt, and by a prophet was he preserved; Ephraim provoked Him to anger with bitterness"; (Hosea 12:12-14),

where "Jacob" signifies the external church, and "Israel" the spiritual internal church; "Aram" denotes the knowledges of Good; "Egypt" denotes perverted science; and "Ephraim", perverted intelligence; - the signification of which names could never appear from the literal sense, but only from the internal sense, in which names signify things relating to the church, as has been already observed.

So in Isaiah :

"Behold, Damascus is rejected, so as to be no city; and it is become a heap of ruins: and the fortress shall cease from Ephraim, and the kingdom from Damascus; and the remnant of Aram [or Syria] shall be as the glory of the sons of Israel"; (Isaiah 17:1, 3),

where the "remnant of Aram" signifies the knowledges of Good, which are called "the glory of the sons of Israel"; "Aram", or Syria, signifies also, in an opposite sense, the knowledges of Good perverted, according to what is usual in the Word, where the same expression is frequently applied in a two-fold signification.

That "Aram" is thus used in the opposite sense, may be seen in Isaiah 7:4-6; 9:12; Deuteronomy 26:5. Arcana Coelestia 1232.

See above, as to "Syria", Isaiah 7:4, the Exposition.

How important it is to acquire the knowledges of Truth and Good [signified by "Syria" from the Word, may appear from the following considerations:

That by truths cometh love to the Lord,
- by truths we receive love to our neighbour,
- by truths we have heavenly intelligence and wisdom,
- by truths regeneration is effected,
- by truths man has power against evils and falsities, and consequently against hell,
- by truths there is purification from evils and falsities,
- by truths the church exists;
- by truths heaven exists;
- by truths is the innocence of wisdom;
- by truths a man has conscience;
- by truths order is established;
- by truths cometh the beauty of angels, and also of men with respect to the interiors of their spirits,
- and that by virtue of truths man is a man.

But by all this is meant truths grounded in good, and not by truths without good, and by good from the Lord. Hence everyone can see the great importance of acquiring the knowledges of Truth and Goodness. Apocalypse Revealed 161.

2. The cities of Aroer are deserted: they shall be for the flocks, and they shall lie down, and none shall make them afraid.

Verse 2. [" Aroer" was the plain of Syria, and its "cities" or towns, as subordinate to Damascus, signified various doctrinals of Truth and Goodness, which when thus "deserted and devastated", become the possession of those who can make a proper use of them, denoted by "the flocks that shall lie down, and by none making them afraid", of whom, as the "remnant of Syria", (verse 3.) a New Church can be formed. It does not appear that Swedenborg has quoted this verse. See above, Chapter 5:17, note, where a similar passage occurs. The "glory of the sons of Israel", are the knowledges of Truth and Good applied to the life for the purposes of salvation.]

3. And the fortress shall cease from Ephraim, and the kingdom from Damascus; and the remnant of Syria shall be as the glory of the sons of Israel, says Jehovah of Hosts

Verse 3. As to the meaning of "Ephraim", see above, Chapter 7:2, the Exposition.

4. And it shall be in that day, the glory Jacob shall be made thin, and the fatness of his flesh shall be made lean.

Verse 4. To be "made thin" or slender, is to be deprived of the truths of faith; "the fatness of his flesh shall be made lean", signifies to be deprived of the good of charity. Arcana Coelestia 5200, 5204. b

[As to the theological leanness which prevails in the church at this day, from the want of the knowledges of Truth, see True Christian Religion 391.]

5. And it shall be as when one gathers the standing harvest, and his arm reaps the ears; or as when one gleans ears in the valley of Rephaim.

Verses 5, 6, 11. The subject treated of in this chapter is concerning the knowledges of Truth and Good appertaining to the church, has being destroyed. Those knowledges are siguified by "Damascus", which is here treated of, and by Aroer"; their being destroyed is described by gleanings being left in it, as in the shaking of the olive-tree; two [orJ three berrles on the head of the uppermost bough, four [orJ five on the fruitful branches; likewise by "the harvest being a heap in the day of possession", namely, that there shall be no more than one heap, wherefore it is also called "desperate sorrow." Hence it is evident that by "harvest" is here signified the last state of the church; that state is also signified by "morning", for when the last state of the church is at hand, it is then morning to those who will be of the New Church, and evening and night to those who are of the Old; that this is here understood by "morning", appears from the last verse of the chapter, where it is said "At the time of evening, behold terror! before the morning, it [terror] is no more." (Isaiah 17:14) "Terror" signifies destruction. Apocalypse Explained 911.

6. There shall be left gleanings in it, as in the shaking of the olive-tree; two [or] three berries on the head of the uppermost bough; four [orJ five on the fruitful branches, says Jehovah the God of Israel.

Verse 6. The devastation of the church is here treated of and this is said of the remaining few who are in Good and Truth. A comparison is made with "the shaking of the olive-tree", because by the "olive-tree" is signified the church as to the good of love and its "branches" the truths thence derived. "Two, three" signify the few 'who are in good, and thence in truths; "two" signify good, and "three" truths; and "four, five" signify the few who are in good; "four" those who are in good, and "five" a few; and because "four, five" signify the few who are in good, therefore it is said "Four, five on the fruitful branches"; for the "fruit-bearing olive-tree" signifies those in the church who are in good as to life. As these things are signified by those numbers, therefore it is said "two, three" and "four, five", and not "two and three" and "four and five." Apocalypse Explained 332. -

7. In that day shall a man regard his Maker; and his eyes shall look towards the Holy One of Israel:

8. And he shall not regard the altars, the work of his hands; and what his fingers have made, he shall not respect; nor the groves, nor the solar statues.

9. In that day shall the cities of his refuge be as a forsaken bough, and an uppermost branch, which they left before the sons of Israel: and there shall be desolation.

Verses 7, 8. 10. The subject here treated of is concerning the establishment of a New Church by the Lord. That they shall then be led into goods of life, and informed in truths of doctrine, is understood by "a man in that day having regard to his; Maker, and his eyes looking towards the Holy One of Israel"; the Lord is called "Maker", by reason that He leads into goods of life, for these make a man: and He is called the "Holy One of Israel", by reason that He teaches truths of doctrine, wherefore it is also said- "In that day shall a man regard his Maker, and his eyes shall look towards the Holy One of Israel"; man being called "man" [homo] , from the good of life, and "eyes" being predicated of the understanding of truth, thus of the truths of doctrine. That in such a case there will be no worship from self-love, in which evils of life originate, nor from self-derived intelligence, in which originate falsos of doctrine, is understood by his "not having regard to the altars, the work of his hands, and not having respect to what his fingers have made." By "the altars, the work of his hands", is understood worship grounded in self-love, from which evils of life are derived; and by "what his fingers have made", is understood worship grounded in self-derived intelligence, from which are derived falsities of doctrine; by "the groves and solar statues of the groves" is signiiled the religious principle grounded in falsities and thence in evils; by "groves", the religious principle grounded in falsities, and by "solar statues", such as is grounded in the evils of the false. Apocalypse Explained 391.

