433. Verse 5. Of the tribe of Judah twelve thousand sealed, signifies love to the Lord, and that all who are in that love are in heaven, and come into heaven. This is evident from the representation and consequent signification of "Judah" and his tribe, as being love to the Lord (of which presently); also from the signification of "twelve thousand," as being all persons and all things (of which see above, n. 430, here all who are in that love; also from the signification of the "sealed," as being those who are distinguished and separated from such as are in evil; in other words, those who are in good (of which also see above, n. 427. It follows that those who are in heaven and who come into heaven are meant, for these "were sealed in their foreheads," that is, separated from the evil; for these are the ones of whom it is said:
A Lamb was standing on the Mount Zion, and with Him a hundred and forty-four thousand, having the Father's name written on their foreheads. These are they who were not defiled with women; for they are virgins, bought from among men, the firstfruits unto God and to the Lamb (Revelation 14:1, 3, 4).
"The Mount Zion" signifies the heaven in which there is love to the Lord; for all those signified by "the twelve thousand out of each tribe," or by "the hundred and forty-four thousand sealed on their foreheads," are such as acknowledge the Lord and love Him; and for this reason the first tribe named is the tribe of Judah, which tribe signifies love to the Lord; for (as was said above, n. 431 the representation of heaven is determined by the order in which the tribes are named, and the first name, or the tribe first named, is that from which are derived the determinations and significations of those that follow, with variations.
 Furthermore, no one is admitted into heaven except by the Lord, for the universal heaven is His, consequently no one is in heaven, or comes to it, unless he acknowledges the Lord and loves Him. To love the Lord is not to love Him in respect to person but to live according to His commandments, as the Lord also teaches in plain words in John:
In that day ye shall know that I am in My Father, and ye in Me, and I in you. He that hath My commandments and doeth them, he it is that loveth Me. If anyone loveth Me he will keep My words; and My Father will love him, and We will come unto him and make Our abode with him. He that loveth Me not keepeth not My words (John 14:20, 21, 23, 24).
Those love the Lord who do and keep His commandments and His words, because His commandments and words signify Divine truths, and all Divine truth proceeds from Him, and that which proceeds from Him is Himself; when, therefore, a man is in that truth in respect to his life the Lord is in him and he in the Lord; this is why it is said "ye in Me and I in you," and "We will come and make Our abode with him;" this, therefore, is loving Him. To love means also to be conjoined, for love is spiritual conjunction, and conjunction is effected by the reception of Divine truth in doctrine and in life.
 Before showing from the Word that "Judah," or the tribe named from Judah, signifies love to the Lord, it shall be told what "Judah" signifies in each sense in the Word. In the highest sense "Judah" signifies the Lord in respect to celestial love; in the internal sense the Lord's celestial kingdom, and the Word; and in the external sense doctrine from the Word belonging to the celestial kingdom. Because in the highest sense the Lord in respect to celestial love is signified, and in the internal sense the celestial kingdom, love to the Lord also is signified, for that is the reciprocal love in man, and reigns in the Lord's celestial kingdom. There are two kingdoms into which the universal heaven is divided, the celestial kingdom and the spiritual kingdom; the celestial kingdom consists of those who are in love to the Lord, and the spiritual kingdom of those who are in love towards the neighbor; from this can be seen what is meant by celestial love and by spiritual love (on these kingdoms, see in the work on Heaven and Hell 20-28). These two kingdoms the Jews and Israelites represented, the Jews the celestial kingdom and the Israelites the spiritual kingdom. Again, "Judah" signifies the Word because the Lord is the Word, and He took on the Human in that tribe that He might be the Word in respect even to the Human, as it is said in John:
In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and God was the Word. And the Word became flesh and dwelt among us (John 1:1, 14).
"The Word" signifies the Lord in respect to Divine truth proceeding from His Divine love; consequently those who love the Divine truth that is in the Word by doing it are in the Lord's love.
