The Fiery Furnace


Por Rev. Dr. Andrew M. T. Dibb

The third chapter of Daniel follows the same pattern as the first two: Nebuchadnezzar begins by making threats against those who do not bow to his every whim, and ends with his humbly admitting the Lord's power.

The similarities between the dramatic vision of the statue in chapter two and actually building an image in chapter three are not, however, mere repetition. Close attention to the detail in this chapter will show how in its pursuit of domination the selfish side of human nature continues to try to dominate, even though we might consciously submit to the Lord.

This third chapter opens with a huge image created by Nebuchadnezzar. The actual dimensions are important, not because of their physical impact, but because of the spiritual concepts they contain. Similarly, the impossibility of it being made from gold should not interfere with the spiritual exposition of the verse. The literal sense of the story is important only as a means of bringing out the spiritual sense.

This entire image was made of gold. But like the head of the statue in the previous chapter, this is not the gold representing love to the Lord, but self love. Every good correspondence also has an opposite sense.

The statue is described as sixty cubits tall, and six cubits wide. The recurring number "six" takes meaning from its contrast to the number immediately following. "Seven" is a state of fullness and completeness—the Lord rested on the seventh day of creation, clean animals entered the ark in sevens, we should forgive others "up to seventy times seven." As seven contains this sense of completeness, six represents a state of incompleteness.

"Six" is often used to describe the process of regeneration, especially in the creation series, and in the Ten Commandments. In the six days of creation, people are tempted and in a state of conflict, which must be overcome for the person to regenerate (AC 8494, 8539:2, 8888). The conflict illustrated in this chapter is between our sense of selfishness and our emerging conscience.

The number sixty is the fullness of this conflict, as sixty is a six multiplied by ten. If six represents the conflicts of temptation, ten represents completeness (AC 3107, 4638, 8468, 9416), or fullness of that conflict.

Ideally, the states of goodness, truth and their mutual expression should be equal. The shape representing a regenerate person would be a perfect cube, as described by "the Holy City coming down from God out of heaven" (Revelation 21:2).

But Nebuchadnezzar's image vastly different from this ideal: it was tall and narrow — ten times taller than it was wide, and no depth is described. It comes across as one dimensional, disproportionate, its most compelling feature the gold from which it is made.

As in the second chapter, Nebuchadnezzar calls together his advisers: before, it was astrologers and wise men. In this chapter he calls together the governors of his kingdom: the satraps, administrators and so on. When the Word speaks of governors, it speaks of our loves, because we are ruled and governed by loves. The list here gives a hierarchy of loves from the top, or ruling loves, down to the lesser affections we have.

We are shown our state when that ruling love is Nebuchadnezzar: he dominates the scene, his word is law. He controls a vast empire and has absolute control over life and death. Thus Nebuchadnezzar can summon his governors and order them around with the same ease with which he called together the wise men and demanded the impossible from them.

At the sound of music, his whole empire was to fall down and worship the gold image erected by the king. Music is used as a means of summoning the rulers of the land because if those men represent our various loves and affections, so music speaks to our loves.

If Nebuchadnezzar represents our selfishness and love of control, the Chaldeans come into the picture as a confirmation of this selfishness. The essence of profanation—evil pretending to be good—is the misuse of goodness and truth for one's own ends. Any state of genuine good or truth resisting this misuse would come into conflict with it.

Thus the Chaldeans with great enthusiasm name Shadrach, Meshach and Abed-Nego who do not serve the king nor worship his golden image. By using their Babylonian names, they are refusing to recognize truth as coming from the Word. This is the very heart of profanation: to know something is from the Word, even to acknowledge it as such, and yet to deny it—just as those Chaldeans must have known that the three men were Jews, and that their Babylonian names were not truly their own. It is the ultimate denial of their identity, just as profanation is the ultimate denial of the Lord.

Nebuchadnezzar's life is first of military conquest and the expansion of his empire. This conquest comes with the dominion of religious things. Thus it was not out of character for him to command worship. As the love of self progresses, it demands greater and greater things, until it demands to be treated as the Lord Himself (AR 717).

"The evil of the love of self is not, as is generally thought, that external elation which is called pride, but it is hatred against the neighbor, and thence a burning desire for revenge, and delight in cruelty. These are the interiors of the love of self. Its exteriors are contempt for others in comparison with self, and an aversion to those who are in spiritual good, and this sometimes with manifest elation or pride, and sometimes without it. For one who holds the neighbor in such hatred, inwardly loves no one but himself and those whom he regards as making one with himself, thus he loves them in himself, and himself in them for the sole end of self" (AC 4750:5).