Hence by these words is understood that the all of doctrine should be from the Lord, and not from the proprium of man, which is the case when a man is in the spiritual affection of Truth, that is, when he loves Truth itself, because it is Truth, and not principally because thereby he can acquire fame and a name. Apocalypse Explained 585.

10. Because you have forgotten the God of your salvation, and have not remembered the Rock of your strength, therefore shalt you plant plants of delights, and shalt set it with strange slips: .

11. In the day when you shalt have made your plants to grow, and in the morning when you shalt have made your seed to flourish; even in the day of possession shall the harvest be a heap, and there shall be desperate sorrow.

Verse 10. The Rock of your strength, etc. - See above, Chapter 16:1, the Exposition.

Verses 10, 11. Because you have forgotten the God of your salvation, therefore shalt you plant plants of delights, and set stranqe slips, etc. That to "sow" the land or the field, signifies, in the Word, to teach and to learn the truths and goods of faith, which are of the church; and that the "increase of the field" are the goods and truths thence derived, is evident from many passages in the Word, as in Isaiah 17:10, 11; here such things as grow upon the earth are mentioned, and that the things of the church are understood thereby is evident, namely.by "planting plants of delights", as said of those who have " forgotten, the God of their salvation", are understood such things as favour the affections [of the merely natural man]; and that by "setting the earth with strange slips", is to teach truths which are not genuine, [the end of which will, be "desperate sorrow."] Arcana Coelestia 9272.

12. Woe to the tumult of many peoples, who make a noise like the noise of the seas; and to the roaring of the nations, who make a roaring like the roaring of many waters!

Verse 12. Woe to the tumult, etc. - As to "what is meant by the denunciation "Woe!" see above, Chapter 1:4, the Exposition.

[" The tumult of many peoples, the noise of the seas, and the roaring of the nations", etc., signify, by correspondence, the tumultuous collisions and reasonings which take place at the time of judgment, when the external or natural mind is laid open, and its falsities and evils exposed and dispersed, as "chaff and stubble", by the power of divine Truth. See Apocalypse Explained 706.]

13. Like the roaring of many waters do the nations roar; but He shall rebuke them, and they shall flee far away; and they shall be driven like the chaff of the mountains before the wind, and like the stubble before the whirlwind.

Verse 13. And they shall be driven like the chaff of the mountains before the wind, and like the stubble before the whirlwind. - In the spiritual world, as well as in the natural world, there exist strong winds and storms; but the storms in the spiritual world exist from the influx of the Divine [Principle] into the lower parts of that world, where they are who are in evils and falsities. That influx, as it descends -out of the heavens towards the earths, which are below, becomes more dense, and appears as clouds, and with the evil, dense and opaque, according to the quantity and quality of their evil; these clouds are appearances of the false from evil, arising from the spheres of their life; every angel and spirit being encompassed by such a sphere. When therefore the Divine [Principle] is sent forth powerfully from the Lord as a sun, and flows in into these dense and opaque clouds, there arises a storm, which is perceived by the spirits there, in like manner as storms are perceived by men in the world. It has been given me sometimes to perceive these storms, and also the "east wind", by which the evil were dissipated and cast into the hells, when the last Judgment was performed. From these considerations it may appear what "storms", "tempests", and "impetuous winds" signify in the following passages. Thus in Isaiah :

"You shalt disperse them, and the wind shall carry them away, and the storm shall dissipate them." (Isaiah 41:16)

And in Jeremiah:

"From the storm of Jehovah anger went forth, and a whirlwind threatening to rush in; upon the head of the wicked it shall rush." (Jeremiah 23:19; 30:23)

And in David:

"I would hasten my escape from the windy storm and tempest." (Psalmlv. 8.) Apocalypse Explained 419.

Like the chaff and the stubble, etc. - "Wheat" denotes the goods of love and charity; "chaff" signifies what contains nothing of good.. Arcana Coelestia 3941.

14. At the time of evening, behold terror! before the morning, it is no more. This is the portion of those that spoil us, and the lot of those that plunder us.

Verse 14. "Evening" signifies the last time of the church, when there is nothing but evils and falsities, which are called "terror", because they are hell; but the "morning " signifies the first time of the church, when evils and falsities are not; wherefore it is said, "Before the morning, terror is no more." Apocalypse Explained 677.

5. And the throne shall be established in mercy: and in truth shall He sit thereon, in the tabernacle of David, a Judge, searching out judgment, and despatching justice.

Verse 5. These things are said of the Lord. Heaven, which was established by Him, and the church thence derived, are signified by "the throne established in mercy"; that the Lord there reigns by Divine Truth from Divine Good, is signified by " sitting upon it in truth, in the tabernacle of David"; by "David" is meant the Lord as to His royalty, which is Divine Truth; find by his "tabernacle" is signified the Divine Good; by "judgment" is signified the truth of doctrine, because all judgment is from that truth; and by "justice" is signified the good of love, both from the Lord with those who are in heaven and in the church. Apocalypse Explained 799.

6. We have heard of the pride of Moab: he is very proud; of his haughtiness, and his pride, and his anger: vain are his lies.

Verse 6. By "pride" is understood the love of self, and the love and faith of what is false with those who are of the church. Apocalypse Explained 653, 675.

Vain are his lies. - "Lies" are the falsities of faith, because "Moab" signifies those who are in the evil of self-love, and who thence falsify Truths. Arcana Coelestia 8908.

7. Therefore shall Moab howl; for Moab shall everyone howl: for the foundations of Kir-hare-seth shall you moan; surely they are stricken.

8. For the fields of Heshbon are withered; [as to] the vine of Sibmah, the lords of the nations have broken down the branches thereof; they reached unto Jazer; they strayed through the desert; her branches are plucked up; they passed over the sea.

Verses 7-9. For Moab shall everyone howl; for the foundations of Kir-hareseth shall you make a moan, etc. - Very many of the prophecies, as the above, are of such a nature that, if they had not an internal sense, they would be of no use; whereas it is necessary that, as the Word is divine, it should contain within itself the laws of the heavenly kingdom into which man is about to come. Arcana Coelestia 2608.