 That "Judah" signifies the Lord in respect to celestial love, and thus love to the Lord, and also the Word, can be seen from the following passages. In Moses:
Thou art Judah, thy brethren shall praise thee; thy hand shall be on the neck of thine enemies; thy father's sons shall bow down to thee. Judah is a lion's whelp; from the prey, my son, art thou gone up; he stooped down, he crouched as a lion, and as an old lion; who shall rouse him up? The scepter shall not be removed from Judah, nor a lawgiver from between his feet, until Shiloh come; and the obedience of the peoples shall be to him. He shall bind his young ass to the vine, and the son of his she-ass to the noble vine; he washeth his vesture in wine, and his covering in the blood of grapes; his eyes shall be red from wine, and his teeth white from milk (Genesis 49:8-12).
Here by "Judah" in the spiritual sense the Lord's celestial kingdom and the Lord Himself in respect to celestial love are described. Celestial love is the Lord's love received in the celestial kingdom, and spiritual love is the Lord's love received in the spiritual kingdom. The signification of these words is as follows: "Thy brethren shall praise thee" signifies that the celestial church is eminent above all others; for "the brethren," or the tribes named from Jacob's sons, who were Judah's brethren, signify the church; "thy hand shall be on the neck of thine enemies" signifies that the infernal and devilish crew shall be thrust out and held back, "enemies" meaning those who are from hell; "thy father's sons shall bow down to thee" signifies the submission of all truths of the church, "to bow down" meaning to submit themselves, and "his father's sons" all truths of the church; for in those who are in love to the Lord, and thence in the celestial kingdom, all truths of the church are implanted; "Judah is a lion's whelp" signifies innocence with innate powers; for love to the Lord, viewed in itself, is innocence, and this is signified by "whelp," and its innate powers are signified by a "lion;" "from the prey, my son, thou art gone up," signifies the deliverance of many from hell; "he stooped down, he crouched as a lion, and as an old lion," signifies the good of love and truth therefrom in its power; for "to stoop down," in reference to a lion, means to put himself into power; "who shall rouse him up?" signifies that this good is safe wherever it is, and that it cannot be moved by the hells.
"The scepter shall not be removed from Judah" signifies that power shall not depart from the good of celestial love; "nor a lawgiver from between his feet" signifies, nor shall the truths of the Word disappear from its ultimate sense; "until Shiloh come" signifies the Lord's coming and the tranquillity of peace at that time; "the obedience of the peoples shall be to him" signifies truths from Him, and conjunction thereby; "he shall bind his young ass to the vine" signifies the external church and its truths from the Lord; "and the son of his she-ass to the noble vine" signifies the internal church and its truths from the Lord; "he washeth his vesture in wine" signifies the Lord's external or natural Human, which is Divine truth from His Divine love; "and his covering in the blood of grapes," signifies the Lord's internal or rational Human, which is Divine good from His Divine love; "his eyes shall be red from wine" signifies that the internal or rational Human is nothing but good; "and his teeth white from milk" signifies that the external or natural Human is nothing but the good of truth. Thus from each particular in this description it can be seen that "Judah" does not mean Judah, but that it is some preeminently heavenly thing that is thus described. (But the particulars may be seen explained in Arcana Coelestia 6363-6381.)
 In Ezekiel:
Thou son of man, take thee one stick and write upon it, For Judah and for the sons of Israel his fellows; then take another stick and write upon it, For Joseph, the stick of Ephraim and of all the house of Israel; and then join them for thee one with another into one stick, that they both may be one in thy 1 hand. I will take the stick of Joseph, which is in the hand of Ephraim and of the tribes of Israel his fellows, and will bring upon it with the stick of Judah, and I will make them one stick. I will take the sons of Israel from among the nations whither they are gone, and will bring them together from round about, and will bring them upon their own land; and will make them into one nation upon the land in the mountains of Israel, and one king shall be to them all for a king, and they shall be no more two nations, neither shall they be divided into two kingdoms anymore at all. My servant David shall be king over them, that they all may have one shepherd; and they shall walk in My judgments and keep My statutes, and do them. Then shall they 2 dwell upon the land that I have given unto Jacob My servant, wherein your fathers dwelt; and they shall dwell upon it, they and their sons and their sons' sons to eternity; and David My servant shall be their prince to eternity. And I will make a covenant of peace with them; it shall be a covenant of eternity with them; and I will give them, and multiply them, and I will set My sanctuary in the midst of them forever. So shall My tabernacle be with them; and I will be their God, and they shall be My people (Ezekiel 37:16, 17, 19, 21, 22, 24-27).