Each person in this world is capable of giving freedom to these feelings, and if we do, soon we find ourselves doing what Nebuchadnezzar did: demanding that people see the world through our own personal spectacles, and roundly damning them to hell if they do not.

As we saw earlier, Daniel represents the conscience developing in opposition to our selfish states. Conscience is the activity of truth leading and guiding our minds towards a life in harmony with the Lord's. The conscience, however, must be made up of individual truths, truths applicable to different parts of our lives. We have a set of truths to govern marriage, work ethic, social interaction, and so on.

These individual truths are Daniel's Hebrew companions. Each time we have seen them, they have stood on their belief in God, but each time at Daniel's leadership. This time they stand alone, willing to confront the imperial wrath and face death for their belief.

The consequences were, of course, dire. Nebuchadnezzar flew into a rage, demanding that the young men be cast into a fiery furnace, heated to seven times its normal heat. The young men were prepared to accept this punishment rather than retract their belief in the Lord.

Nebuchadnezzar tried to scare the three men by heating the furnace to hotter than normal, which well describes the actions of evil spirits in temptation who,

"act against the affections of truth that make the conscience: as soon as they perceive anything of conscience, of whatever kind, then from the falsities and failings in the man they form to themselves an affection; and by means of this they cast a shade over the light of truth, and so pervert it; or they induce anxiety and torture him" (AC 1820:4).

The time the young men spend in the furnace represents a state of temptation, which occurs for the sake of regeneration (AE 439). Most simply defined, temptation is a battle between two sides within us, where the natural, or selfish side is subdued. Up until then, selfishness is seen as simply being a part of us, the way we are (AC 1820). In temptation, this self-image is changed, and we learn to see ourselves in the light of heaven (AE 439).

The power of the evil spirits is greatly illusory. Just as Nebuchadnezzar fell back after resistance, so the spirits also withdraw when we resist them. The greatest temptation we face is believing the Lord is unable to help us in our times of great need. If we cling to the believe that He can and does give help, then facing our inner selfishness becomes less difficult. The image the men were commanded to worship was, after all, an immobile object of gold, disproportionate and one-dimensional. Our selfishness is like that: seemingly monolithic, and yet devoid of any real life. Its attractions fade when seen in the light of heaven. Spiritual resistance is not so difficult, and the results give strength:

"Victories are attended with the result that the malignant genii and spirits afterward dare not do anything; for their life consists in their being able to destroy, and when they perceive that a man is of such a character that he can resist then at the first onset they flee away, as they are wont to do when they draw near to the first entrance to heaven, for they are at once seized with horror and terror, and hurl themselves backward" AC 1820.

Nebuchadnezzar is brought to awareness and appreciation of the power of the Lord, this time, with his own senses. There is a power in his acquiescence after witnessing the four men in the fiery furnace that is far more dramatic than his incredulity after Daniel foretold the dream in chapter two. This time he actually saw the power of the furnace, so strong that those who cast the three men in were killed by its heat, yet he saw the three men walk out unscathed. This proved the power of God to him more than anything before.

We see something of this process in the final verses of Chapter three, where Nebuchadnezzar praises the Lord, showing a new humility impossible for him before. As a result, the affection of truth begins to rule in place of the former selfish loves. Thus we see Shadrach, Meshach and Abed-Nego promoted in the province of Babylon, presumably in place of the Babylonian satraps, administrators, governors, counselors, treasurers, judges, magistrates and all the officials of the province who responded to Nebuchadnezzar's call to worship the gold image.

Das Obras de Swedenborg


Arcana Coelestia # 4750

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4750. 'And Judah said to his brothers' means the corrupt within the Church who are opposed to all good whatever. This is clear from the representation of 'Judah' in the good sense as the good of celestial love, dealt with in 3654, 3881, but in the contrary sense as an opposition to all good whatever, dealt with below; and from the meaning of 'his brothers' as those in the Church who are adherents to faith separated from charity. The reason 'Judah' here represents those who are opposed to all good whatever is that in the good sense 'Judah' in the Word represents those who are governed by the good of celestial love. Celestial love consists in love to the Lord and from this in love towards the neighbour. Those governed by this love are the ones who are the most closely joined to the Lord and therefore they live in the inmost heaven, and in a state of innocence there. This being so, they are seen by all others as small children, and entirely as visual forms of love. No one else can go near them, and therefore when they are sent to others they are surrounded by other angels, through whom the sphere of love emanating from them is moderated. If not moderated this sphere would cause those to whom they have been sent to faint, for the sphere of their love penetrates even to one's marrow.

[2] Since this love, that is, this form of the good of love, which is called celestial, is represented in the good sense by 'Judah', he therefore represents in the contrary sense the kind of thing that is the opposite of celestial good, and so is opposed to any good whatever. Most things in the Word have two meanings - a good one, and another contrary to this. The good meaning they have enables one to see the nature of their contrary one, for things in the contrary sense are the direct opposite of whatever are meant in the good sense.