9. Wherefore I will weep, as with the weeping of Jazer, for the vine of Sibmah: I will water you with my tears, O Heshbon and Elealeh! for upon your summer fruits, and upon your vintage, the shout [of war] has fallen.

Verse 9. By "harvest" here also is signified the last state of the church, for by "shouting" is signified the end, when upon finishing the vintage and gathering in the harvest, they were wont to triumph and make a shouting, but in the present case to lament, because it is said "it has fallen." By "Jazer", the "vine of Sibmah", and by "Heshbon and Elealeh", are signified the men of the external church, who explain the Word to favour the loves of the world, for those places were given for an inheritance to the tribes of Reuben and Gad, by whom, inasmuch as they dwelt on the outside of Jordan, the external church was represented; the "vine of Sibmah" signifies their church; their destruction, when the Lord should come and accomplish judgment, is also described in this chapter. Apocalypse Explained 911.

10. And joy and gladness are taken away from Carmel; and in the vineyards they shall not sing, they shall not shout: in the vats the treader shall not tread out the wine; I have made the shouting to cease.

11. Wherefore my bowels for Moab like a harp shall sound; and mine inward parts for Kir-haresh.

Verse 10. In these words is described the taking away of celestial delight originating in Good, and the truths thence derived, in consequence of the deprivation of genuine Good and Truth. The Good of the church is understood by "Carmel", · and the Truth thence derived by "vineyards", and by the "treading of the wine in the wine-press"; the delights thereof, which are taken away, are signified by "joy, exultation, singing, and vintage-shouting"; for it was a custom to sing in the vineyards, and in the wine-presses, when the grapes were trodden into wine, on account of the representation of the delights derived from truths, which were signified by ", vine." Apocalypse Explained 376. See also Arcana Coelestia 1071; Apocalypse Revealed 316.

12. And it shall be, when Moab shall see that he has wearied himself out on the high place, that he shall enter his sanctuary to pray; but he shall not prevail.

13. This is the Word which Jehovah spake concerning Moab at that time :

Verse 12. He shall enter his sanctuary to pray, but he shall not prevail. - [These words imply that those represented by Moab who, at the period of Judgment, are in external worship without an internal principle of love to the Lord and their neighbour, will have recourse to their "sanctuary", or to externals of worship, in order to avoid the impending destruction, but "will not prevail"; as all prayers and all external acts of worship and piety, which have not an internal principle, will be of no avail to salvation. See below, Chapter 18:7, the Exposition, where the true nature of Saving Worship and Piety are shown; see also above, Chapter 1:11-19, the Exposition.]

14. But now has Jehovah spoken, saying, Within three years, as the years of a hireling, the glory of Moab shall be reviled, in all his great multitude; and the remnant shall be few, small, and without strength.

Verse 14. By "Moab" are here understood those who are in falsities from evil; by his" glory", and by his "great multitude", are understood those falsities; by "the three years after which his glory shall be reviled", is signified what is complete and consummated; wherefore it is said that "the remnant shall be few, small, and without strength", by which is signified that it shall be no more. "Three years" are mentioned, whereby is understood consummation, thus, from beginning to end. It is to be observed that the same is signified by "three years" as by "three months, "three weeks, "three days", and "three hours", inasmuch as "times", in the spiritual sense, signify states, and "three times", whether greater or less, a full state. Apocalypse Explained 532.

Of a hireling. - They who learn and imbibe truths from the Word, or from the doctrine of the church, or from any other sources whatsoever, even from themselves by conclusions, for the sake of gain, that is, that they may gain honours or wealth, or likewise, that they may merit heaven, - these are they who, in the internal sense, are meant by "hirelings." To the man of the church, gains ought to be in the last place, not in the first; when they are in the last place, they are then servants; but if in the first place, they are lords. He who respects gains in the first place, is an inverted man, and also is represented as inverted in the other life, with his head in hell; but he who respects charity and faith in the first place, thus the Lord and his neighbour, he is an erect man, and also is presented erect in the other life, with his head in heaven. Arcana Coelestia 9180.

Within three years, as the years of a hireling, etc. - [These words involve the idea, by correspondence, that at the period of judgment, when the states of those in the church signified by Moab are consummated, as denoted by "three years", all such will be reduced to a merely hireling and mercenary condition, that is, they will study and embrace the truths of the Word from merely selfish motives, relating to honour and gain; when this is the case, the end is come and judgment ensues.]

---
Isaiah Chapter 17

1. THE burden of Damascus. Behold, Damascus is rejected, so as to be no city; and it is become a heap of ruins.

2. The cities of Aroer are deserted: they shall be for the flocks, and they shall lie down, and none shall make them afraid.

3. And the fortress shall cease from Ephraim, and the kingdom from Damascus; and the remnant of Syria shall be as the glory of the sons of Israel, says Jehovah of Hosts

4. And it shall be in that day, the glory Jacob shall be made thin, and the fatness of his flesh shall be made lean.

5. And it shall be as when one gathers the standing harvest, and his arm reaps the ears; or as when one gleans ears in the valley of Rephaim.

6. There shall be left gleanings in it, as in the shaking of the olive-tree; two [or] three berries on the head of the uppermost bough; four [orJ five on the fruitful branches, says Jehovah the God of Israel.

7. In that day shall a man regard his Maker; and his eyes shall look towards the Holy One of Israel:

8. And he shall not regard the altars, the work of his hands; and what his fingers have made, he shall not respect; nor the groves, nor the solar statues.

9. In that day shall the cities of his refuge be as a forsaken bough, and an uppermost branch, which they left before the sons of Israel: and there shall be desolation.

10. Because you have forgotten the God of your salvation, and have not remembered the Rock of your strength, therefore shalt you plant plants of delights, and shalt set it with strange slips: .

11. In the day when you shalt have made your plants to grow, and in the morning when you shalt have made your seed to flourish; even in the day of possession shall the harvest be a heap, and there shall be desperate sorrow.

12. Woe to the tumult of many peoples, who make a noise like the noise of the seas; and to the roaring of the nations, who make a roaring like the roaring of many waters!

13. Like the roaring of many waters do the nations roar; but He shall rebuke them, and they shall flee far away; and they shall be driven like the chaff of the mountains before the wind, and like the stubble before the whirlwind.

14. At the time of evening, behold terror! before the morning, it is no more. This is the portion of those that spoil us, and the lot of those that plunder us.