What this signifies no one can know unless he knows what "Judah" and "Israel," and "Joseph" and "Ephraim" signify. Evidently Judah and Israel are not meant, nor Joseph and Ephraim; for it is said that the tribes of Israel scattered among the nations should be gathered together and brought into the land of Canaan, and that David should be their king and prince, and that they were to dwell with him forever. Who does not know that the tribes of Israel could not be gathered, and that David could no more be king over them? Let it be known, then, what is signified in the spiritual sense by "Judah," by "the sons of Israel," by "Joseph" and "Ephraim," and further what by "David," and by "the land of Canaan. " "Judah," in the spiritual sense, signifies the Lord's celestial kingdom; "the sons of Israel" the Lord's spiritual kingdom; "Joseph" and "Ephraim," and "the scattered tribes of Israel that are to be gathered together," mean those who are below these kingdoms, being neither celestial nor spiritual but natural, and yet are in the good of life according to their religious principle.
 These are meant also by the Lord in John:
Other sheep also I have, which are not of this fold; them also must I bring, and they shall hear My voice; and there shall be one flock and one Shepherd (John 10:16);
for these were not in heaven before the Lord's coming, but were introduced by Him after He had glorified His Human, and for the reason that until then the Divine proceeding could not extend to them. When this is known, and when it is known that "David" means the Lord in respect to Divine truth proceeding from His Divine Human, it can be known what the particulars here mean in series. These things were written upon two sticks, and the two sticks were joined into one stick, because a "stick" (or wood) signifies the good of life, and all conjunction in heaven is effected by means of good and according to it. (That "wood" signifies the good of life see Arcana Coelestia 643 Arcana Coelestia 643[1-4], 2784, 3720, 8354)
 In Isaiah:
Then the Lord shall lift up an ensign for the nations, and shall gather together the outcasts of Israel, and shall bring together the scattered of Judah from the four wings of the earth. Then the envy of Ephraim shall depart, and the adversaries of Judah shall be cut off; Ephraim shall not envy Judah, and Judah shall not distress Ephraim; but they shall fly on the shoulder of the Philistines towards the sea (Isaiah 11:12-14).
This is said of the salvation of the Gentiles, which are also signified by "the outcasts of Israel" and "the scattered of Judah," for it is said that "the Lord shall lift up an ensign for the nations;" "the outcasts of Israel" mean those who are not in truths, but still are in the desire to learn them; and "the scattered of Judah" mean those who are in the good of life, and thereby in love to the Lord; for those who love to do good love the Lord; for the Lord is in such good, since it is from Him. "Ephraim" means the intellectual, here in agreement with the good of love; and that these shall not be at variance with each other is meant by "the envy of Ephraim shall depart;" "Ephraim shall not envy Judah, and Judah shall not distress Ephraim." That they shall be separated from those who are in faith separate from charity is signified by "they shall fly on the shoulder of the Philistines towards the sea;" "the philistines towards the sea" meaning those who separate faith from charity, that is from the good of life; "the sea" meaning the ultimate of heaven where it comes to an end; and "to fly on the shoulder" meaning to reject, and thus to separate themselves.
 In Zechariah:
Exult, O daughter of Zion; shout, O daughter of Jerusalem; behold, thy King cometh unto thee; He is just and faithful. 3 I will bend Judah for Me, I will fill the bow with Ephraim, and I will stir up thy sons, O Zion (Zechariah 9:9, 13).
This treats of the Lord's coming and the establishment of the church by Him with those who are in the good of love and in the truths of doctrine therefrom. "The daughter of Zion" and "the daughter of Jerusalem" signify the church with such; "thy King who cometh, just and faithful," is the Lord, from whom are the good of love and the truth of doctrine; "I will bend Judah for Me, I will fill the bow with Ephraim," signifies that the church is to be established with such as are in the good of love to the Lord, and in the truths of doctrine therefrom; "Judah" here meaning those who are in the good of love to the Lord, and "Ephraim" the truths of doctrine, for "Ephraim" signifies the intellectual of the church, and "bow" the doctrine of truth (that "bow" signifies doctrine see above, n. 357, where this is also explained); such as these are "sons of Zion. " Evidently the Jewish nation is not here meant by "Judah," nor Ephraim by "Ephraim;" for the Lord's church was not established with the Jewish nation, for it was not received by that nation, and the tribe of Ephraim did not then exist.