[3] Each form of the good of love falls in general into one of two categories - the good of celestial love and the good of spiritual love. The opposite of the good of celestial love is in the contrary sense the evil of self-love, and the opposite of the good of spiritual love is in the contrary sense the evil of love of the world. Those governed by the evil of self-love are opposed to all good whatever, but those governed by the evil of love of the world less so. In the Word 'Judah' in the contrary sense represents those who are governed by self-love, while 'Israel' in the contrary sense represents those who are governed by love of the world, the reason being that 'Judah' represented the Lord's celestial kingdom, and 'Israel' His spiritual kingdom.

[4] The hells too are distinguished in accordance with those two loves. Spirits governed by self-love, being opposed to all good whatever, are in the deepest and consequently the most dreadful hells, whereas those governed by love of the world, being less opposed to all good whatever, are in hells not quite so deep and consequently less dreadful ones.

[5] The evil of self-love is not, as people commonly regard it, the display of superiority which is called arrogance; rather, it is hatred against the neighbour and a resulting burning desire for revenge and a delight in cruelty. These are the more internal features of self-love. Its more external features are contempt for others in comparison with oneself and an aversion to those in whom spiritual good is present. These more external features of it are sometimes accompanied by a manifest display of superiority or arrogance, sometimes they are not. For anyone who hates his neighbour in that fashion loves solely himself inwardly, and only any others whom he regards to be at unity with him, so that they are part of him and he is part of them, solely for the sake of his own selfish ends.

[6] This is what those people are like whom 'Judah' represents in the contrary sense. The Jewish nation was governed by that kind of love right from the start, for it regarded all people throughout the world as the basest slaves, of no value at all compared with themselves, and it also hated them. What is more, when self-love and love of the world did not hold them together they persecuted even their companions and brethren with similar hatred. This disposition remains with that nation even now, but because they have to seek asylum in lands not their own they conceal it.

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Thanks to the Swedenborg Society for the permission to use this translation.

Das Obras de Swedenborg


Apocalypse Explained # 439

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439. Of the tribe Naphtali twelve thousand sealed, signifies regeneration and temptation. This is evident from what is represented and thence signified by "Naphtali" and his tribe, as meaning temptation and the state after it; and as temptations occur for the sake of regeneration, regeneration too is signified by "Naphtali." (That those who are regenerated undergo temptations see in The Doctrine of the New Jerusalem 187-201.) That "Naphtali" and thence the tribe named from him, signify temptation and the state after it, and accordingly regeneration, can be seen from the words of Rachel, when Bilhah her handmaid bare him, which are these:

And Bilhah, Rachel's handmaid, conceived again, and bare Jacob a second son. And Rachel said, With wrestlings of God have I wrestled with my sister, and I have prevailed; and she called his name Naphtali (Genesis 30:7, 8).

"Wrestlings of God" signify spiritual temptations; and as Rachel represented the internal church, which is spiritual, and Leah the external church, which is natural, Rachel's wrestling with her sister and prevailing signifies evidently the combat between the spiritual and the natural, since every temptation is a combat between the spiritual man and the natural; for the spiritual man loves and wills the things that are of heaven, since it is in heaven, while the natural man loves and wills the things that are of the world, since it is in the world; consequently the desires of the two are opposite, which gives rise to collision and combat, and this is called temptation.

[2] That "Naphtali" signifies temptation and the state after it, and thence regeneration, is further evident from the following passages. From the blessing he received from his father Israel:

Naphtali is a hind let loose; giving sayings of elegance (Gen. 49:21).

"Naphtali" here signifies the state after temptation, which state is full of joy from affection, that the spiritual and the natural, and good and truth, have been conjoined, for these are conjoined by temptations; "a hind let loose" signifies the freedom of the natural affection; "giving sayings of elegance," signifies gladness of mind. (This is more fully explained in Arcana Coelestia, n. 6412-6414.)

[3] Again, from the blessing he received from Moses:

And of Naphtali he said, O Naphtali, satisfied with the good pleasure and full of the blessing of Jehovah; possess thou the west and the south (Deuteronomy 33:23).

This, too, describes the state after temptation, in which man is filled with every good of love and with truths therefrom; for after temptations he is filled with joy, and good bears fruit, and truth is multiplied with him; to be filled with the good of love is meant by "satisfied with the good pleasure of Jehovah;" and to be filled with truths therefrom is signified by "full of the blessing of Jehovah;" the consequent affection of truth and illustration are signified by "possess thou the west and the south," the affection of truth is signified by "the west," and illustration by "the south." It is said "possess thou the west and the south," because those who are raised up into heaven after having been instructed are carried through the west to the south, that is, through the affection of truth into the light of truth.