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Apocalypse Explained # 706

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706. Verse 1. And a great sign was seen in heaven, signifies Divine attestation respecting the coming church and the reception of its doctrine, and by whom it will be assaulted. This is evident from the signification of "a great sign in heaven," as being Divine manifestation and attestation; that it has reference to the church and the reception of its doctrine, and also to assault upon it, is evident from what follows, for the "woman" means the church, her "son a male" doctrine, and "the dragon and his angels" and afterwards "the beasts," mean those who will assault the church and its doctrine. This vision is called "a great sign" because a "sign" means Divine manifestation respecting things to come, and attestation, here respecting the coming church and its doctrine, and also the assault upon it by those who are meant by "the dragon" and "the beasts." This is called a "sign," because it manifests and attests. "Sign" and "wonder" are mentioned in many passages in the Word, "sign" meaning that which indicates, witnesses, and persuades respecting the subject of inquiry, and "wonder" meaning that which stirs up, strikes dumb, and fills with amazement; thus a sign moves the understanding and faith, but a wonder the will and its affection, for the will and its affection are what are stirred up, stricken dumb, and filled with amazement, while the understanding and its faith are what are persuaded and moved by indications and proofs.

(Referências: Revelation 12:1)


[2] That there is a difference between a sign and a wonder is evident from the fact that the Jews, although they had seen so many wonders performed by the Lord, still sought signs from Him; and also from the fact that the prodigies wrought in Egypt and in the wilderness are sometimes called "signs" and sometimes "wonders," and sometimes both. It is further evident from this, that in every particular of the Word there is a marriage of truth and good, and thus also of the understanding and will, for truth is of the understanding and good of the will, consequently "signs" there have reference to things pertaining to truth, and to faith and the understanding, and "wonders" to the things pertaining to good, and to affection and the will. Thence is clear the meaning of "signs" and of "wonders," where they are both mentioned in the Word, as in the following passages. In Moses:

I will harden Pharaoh's heart, that I may multiply My signs and My wonders in the land of Egypt (Exodus 7:3).

In the same:

Jehovah gave signs and wonders great and evil upon Egypt, upon Pharaoh, and upon all his men 1 (Deuteronomy 6:22).

In the same:

Hath Jehovah tried to come to take to Him a nation out of the midst of a nation, by wonders, by signs, and by prodigies? (Deuteronomy 4:34)

In David:

They remembered not the day in which Jehovah set His signs in Egypt, and His prodigies in the field of Zoan (Psalms 78:42, 43).

In the same:

They set among them the words of their 2 signs and wonders in the land of Ham (Psalms 105:27).

In the same:

He sent signs and wonders into the midst of thee, O Egypt, upon Pharaoh and all his servants (Psalms 135:9).

In Jeremiah:

Who hast set signs and wonders in the land of Egypt, and even to this day, both in Israel and in men, and hast led forth Thy people Israel out of the land of Egypt by signs and by wonders (Jeremiah 32:20, 21).

This shows that the prodigies wrought in Egypt, and afterwards among the sons of Israel, are called "signs and wonders," "signs" because they attested and persuaded, and "wonders" because they stirred up and filled with amazement; yet they agree in this, that the things that stir up and fill with amazement also attest and persuade, as those things that stir up the will also persuade the understanding, or as those things that move the affection also move the thought by persuading. Likewise in the Gospels:

In the consummation of the age there shall arise false Christs and false prophets, they shall show great signs and wonders, so as to lead astray, if possible, even the elect (Matthew 24:24; Mark 13:22).

Here "great signs and wonders" have a like signification, namely, that they will attest and persuade, and that they will strike dumb and fill with amazement, which will cause a strong persuasion. Who are meant by "false Christs and false prophets," and who by "the elect," may be seen above (n. 624, 684).

(Referências: Jeremiah 32:20-21; Psalms 78:42-43; The Apocalypse Explained 624, The Apocalypse Explained 684)


[3] In Moses:

If there shall arise in the midst of thee a prophet or a dreamer of dreams who shall give thee a sign or a wonder, and if the sign or the wonder come to pass whereof he spake unto thee, saying, Let us go after other gods, thou shalt not obey (Deuteronomy 13:1-3).

Here a "prophet" and a "dreamer of dreams," also "sign" and "wonder" are mentioned, because a "sign" has reference to a prophet, and a "wonder" to a dreamer of dreams, because a "prophet" means one who teaches truths, and in the abstract sense the doctrine of truth, and a "dreamer" means one who stirs up to doing, and in the abstract sense the stirring up from which a thing is done; this, too, pertains to a "wonder," and the former to a "sign;" for prophets were instructed by a living voice from the Lord, and "dreamers" by representatives exciting to doing, which flowed into the affection of the dreamer, and from that into the sight of the thought, for when a man dreams his natural understanding is laid asleep and his spiritual sight is opened, which draws its all from the affection. But in this passage the sight that draws its all from an evil affection is meant, for it treats of prophets who teach falsities and who dream vain things, for "other gods" mean the falsities and vain things that such heard and saw.

[4] That "signs" signify attestations which indicate and persuade to the belief that a thing is so, is evident from the following passages. In Moses:

If they will not believe thee nor hear the voice of the first sign, yet they will believe the voice of the latter sign. And if they will not believe these two signs nor hear thy voice, thou shalt take of the waters of the river and they shall become blood (Exodus 4:8, 9).

This is said of the wonders wrought by Moses, when the Lord appeared to him in the bush, which are called "signs" because they were to attest and persuade that Moses was sent to lead them out of Egypt; this is why it is three times said "that they may believe," and also "that they may hear his voice."

(Referências: Exodus 4:8-9)


[5] In the same:

Jehovah said unto Moses, How long will the people not believe in Me for all the signs which I have done in the midst of them? All the men that have seen My glory and the signs which I wrought in Egypt and in the wilderness, they shall not see the land (Numbers 14:11, 22, 23).

These miracles, too, are called "signs," because mention is made of believing; for as has been said, miracles are called "signs" because they persuade and induce faith; and as signs did not induce faith with those who were unwilling on account of fear to enter into the land of Canaan, therefore it is said of them that "they should not see the land." "Signs" have a like signification in Exodus 4:17; and Jeremiah 10:1, 2.

(Referências: Exodus 10:1-2; Numbers 14:22-23)


[6] In the Gospels:

The Scribes and Pharisees said, Master, we would see a sign from Thee. But He answering, said, An evil and adulterous generation seeketh after a sign, but no sign shall be given to it but the sign of Jonah the prophet; for as Jonah was three days and three nights in the belly of the whale, so shall the Son of man be three days and three nights in the belly 3 of the earth (Matthew 12:38-40; Luke 11:16, 29, 30).

A "sign" plainly means attestation that they may be persuaded and believe that the Lord was the Messiah and the Son of God who was to come, for the miracles that the Lord wrought in abundance, and that they saw, were no signs to them, because miracles, as has been said above, are signs only with the good. "Jonah was three days and three nights in the belly of the whale," and this was taken for a "sign," because it signified the burial and resurrection of the Lord, thus the complete glorification of His Human, "three days and three nights" also signifying completeness.