(Referenties: The Apocalypse Explained 357)
 In the same:
Jehovah of Hosts shall visit His drove, the house of Judah, and shall set them as the horse of His glory in war. Out of him shall be the corner, out of him the nail, out of him the bow of war. And I will render the house of Judah mighty, and I will save the house of Joseph, and will make them to dwell. Hence they shall be as the mighty Ephraim, and their heart shall be glad as if with wine (Zechariah 10:3, 4, 6, 7).
Here, too, "the house of Judah" means the Lord's celestial kingdom, which consists of those who are in love to Him, and "Ephraim" means those who are in the truths of doctrine from that love; for all who are in the Lord's celestial kingdom are in the truths of doctrine, since such have truths, as it were, implanted in and inscribed upon their hearts (see in the work on Heaven and Hell 25, 26. The rest may be seen explained above, n. 355, 376).
 In the same:
Sing for joy and be glad, O daughter of Zion; for lo I come that I may dwell in the midst of thee. Then many nations shall conjoin themselves to Jehovah in that day, and shall be to Me for a people. Jehovah shall make Judah an heritage for Himself, His part, in the land of holiness, and shall again choose Jerusalem (Zechariah 2:10-12).
Very evidently "Judah" here does not mean the Jewish nation, nor does "Jerusalem" mean Jerusalem; for the Lord's coming is here treated of, at which time that nation had wholly receded, and afterwards Jerusalem was destroyed; and yet it is said that "Jehovah shall make Judah an heritage for Himself, and His part in the land of holiness, and shall again choose Jerusalem;" therefore "Judah" means those who are in love to the Lord, and "Jerusalem" the church with such in respect to doctrine.
 In Nahum:
Behold upon the mountains the feet of him that proclaimeth good tidings, that publisheth peace! Celebrate thy feasts, O Judah, render thy vows; for Belial shall never more pass through thee; he is utterly cut off (Nahum 1:15).
This, too, is said of the Lord; His coming is meant by "Behold upon the mountains the feet of him that proclaimeth good tidings, that publisheth peace!" "To celebrate feasts" and "to render vows" signify to rejoice in His coming and then to worship Him; "Belial shall never more pass through Judah, he is utterly cut off," signifies that evil shall be no more with them because they are in the Lord. This could not be said of the Jewish nation, but may be said of those who are in love to the Lord; which makes clear that such are meant by "Judah."
 In Malachi:
Behold I send My messenger, and he shall prepare the way before Me; and the Lord shall suddenly come to His temple. Then shall the offering of Judah and Jerusalem be agreeable unto Jehovah, according to the days of an age, and according to the former years (Joel 3:1, 4).
It is known in the church that this is said of the Lord's coming, and that "the messenger who shall prepare the way before Him" means John the Baptist. "The offering of Judah and Jerusalem shall be agreeable unto Jehovah" signifies that then there will be acceptable worship from the good of love to the Lord, "the offering of Judah" signifying such worship; it is evident that the worship of the Jewish nation and of Jerusalem was not acceptable, for they did not acknowledge the Lord, but utterly rejected Him; "according to the days of an age, and according to former years," signifies according to the worship in the ancient churches; the Most Ancient Church, that was before the flood, and was in love to the Lord, is signified by "the days of an age," or of eternity, and the Ancient Church, that was after the flood, and was a spiritual church, is signified by "former years."
 In Joel:
It shall come to pass in that day that the mountains shall drop down must, and the hills shall flow with milk, and all the water-courses of Judah shall flow with waters, and a fountain shall go forth out of the house of Jehovah, and shall water the brook of Shittim. Egypt shall be a waste, and Edom shall be a waste wilderness, because of the violence to the sons of Judah, whose innocent blood they have shed in their land. But Judah shall sit to eternity, and Jerusalem to generation and generation (Joel 3:18-20).