[4] "Naphtali" has a similar signification in the song of Deborah and Barak, in the book of Judges:

Zebulun, a people that devoted their soul to death, and Naphtali upon the heights of the field (Judges 5:18).

These were the two tribes that fought against Sisera, the captain of the host of Jabin, king of Canaan, and conquered him, the other ten tribes remaining quiet; and this represented the spiritual combat against the evils that infest the church; as is evident also from the prophetic song of Deborah and Barak, of which this is the subject. Only the tribes of Zebulun and Naphtali fought, because "Zebulun" signifies the conjunction of good and truth which constitutes the church, and "Naphtali" the combat against the evils and falsities that infest it and that resist the conjunction of good and truth, consequently the two signify reformation and regeneration; "the heights of the field" signify the interiors of the church, from which combat is maintained. Again "Zebulun and Naphtali" together also signify reformation and regeneration by means of temptations (in Isaiah 8:22; 9:1, 2; also in Matthew 4:12-16).

[5] In the highest sense however "Zebulun and Naphtali" signify the uniting of the Divine and the Human in the Lord, for the highest sense treats solely of the Lord, in general of the glorification of His Human, and the subjugation of the hells, and the arranging of the heavens by Him. In this sense Zebulun and Naphtali are mentioned in David:

They have seen Thy goings, O God; the goings of my God, my King in the midst of the sanctuary. The singers went before, the minstrels after, in the midst of the maidens playing on timbrels. Bless ye God in the assemblies, the Lord from the fountain of Israel. There little Benjamin is set over them, the princes of Judah their company, the princes of Zebulun, the princes of Naphtali. Thy God hath commanded thy strength; put on strength, O God; this Thou hast wrought for us out of Thy temple at Jerusalem; kings shall bring oblations to Thee. Rebuke the wild beast of the reed, the congregation of the mighty among the calves of the peoples; trampling upon the plates of silver, He hath scattered the peoples, they desire combats. Those that are fat shall come out of Egypt. Ethiopia shall hasten her hands unto God (Psalms 68:24-31).

This treats in the spiritual sense of the coming of the Lord, of the glorification of His Human, of the subjugation of the hells, and the consequent salvation. Celebration of the Lord because of His coming is described in these words: "They have seen Thy goings, O God, the goings of my God, my King, in the sanctuary. The singers went before, the minstrels after, in the midst of the maidens playing on timbrels. Bless ye God in the assemblies, the Lord from the fountain of Israel." (What the particulars here signify see explained above, n. 340.) The innocence of the Lord, by which He wrought and accomplished all things, is signified by "there little Benjamin is set over them;" Divine truth from Divine good is signified by "the princes of Judah their company;" His glorification, or the uniting of the Divine and Human by His own power, is signified by "the princes of Zebulun and the princes of Naphtali;" that from this the Lord's Human has Divine power is signified by "thy God hath commanded thy strength; put on strength, O God; this Thou hast wrought for us out of Thy temple at Jerusalem," "temple" meaning here the Lord's Divine Human, and "Jerusalem" the church for which He did this. The subjugation of the hells is signified by "rebuke the wild beast of the reed, the congregation of the mighty, among the calves of the peoples; trampling upon the plates of silver, He hath scattered the peoples, they desire combats;" "the wild beast of the reed and the congregation of the mighty" mean the knowing faculty of the natural man perverting the truths and goods of the church; "the calves of the people" mean the goods of the church; "the plates of silver" mean the truths of the church; "He hath scattered the people, they desire combats," signifies to pervert truths and reason against them.

[6] The subjugation of the hells means the subjugation of the natural man; for evils from hell are in the natural man, for in it, too, are the delights of the love of self and of the world and the knowledges [scientifica] that confirm these delights; and when these delights are regarded as ends and become dominant they are against the goods and truths of the church. That when the natural man has been subjugated it supplies accordant knowledges [scientifica)], and also cognitions of truth and good, is signified by "those that are fat shall come out of Egypt, Ethiopia shall hasten her hands unto God." "Egypt" meaning the natural man in respect to knowledges [scientifica], and "Ethiopia" the natural man in respect to cognitions of good and truth. From these few instances the signification of "Naphtali" and his tribe in the Word can be seen, namely, that it signifies in the highest sense the Lord's own power, by which He subjugated the hells and glorified His Human, in the internal sense temptation and the states after temptation, and in the external sense resistance by the natural man; therefore "Naphtali" signifies also reformation and regeneration, because these are results of temptations.

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Thanks to the Swedenborg Foundation for their permission to use this translation.