(Referências: Exodus 10:1-2, 14:17; Luke 11:29-30)


[7] In Matthew:

The Pharisees and the Sadducees, tempting, asked Jesus to show them a sign from heaven. He answering, said to them, When it is evening ye say, It will be fair weather, for the heaven is red. And in the morning, There will be storm today, for the heaven is red and gloomy. Ye hypocrites, ye know how to discern the face of heaven, but not the signs of the times. A wicked and adulterous nation requireth a sign, but no sign shall be given unto it but the sign of the prophet Jonah (Matthew 16:1-4).

Here, too, the "sign" asked from heaven means attestation that they might be persuaded and might believe that the Lord was the Son of God, although miracles were wrought that they did not call signs. The Lord then spoke of evening and of morning because "evening and morning" signifies the Lord's coming; here it means when the church with the Jews was laid waste, who then had "fair weather," because they had no knowledge of the Lord, and lived securely in falsities from evil; this is the "evening;" but when they knew Him, and because of falsities from evils in which they were denied and assaulted Him, this is signified by "the morning when there is a storm." This is why the Lord said, "Ye hypocrites, ye know how to discern the face of heaven, but not the signs of the times," that is, the Lord's coming; and because they were "a wicked and adulterous nation," that is, one that adulterated the Word, He said that "no sign should be given unto them."

[8] So again in Mark:

The Pharisees began to dispute with Jesus, seeking of Him a sign from heaven; and He, sighing in His spirit, said, Why doth this generation seek a sign? Verily I say unto you, There shall no sign be given unto this generation (Mark 8:11, 12).

That a "sign" here signifies attestation by which they might plainly know, acknowledge, and believe, that the Lord was the Messiah and Son of God whom they expected from the predictions in the prophets, is evident from this, that "sighing in spirit, He said, Why doth this generation seek a sign? Verily I say unto you, There shall no sign be given unto this generation;" and this was because if this had been plainly revealed or told them from heaven, and if thus persuaded they had acknowledged and believed it, they would nevertheless have rejected it afterwards, and to reject after acknowledgment and faith is to profane, and the lot of profaners in hell is the worst of all.

(Referências: Mark 8:11-12)


[9] That for this reason plain attestation was not given them from heaven is evident from these words in John:

He hath blinded their eyes and hardened their hearts lest they should see with their eyes and understand with their heart, and should turn themselves, and I should heal them (John 12:40).

"To turn themselves and be healed" means here to profane, which is done when truths and goods are acknowledged, especially when the Lord is acknowledged and afterwards denied; so would it have been if the Jews had turned themselves and been healed by a sign. "To see with the eyes and understand with the heart" signifies to receive in the understanding and will, or in faith and love. From this it is clear that a "sign" signifies a plain testification. (On the lot of profaners see the New Jerusalem and Its Heavenly Doctrine, n. 172.)

[10] In John:

The disciples 4 said unto Jesus, What doest Thou for a sign, that we may see and believe Thee, what workest Thou? Our fathers ate the manna in the wilderness, as it is written, He gave them bread out of heaven to eat. Jesus said unto them, Verily, verily, I say unto you, Moses gave you not the bread out of heaven; but my Father giveth you the true bread out of heaven; for the bread of God is He who cometh down out of heaven and giveth life unto the world (John 6:30-33).

Here also the disciples 4 desired a sign; that this signifies attestation that they might believe is clear from their saying, "That we may see and believe, what workest Thou?" They then spoke of "manna," and the Lord answered respecting "bread from heaven," because "bread" signifies all good and truth that nourishes the soul, and in the highest sense the Lord Himself, from whom is everything of doctrine and everything of spiritual nourishment, whereby he gave attestation that they might see and believe. Nevertheless attestation, that is, a sign from heaven, was given to the three disciples, Peter, James, and John, as can be seen from the Lord's transfiguration, for they then saw His glory, and heard a voice out of heaven saying, "This is My beloved Son, hear ye Him" (Mark 9:7; Luke 9:35; Matthew 17:5).

[11] In John:

When Jesus cast out of the temple them that sold therein, the Jews said, What sign showest Thou, that Thou doest these things? Jesus answered and said to them, Destroy this temple, yet in three days I will raise it up (John 2:16, 18, 19).

Here evidently "to show a sign" signifies to give attestation by something wonderful, or by a voice out of heaven. But because such an attestation would have damned rather than saved them, as has been said just above, He answered them concerning "the temple," by which He meant His body, that this should be destroyed, that is, should die, and should rise again glorified on the third day. This too is what the Lord meant by "the sign of Jonah in the belly of the whale three days and three nights." (That "temple" in the highest sense signifies the Lord's body, see John 2:21.)

(Referências: John 2:18-19)


[12] In Luke:

The angels said to the shepherds, There is born to you this day in the city of David a Savior, who is Christ the Lord; and this is a sign unto you, ye shall find the babe wrapped in swaddling clothes lying in a manger (Luke 2:11, 12, 16).

Since a "sign" means attestation that they might believe that the Savior of the world was born, it is said that "they should find Him lying in a manger wrapped in swaddling clothes;" but that this was an attestation no one can know until it is known what is meant by a "manger" and by "swaddling clothes." "A manger" means the doctrine of truth from the Word, because "horses" signify the understanding of the Word (as can be seen from what has been shown above, n. 355, 364, and in the small work on The White Horse 2-4); and thus a manger, as a feeding place for horses, signifies the doctrine of truth from the Word. It is said in the seventh verse of the same chapter that this was done "because there was no place in the inn," an "inn" signifying a place of instruction. (This is the signification of "inn" also in Luke 10:34; 22:11; Mark 14:14; and elsewhere.)

Because this was the state with the Jews, who were then in mere falsities, through the adulteration of the Word, this was signified by "there was no place in the inn;" for if it had pleased the Lord He might have been born in a most splendid palace, and have been laid in a bed adorned with precious stones; but He would thus have been with such as were in no doctrine of truth, and there would have been no heavenly representation. He is also said to have been "wrapped in swaddling clothes," because "swaddling clothes" signify first truths, which are truths of innocence, and which are also truths of the Divine love; for "nakedness," in reference to a babe, signifies deprivation of truth. From this it is clear why it was said by the angels, "This is a sign unto you, ye shall find the babe wrapped in swaddling clothes lying in a manger."