Here, too, the Lord's coming and a new heaven and a new earth at that time are treated of. "The mountains shall drop down must" signifies that all truth will be from the good of love (that "mountains" signify the good of love see above n. 405; and that "wine" and "must" signify truth see also above, n. 376). "The hills shall flow with milk" signifies that spiritual life will be from the good of charity towards the neighbor; and "all the watercourses of Judah shall flow with waters" signifies that from the particulars of the Word there will be truths, through which there will be intelligence; "a fountain shall go forth out of the house of Jehovah, and shall water the brook of Shittim," signifies that out of heaven from the Lord there will be truth of doctrine that will illustrate those who are in cognitions and knowledges; "Egypt shall be a waste, and Edom shall be a waste wilderness" signifies that false principles, and the evils of the love of self, both from the natural man, will be destroyed; "because of the violence to the sons of Judah, whose innocent blood they have shed in their land," signifies because of the truths of the Word falsified and its goods adulterated, which they have corrupted and destroyed; "Judah shall sit to eternity, and Jerusalem to generation and generation," signifies that the Word and the doctrine of genuine truth therefrom will remain to eternity with those who are in love to the Lord. This makes clear that "Judah" does not here mean Judah, nor "Jerusalem" Jerusalem.
 In the same:
O Tyre and Zidon, and all the boundaries of the Philistines, I will quickly return a recompense upon your head; because ye have taken My silver and My gold, and the desirable things of My goods ye have brought into your temples; and the sons of Judah and the sons of Jerusalem ye have sold to the sons of the Grecians, that ye might remove them far from their boundaries (Joel 3:4-6).
By "Tyre and Zidon" and by "the Philistines" are understood those who have falsified the truths and goods of the Word; "my silver and my gold" signify these truths and goods, and "to bring them into their temples" signifies to falsify and profane them; "to sell the sons of Judah and the sons of Jerusalem to the sons of the Grecians" signifies to pervert and falsify all the truths and goods of the Word; "the sons of Judah" meaning the goods of the Word, "the sons of Jerusalem" its truths, and "the sons of the Grecians" falsities; "to remove them far from their boundaries" signifies far from the truths themselves. One who does not know the spiritual sense of the Word might believe that those who were in Tyre and Zidon and in Philistia sold the sons of Judah and Jerusalem to the Grecians; but this is a prophecy in which the nations which are named signify the things of the church.
 In Jeremiah:
In those days the house of Judah shall go unto 4 the house of Israel, and they shall come together out of the land of the north unto the land that I gave for an inheritance unto your fathers (Jeremiah 3:18).
This, too, treats of the Lord's coming and of a new church from Him. His coming is meant by "in those days," and a new church by "the house of Judah and the house of Israel," a church from those who are in love to the Lord by "the house of Judah," and a church from those who are in charity towards the neighbor, which is called a spiritual church, by "the house of Israel." "They shall come together out of the land of the north unto the land that I gave for an inheritance unto your fathers" signifies that they shall come out of ignorance and falsities, in which they then were, into knowledges and the light of truth of the church; "the land of the north" signifying a state of ignorance and of the falsity of religion and "the land given for an inheritance to their fathers" a church that is in knowledges and the light of truth. These things were said of the nations from whom a new church is to be established. It is well known that the house of Judah and the house of Israel did not then come out of the land of the north, namely at the time when the Lord was in the world; for the Jews were then in the land of Canaan, and the Israelites were dispersed.
 In the same:
Behold the days come when I will raise unto David a righteous Branch, and He shall reign as King, and shall prosper, and shall execute judgment and justice in the land. In His days shall Judah be saved, and Israel shall dwell safely; and this is His name which they shall call Him, Jehovah our Righteousness (Jeremiah 23:6, 23:6; 33:16, 33:16).
This is plainly said of the Lord; He is "the Branch of David," He "shall reign as a King, and He shall be called Jehovah our Righteousness." "In His days Judah shall be saved and Israel shall dwell safely," signifies that those will be saved who are in love to Him and in charity towards the neighbor (as above). It is evident that Judah was not saved, and that Israel was not recalled, and could not be recalled so as to dwell safely, that is, without infestation from evils and falsities.
 In the same:
I will bring Israel again to his habitation, that he may feed on Carmel and Bashan, and his soul shall be satisfied upon Mount Ephraim and in Gilead. In those days and in that time the iniquity of Israel shall be sought for, and the sins of Judah, and they shall not be found (Jeremiah 50:19, 20).
This, too, is said of the establishment by the Lord of a church among the Gentiles that are meant by "Israel," who is said to be brought back to his habitation, and "Judah" whose sins are not to be found. That these are to be led by the Lord and instructed in the good of charity is meant by "they shall feed on Carmel and Bashan, and upon Mount Ephraim and in Gilead."
(Referenties: Jeremiah 50:19-20)
 In Zechariah:
In that day I will smite every horse with astonishment, and his rider with madness; and I will open Mine eye upon the house of Judah. In that day will I make the leaders of Judah like a furnace of fire among wood, and like a torch of fire in a sheaf, that they may devour all the peoples round about, on the right and on the left, that Jerusalem may yet dwell in her own place, even in Jerusalem. Jehovah shall save the tents of Judah first (Zechariah 12:4, 6, 7).
This treats of the devastation of the former church and of the establishment of a new church by the Lord; the devastation of the former church is described by "In that day I will smite every horse with astonishment, and his rider with madness," for "horse" signifies the understanding of truth with man, and "the rider" intelligence (see above, n. 355; "the house of Judah" signifies the church with those who are in the good of love to the Lord; of this it is said that the Lord "will open His eye upon it." That evils from hell and also falsities will be dispersed by such and with such, is signified by "In that day will I make the leaders of Judah like a furnace of fire among wood, and like a torch of fire in a sheaf, that they may devour all the peoples round about, on the right and on the left." That that church will be safe from the infestation of evils and falsities is signified by "Jerusalem shall dwell in her own place, even in Jerusalem;" and that the Lord will wholly save those who are in love to Him is signified by "Jehovah shall save the tents of Judah first."
 In Isaiah:
The word of Jehovah respecting Judah and Jerusalem: It shall come to pass in the latter end of days that the mountain of Jehovah shall be firm on the top of the mountains, and shall be lifted up above the hills; and all nations shall flow unto it, and many peoples shall go and say, Come ye, and let us go up to the mountain of Jehovah, to the house of the God of Jacob; and He will instruct us of His ways, and we will walk in His paths (Isaiah 2:1-3).
This, too, is said of a new church to be established by the Lord; "the mountain of Jehovah that will then be firm on the top of the mountains" means Zion, and signifies the celestial church, and love to the Lord, which those have who are of that church. That this is the primary thing of the church, and that it is to increase and gain strength, is signified by "it shall be on the top of the mountains, and be lifted up above the hills;" that those who are in good will acknowledge the Lord and will draw near to the church is signified by "all nations shall flow unto that mountain," "nations" signifying those who are in celestial good, which is the good of love to the Lord, and "peoples" those who are in spiritual good, which is the good of charity towards the neighbor; of these latter it is said, "many peoples shall go and say, Come ye and let us go up to the mountain of Jehovah, to the house of the God of Jacob." (That "nations" signify those who are in celestial good, and "peoples" those who are in spiritual good, see above, n. 331)
(Referenties: The Apocalypse Explained 331)
 In the same:
Jehovah thy Redeemer, and thy Former from the womb, that establisheth the word of His servant, and performeth the counsel of His messengers, saying to Jerusalem, Thou shalt be inhabited, and to the cities of Judah, Ye shall be built, and I will raise up the waste places thereof (Isaiah 44:24, 26).