(Referências: Luke 2:11-12; The Apocalypse Explained 355, 364)


[13] In the Gospels:

The disciples said to Jesus, What shall be the sign of Thy coming and of the consummation of the age? (Matthew 24:3; Mark 13:4; Luke 21:7)

"The coming of the Lord and the consummation of the age" signifies the beginning of the New Church and the end of the former church, "the coming of the Lord" the beginning of the New Church, and "the consummation of the age" the end of the old church, therefore in these chapters the Lord instructs His disciples respecting the successive vastation of the former church, and at its end the establishment of the New Church; but He instructs and teaches them by mere correspondences, which cannot be unfolded and made known except by means of the spiritual sense; and because the Lord spoke by correspondences, all of these were signs and thus attestations. Moreover, the Lord calls them "signs."

As in Luke:

And there shall be fearful things, great signs from heaven. There shall be signs in the sun, moon, and stars, and upon the earth distress of nations in desperation, the sea and the waves roaring (Luke 21:11, 21:26).

In Matthew:

And then shall appear the sign of the Son of man; and then shall all the tribes of the earth lament, and they shall see the Son of man coming In the clouds of heaven with power and glory (Matthew 24:30).

The signification in the spiritual sense of these and the other things contained in the twenty-fourth chapter of Matthew have been explained in the Arcana Coelestia, and of "the appearing of the sign of the Son of man in the clouds of heaven" in the work on Heaven and Hell 1), therefore further explanation is unnecessary.

(Referências: Luke 21:25)


[14] In Mark:

Jesus said unto the disciples, These signs shall follow them that believe, In My name shall they cast out demons; they shall speak with new tongues; they shall take up serpents; and if they drink any deadly thing it shall not hurt them; they shall lay hands on the infirm and they shall be well. And they went forth and preached everywhere, the Lord working with them by signs following (Mark 16:17, 18, 20).

These were miracles, yet still they are called "signs" because they were attestations of the Divine power of the Lord who wrought them; therefore it is said, "The Lord working with them by those signs." If these had been applied to the evil they would have been called "wonders," for with the evil such things only fill with amazement and strike the mind, and still do not persuade to belief; but with the good it is otherwise, for with them the same things are attestations that persuade to belief, and therefore they are called "signs," and it is said "these signs shall follow them that believe." But how these signs can persuade to belief shall be briefly told. These miraculous signs, as that "they should cast out demons," "should speak with new tongues," "should take up serpents," "if they drank any deadly thing it should not hurt them," and "they should become well by the laying on of hands," were in their essence and in their origin spiritual, from which these flowed forth and came forth as effects; for they were correspondences that derived their all from the spiritual world by influx from the Lord. For instance, that "they should cast out demons in the name of the Lord" derived its effect from this, that the name of the Lord understood spiritually means everything of doctrine out of the Word from the Lord, and that "demons" mean falsities of every kind, and these are thus cast out, that is, taken away, by the doctrine out of the Word from the Lord; that "they should speak with new tongues" derives its effect from this, that "new tongues" mean doctrinals for the New Church; "they should take up serpents" was because "serpents" signify the hells in respect to malice, and thus they would be safe from infestation by it; "they would not be hurt if they drank any deadly thing" meant that they would not be contaminated by the malice of the hells; and "the infirm would become well by the laying on of hands" meant to be healed of spiritual diseases, which are called iniquities and sins, by communication and conjunction with heaven, thus with the Lord; the laying on of the hands of the disciples corresponding to communication and conjunction with the Lord, and thus to the removal of iniquities by His Divine power.

(Referências: Mark 16:17-18)


[15] In Isaiah:

Jehovah said unto Ahaz, Ask thee a sign of Jehovah, direct it into the deep, or lift it up on high. The Lord giveth you a sign, Behold, a virgin shall conceive and shall bear a son, and shall call His name God-with-us (Isaiah 7:11, 14).

This was said to Ahaz king of Judah, because the king of Syria and the king of Israel made war against him, even to Jerusalem, and they also had on their side the tribe of Ephraim, and yet they did not prevail, for the reason that "the king of Syria" here represented the external or natural of the church, "the king of Israel" its internal or spiritual, and "Ephraim" its intellectual; but here these three, the natural, the spiritual, and the intellectual, perverted, and these wished to attack the doctrine of truth, signified by "the king of Judah" and by "Jerusalem," wherefore they did not succeed. Nevertheless, in order that Ahaz might be assured of the frustration of their attempt he was told "to ask a sign," that is, an attestation that he might be assured, and the choice was granted him whether it should be from heaven or from hell; this was signified by "direct it into the deep, or lift it up on high," for the king was evil. But because "Jerusalem," which signifies the doctrine of truth from the Word, was not to be destroyed by such before the Lord's coming, there was given him, as an attestation of this, a miraculous sign, namely, that "a virgin shall conceive and shall bear a son, whose name shall be God-with-us." That this church would subsequently be destroyed is indicated further on in the same chapter.

(Referências: Isaiah 7:10-11)


[16] In the same:

This shall be a sign to thee from with Jehovah, behold, I will bring back the shadow of the steps which is gone down on the steps of Ahaz before the sun, ten steps backward, that the sun may return ten steps on the steps which it has gone down (Isaiah 38:7-8).

This sign was given to King Hezekiah as an attestation that the Lord would defend him and Jerusalem from the king of Assyria (as is said in the sixth verse of that chapter), Isaiah 38:6 that king signifying the perverted rational destroying all things of the church; therefore this sign represented also a New Church that was to be established by the Lord, but here that the time would be protracted beyond that indicated to Ahaz just above; "bringing back the shadow that had gone down on the steps of Ahaz before the sun" signifies a drawing back of the time before this should be done, "steps of Ahaz" signifying a time, here even until the coming of the Lord, and the "shadow" signifying the progress of time from the rising to the setting; that the shadow "should be drawn backwards ten degrees" signifies the prolongation of the time for many years still, "ten" signifying many, and the "sun" which should go back signifying the Lord's coming.

But this shall be further illustrated. The Lord's coming took place when the Jewish Church was at an end, that is, when there was no good or truth left in it; this is meant by "when iniquity was consummated," also by "the fullness of times," in which the Lord was to come. The entire period of the duration of the Jewish Church was represented by "the steps of Ahaz," its beginning by the first step there, which is when the sun is in its rising, and its end by the last when it is at its setting. This makes evident that by "the drawing back of the shadow" from the setting towards the rising means the prolongation of the time. This should take place "in the steps of Ahaz," because Ahaz was a wicked king, and profaned the holy things of the church, consequently if his successors had done the same, the end of that church would have quickly come; but as Hezekiah was an upright king the time was prolonged, for on that account the iniquity of that nation was not so soon to reach its consummation, that is, its end.