This, too, treats of the Lord's coming, who is "Jehovah thy Redeemer, and thy Former from the womb;" He is called "Redeemer" because He delivered from hell; and "the Former from the womb" because He regenerates man. A prediction by the prophets respecting Him and respecting the salvation of man is meant by "that establisheth the word of His servant, and performeth the counsel of His messengers;" that those who are of His church will be saved, and will be instructed in the truths of celestial doctrine is meant by "saying to Jerusalem, Thou shalt be inhabited, and to the cities of Judah, Ye shall be built;" "Jerusalem" meaning the church, and "the cities of Judah" the truths of celestial doctrine. That the falsities that destroy the church shall be shaken off is meant by "I will raise up the waste places thereof." It is not said by the Lord that Jerusalem would be inhabited and the cities of Judah built, but that Jerusalem would be destroyed, which was done as is well known.
(Referenties: Isaiah 44:24-26)
 In the same:
And I will bring forth a seed out of Jacob, and out of Judah an Inheri-tor of My mountains; that My chosen may possess it, and My servants dwell there (Isaiah 65:9).
Here "Jacob" and "Judah" do not mean a people from Jacob and a nation from Judah, but a church to be established by the Lord; "Jacob" means the church that is in the good of life, and "Judah" the church that is the good of love to the Lord; thus "Jacob" an external church, and "Judah" an internal church. "Seed" means charity and faith, and "mountains" the goods of love. Those who are in charity are called "chosen," and those who are in truths from the good of love are called "servants," therefore it is said "that My chosen may possess it, and My servants dwell there."
 In Ezekiel:
Judah and the land of Israel were thy traders; they traded in thy market with wheats of Minnith and Pannag, and with honey and oil, and balsam (Ezekiel 27:17).
This was said of Tyre, which signifies the church in respect to the knowledges of truth and good, and thus "Tyre" signifies the knowledges of truth and good belonging to the church; its merchandise and tradings are here treated of, which describe how these knowledges are acquired, here such of them as are acquired from Judah and the land of Israel; and as "Judah" signifies the good of love, and "Israel" the truths from that good, its tradings are said to be with "wheats of Minnith and Pannag, and in honey, and oil, and balsam," because "wheats of Minnith and Pannag" signify truths and goods of the church of all kinds, "honey" signifies the good of love in the natural man, "oil" the good of love in the spiritual man, and "balsam" truths that are grateful from good (see above, n. 375, where this is more fully explained). From the merchandise mentioned in this chapter, when understood in the spiritual sense, what is signified by the different nations there mentioned becomes very evident, thus what is meant by "Judah" and by "Israel," for the merchandise indicates the spiritual meaning.
(Referenties: The Apocalypse Explained 375)
 That "Judah" does not mean the Jewish nation can be seen in Ezekiel 48:8-22, which treats of a new land that was to be distributed among the twelve tribes of Israel, and these tribes are there named, and what part of the land each one was to possess; and much is there said about the tribe of Judah, and that "the sanctuary should be in the midst of it" (verses 8-22); which makes clear that the tribes there mentioned do not mean those tribes, for eleven of them had been scattered, and had become Gentiles, from whom they could not be distinguished, for they had been carried away into perpetual exile. It is evident also that the land there mentioned does not mean a land, but a church, and consequently the tribes there mentioned mean such things as pertain to the church, and "Judah" there means the celestial church, or the church that is in love to the Lord, in which therefore, is the sanctuary.
(Referenties: Ezekiel 48:1)
 The like is meant by "Judah" and "Israel" in David:
Judah became His sanctuary, and Israel His domain (Psalms 114:2).
"Sanctuary" signifies in the highest sense the Lord Himself, and in a relative sense the worship of Him from the good of love; "Israel" signifies the truth of the church from that good; and because truths from good, that is, good by means of truths, have all power, therefore it is said "Israel became His domain. " Because "Judah" signifies the Lord's celestial kingdom, and "Israel" the Lord's spiritual kingdom (as was said above), and the celestial kingdom is what constitutes the priesthood of the Lord in heaven, and the spiritual kingdom the royalty of the Lord (see (Heaven and Hell 24)(Heaven and Hell 226) in the work on Heaven and Hell 24, 226), so in the Word the Lord is called a "King," and in the Gospels:
King of the Jews (Matthew 2:2; John 18:33, 37; 19:19);
and the Lord as "King of the Jews" means the Lord in respect to Divine truth proceeding from the Divine good of His Divine love; therefore "kings" in the Word signify truths that are from good (see above, n. 31.