[17] In the same:

Say to King Hezekiah, This shall be the sign unto thee, Ye shall eat this year that which springeth up of itself, and in the second year that which groweth of its own accord; but in the third year sow ye, reap, and plant vineyards, and eat the fruit thereof (Isaiah 37:30).

This was said to King Hezekiah when Sennacherib, king of Assyria, made war against him, and spoke proudly of himself and insolently of God and of Israel; in consequence of which also one hundred and eighty 5 thousand were smitten in his camp, and he was himself killed by his sons. This was done because "Assyria" signifies the rational, and "the king of Assyria" the like, and "Judea" the celestial of the church, and "its king" the spiritual of the church; but here "the king of Assyria" signifies the perverted rational, which destroys by false reasonings all the celestial and spiritual things of the church, which are its goods and truths. And as "Judea and its king" signify the celestial and spiritual of the church which will be from the Lord when He comes into the world, therefore these things are said by which is described the regeneration of those who will be of that church. So the sign that the first year "they shall eat that which springeth up of itself" signifies celestial good that the Lord will implant in them; "in the second year that which groweth of its own accord," signifies the truth of that good which shall come from it; "to sow, to reap, to plant vineyards, and to eat the fruit thereof," signifies all the goods and truths that flow forth therefrom, "to sow and reap" signifying the implantation of good and its reception; "to plant vineyards" the implantation of truth and its reception; and "to eat the fruits thereof" the enjoyment of good and joyous things therefrom which the regenerate man has. These things are called "a sign" because they are attestations of a celestial church with those who are meant in the spiritual sense by "Judah," whose regeneration is effected by the Lord by the implantation of celestial good, afterwards by the implantation of spiritual good, which in its essence is the truth of celestial good, and finally by multiplication and fructification in the natural man.

[18] In the same:

Thus said Jehovah, the Holy One of Israel and his Former, They have asked Me signs respecting My sons, and respecting the work of My hands they command Me. I have raised him up in righteousness, and I will make straight all his ways. He shall build My city, and he shall send forth My captivity, not for price nor reward (Isaiah 45:11, 13).

This also treats of the Lord's coming and of the establishment of a church by Him. The Lord is meant by "Jehovah, the Holy One of Israel, and his Former," who is called "the Holy One of Israel" from Divine truth, and his "Former" from the establishment of the church by means of truth; and "Israel" means the church; therefore "His sons, respecting whom they asked signs," mean those who are in truths from the Lord, and "the work of His hands" means their formation, and the establishment of a church among them. "I have raised him up in righteousness, and I will make straight all His ways" signifies that Divine good and Divine truth are the Lord's, for "righteousness" is predicated in the Word of good, and "ways" signify truths that lead, here Divine truths, because they are predicated of the Lord; "he shall build My city, and he shall send forth My captivity" signifies that He will restore the doctrine of truth, and that He will deliver those who are in falsities from ignorance, "city" signifying the doctrine of truth, and "captivity" the falsities of ignorance in which the Gentiles were, and through which they were in spiritual captivity; "not for price nor reward" signifies freely given from Divine love.

[19] In the same:

Let them declare to you 6 the things that shall happen, declare ye the former things, that we may set our heart and may know the latter end of them; or make us to hear things to come, declare to us a sign for the future, that we may know that ye are gods (Isaiah 41:22, 23).

That to tell things past and to come belongs to the Lord alone, and not to any man or any spirit, is expressed by "declare a sign for the future, that we may know that ye are gods;" this concludes what precedes, therefore "to declare a sign" means to testify by persuading to believe.

(Referências: Isaiah 41:22-23)


[20] In Ezekiel:

Take to thee a pan of iron, and set it for a wall of iron between thee and the city; and thou shalt set thy faces against it, that it may be for a siege, and thou shalt lay siege to it; this shall be a sign to the house of Israel (Ezekiel 4:3).

These and the rest of the things in this chapter are representatives of the state of the church with the Jewish nation, signifying that they had no truth that was not falsified and adulterated, which in itself is falsity. Such truth is signified by "the pan of iron" that he should set for a wall between him and the city; and because this, like iron, is hard, shutting out and not admitting any genuine truth, it is said, "that it may be for a siege, and thou shalt lay siege to it;" that this sign should be a witness that the church is such is signified by "this shall be a sign to the house of Israel," "sign" meaning an attestation, and "house of Israel" the church.

[21] In David:

The adversary hath destroyed all things in the sanctuary; the adversaries have roared in the midst of Thy feast; they have set up their own signs for signs. We see not our signs; there is no more a prophet (Psalms 74:3, 4, 9).

"The adversary hath destroyed all things in the sanctuary" signifies that evil has destroyed the holy things of the church; "the adversaries have roared in the midst of Thy feast" signifies that falsities have destroyed all things of worship; "they have set up their own signs for signs" signifies that they have given attestation and persuaded by every means; "we see not our signs" signifies that no attestations of truth were accepted in the church; "there is no more a prophet" signifies no doctrine of truth.

(Referências: Psalms 74:3-4)


[22] In the same:

Jehovah make a sign with me for good, that they that hate me may see and be ashamed, because Thou, O Jehovah, hast helped me and comforted me (Psalms 86:17).

"To make a sign for good" signifies attestation that Jehovah will help and comfort him, as follows, for this is the good for which Jehovah makes a sign; and because a sign is an attestation of this it is said "that they that hate me may see and be ashamed."

[23] In the same:

God who setteth fast the mountains by His power is girded with might; He maketh the tumult of the seas to cease, the tumult of its waves and the noise of the peoples, that the dwellers in the uttermost parts may fear because of Thy signs (Psalms 65:6-8).

This describes the Lord's Divine power through attestations that cause belief; but attestations that are signs are not that "He setteth fast the mountains, maketh the tumult of the seas and of its waves, and the noise of the people to cease," for these are not such signs as convince those who ascribe all things to nature; but the things meant in the spiritual sense, in which sense heaven and the church are treated of, are the signs that give attestation of the Lord's Divine power, for in that sense, the "mountains" that God setteth fast by His power mean the higher heavens, because the angels of those heavens dwell upon mountains; and in the abstract sense love to the Lord and charity towards the neighbor are meant; these are what the Lord "girded with might, setteth fast by His power," that is, makes them to stand fast forever; that "mountains" have such a signification may be seen above n. 405; "the tumult of the seas" and "the tumult of the waves" mean the disputations and reasonings of those who are beneath the heavens, and who are natural and sensual; that "seas" signify the things of the natural man, thus those who are natural, therefore their tumults and waves signify disputations and reasonings, may be seen also above n. 342. "The noise of the peoples" mean contradictions from falsities, for "peoples" signify those who are in truths, and in the contrary sense those who are in falsities (see above, n. 175, 331, 625). "That the dwellers in the uttermost parts may fear because of Thy signs" signifies holy worship from faith in regard to Divine power with those who are in the ultimates of heaven and the church; that "to fear" means to worship the Lord from charity and faith may be seen above n. 696; and that "dwellers in the uttermost parts" mean those who are in the ultimates of heaven and the church, and are in the faith of charity there, is evident, since "the uttermost parts" mean the ultimates of heaven and the church. From this it is clear that "signs" here signify attestations respecting the Lord's Divine power.

(Referências: The Apocalypse Explained 175, 331, 342, The Apocalypse Explained 405, The Apocalypse Explained 625, The Apocalypse Explained 696)


[24] In Jeremiah:

This shall be the sign unto you that I will visit upon you in this place, that ye may know that My words shall stand against you for evil. Behold, I give the king of Egypt into the hand of his adversaries and into the hand of them that seek his soul (Jeremiah 44:29, 30).

This treats of those of the church who have become natural, who are meant by those who sojourned in Egypt and returned therefrom. That such would be destroyed by evils and falsities is meant by "He will give the king of Egypt into the hand of his adversaries and into the hand of them that seek his soul," "adversaries" here meaning those who are in evils, and "them that seek the soul" those who are in falsities, thus in an abstract sense evils and falsities (that "Egypt" means the natural man see above, n. 654.

This is called a "sign," because it is an attestation that this will be done; therefore it is added, "that ye may know that my words shall stand against you for evil."

(Referências: Jeremiah 44:29-30; The Apocalypse Explained 654)


[25] That a "sign" means attestation of certainty is evident from the following passages. In Isaiah:

Hezekiah said, What is the sign that I am to go up into the house of Jehovah? (Isaiah 38:22)

In the book of Judges:

Gideon said to the angel of Jehovah, Show me a sign that it is thou that speakest to me; and the sign was, that when he touched with the staff the flesh and unleavened bread which Gideon had offered, a fire went up out of the rock and consumed them (Judges 6:17, 21).

In the first book of Samuel:

This shall be the sign unto thee that shall come upon thy two sons, in one day they shall die, both of them (1 Samuel 2:34).

If the Philistines say, Come up unto us, then will we go up, for Jehovah hath given them into our hand; this shall be the sign unto us (1 Samuel 14:10).

Nearly the same is signified by:

The signs of the covenant (Genesis 9:13; 17:11; Ezekiel 20:12, 20; and elsewhere);

namely, attestations respecting conjunction.

[26] Attestations are signified also by "signs" wrought by the evil that appeared like miracles, as in the following passages. In Isaiah:

Jehovah maketh void the signs of the liars, He rendereth the diviners mad, He turneth wise men backward, and maketh their knowledge stupid (Isaiah 44:25).

In Jeremiah:

Jehovah hath said, Learn not the way of the nations, and be not dismayed at the signs of the heavens; for the nations are dismayed at them. The statutes of the nations 7 are vanity (Jeremiah 10:2, 3).

In Revelation:

The beast coming up out of the earth did great signs, so that he even maketh fire to come down from heaven unto the earth before men, and seduceth them that worship 8 upon the earth, because of the signs that were given him to do (Revelation 13:13, 14).

They are the spirits of demons doing signs to go forth unto the kings of the earth, to gather them together unto the war of that great day (Revelation 16:14).

And again:

The beast was taken, and with him the false prophet that did signs before him, by which he seduced them that had received the mark of the beast (Revelation 19:20).

But what is meant by "signs upon the hand and in the forehead" may be seen above n. 427. Again, the "signs" that were set upon mountains to gather the people together to war, to battle, and so on, signified indications to do the things commanded. As in Isaiah:

It shall be in that day that the root of Jesse, which standeth for an ensign of the peoples, the nations shall seek, and his rest shall be glory. When he shall lift up an ensign to the nations, and shall gather together the outcasts of Israel and the dispersed of Judah from the four winds of the earth (Isaiah 11:10-12).

In Jeremiah:

Set thee up signs, place for thee columns, set thine heart to the highway, the way thou mayest go (Jeremiah 31:21).

In the same:

Declare ye among the nations, and make to be heard, and lift up an ensign; Babylon is taken (Jeremiah 50:2).

Lift up an ensign against the walls of Babylon, keep the watch, set the watchmen. Lift up an ensign in the land, sound the trumpet among the nations (Jeremiah 51:12, 27);

and elsewhere, especially in the historical parts of the Word. From all these passages quoted from the Word it is clear that "a great sign seen in heaven" signifies Divine manifestation and attestation (as also in the third verse of this chapter, an (Revelation 12:3) d afterwards in chap. Revelation 15:1).

-----
Footnotes:

1. The Hebrew has "house."

2. The Hebrew has "His," as found in Apocalypse Revealed 598.

3. The Greek has "heart," as also found in Arcana Coelestia 2798.

4. The context would seem to show that we should read "The people."

5. The Hebrew has "185, 000," as found in Arcana Coelestia 4236.

6. The Hebrew has "to us."

7. The Hebrew has "peoples."

8. The Greek has "dwell," as found in Arcana Coelestia 826; Apocalypse Revealed 600.

-----

(Referências: Isaiah 7:10-11, 38:6-8; Jeremiah 10:2-3; Luke 21:25; Revelation 12:13-14, 13:13-14; The Apocalypse Explained 427)

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Das Obras de Swedenborg

Referências das obras não publicadas de Swedenborg:

Apocalypse Explained 705, 713, 815, 824, 1002

Recursos para pais e professores

Os itens aqui listados são providos como cortesia de nossos amigos da General Church of the New Jerusalem. Você pode pesquisar todo o conteúdo da biblioteca no seguinte link this link.


 Bread of Life
The miracle of multiplying five loaves to feed 5000 people symbolizes Jesus’ abundant Divine Love. People received “as much as they wanted” (John 6:11). How do we receive this abundance in our lives?
Sunday School Lesson | Ages 11 - 17

 Hezekiah and Isaiah
A New Church Bible story explanation for teaching Sunday school. Includes lesson materials for Primary (3-8 years), Junior (9-11 years), Intermediate (12-14 years), Senior (15-17 years) and Adults.
Teaching Support | Ages over 3

 The Birth of the Lord
A New Church Bible story explanation for teaching Sunday school. Includes lesson materials for Primary (3-8 years), Junior (9-11 years), Intermediate (12-14 years), Senior (15-17 years) and Adults.
Teaching Support | Ages over 3


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