 In Jeremiah:
Behold the days come that I will sow the house of Israel and the house of Judah with the seed of man and with the seed of the beast; and in which I will make a new covenant with the house of Israel and with the house of Judah. This is the covenant that I will make with the house of Israel after those days, I will give My law in the midst of them, and will write it upon their heart; and I will be to them for God, and they shall be to Me for a people (Jeremiah 31:27, 31, 33, 34).
Here, too, "the days to come" mean the Lord's coming; therefore it is not meant that a new covenant would then be made with the house of Israel and with the house of Judah, but with a new church to be established by the Lord, which is meant by "the house of Israel and the house of Judah," in the midst of whom the law should be given, and should be written on the heart. Everyone knows that this was not done with the house of Israel and with the house of Judah, for they utterly rejected the covenant with the Lord and likewise do so to this day. "Covenant" signifies conjunction with the Lord through love to Him, from which conjunction there is given the law or Divine truth in them, both in their doctrine and in their life, and this is the law in the midst and written 5 on the heart. "To sow the house of Israel and the house of Judah with the seed of man and with the seed of beast" signifies to reform those who are of the new church through truths and goods that are of intelligence and affection, "seed" meaning truth, "man" intelligence, and "beast" the good of affection. That this is the signification of "beast" will be shown in what follows.
(Referenties: Jeremiah 31:33-34)
 In Zechariah:
Many peoples and numerous nations shall come to seek Jehovah of Hosts in Jerusalem, and to entreat the faces of Jehovah. In those days, 6 ten men out of all the tongues of the nations shall take hold of the skirt of a man that is a Jew, saying, We will go with you; for we have heard that God is with you (Zechariah 8:22, 23).
One who does not know that a "Jew" means such as are in love to the Lord and in the truths of doctrine therefrom can easily be led to believe that these things are said of the Jews, and of bringing them into the land of Canaan, and that all others who desire to be saved will then take hold of the skirt of their raiment, praying to be allowed to go with them. But when it is known that this is not said of any introduction into the land of Canaan, to Jerusalem there, and that a "Jew" does not mean those who are of that nation, but that "Jerusalem" means a new church to be established by the Lord, and a "Jew" everyone who is in the good of love to the Lord, and "the skirt of a Jew" means truth from that good, then the signification of all things in this chapter and of these words in particular can be known, for this treats of the calling together of the nations and their drawing near to the church, and a "Jew" means those who acknowledge and love the Lord, and "to take hold of his skirt" signifies a longing to know truth from the Lord, and "ten men out of all the tongues of the nations" mean all, of whatever religion, "ten men" signifying all, and "tongues of the nations" their religious principles.
(Referenties: Zechariah 8:22-23)
 From this it can be seen how far from the truth those have wandered, who believe that at the end of time the Jews will be converted to the Lord and brought back into the land of Canaan. These believe that "land," "Jerusalem," "Israel," and "Judah" mean in the Word the land of Canaan, the city of Jerusalem, the Israelitish people, and the Jewish nation. Those who have hitherto so believed are excusable, because they have known nothing of the spiritual sense of the Word, and therefore have not known that the "land" signifies the church, "Jerusalem" the church in respect to doctrine, "Israel" those who are of the spiritual church, and "Judah" those who are of the celestial church; also that where bringing them into the land of Canaan is treated of in the prophets, bringing the faithful into heaven and into the church is meant. This also took place when the Lord came into the world, for then all those who had lived in the good of charity and had worshiped God under a human form were brought into heaven; these had been preserved under heaven until the Lord came, and when He had glorified His Human they were brought in. These are the ones meant in many passages in the prophetic Word that treat of the captivity of the sons of Israel and Judah, and their being brought back into their land. In these passages those also are meant who were to be brought into the church, and thence into heaven from the earth after the Lord came, not only where the Christian religion is received but everywhere else. Both of these classes are meant in many passages where Israel, Judah and Jerusalem are mentioned, and their being brought into the land is treated of (as in the following: Isaiah 10:21, 22; 11:11, 12; 43:5, 6; 49:10-26; 56:8; 60:4; 61:1-5, 9; Jeremiah 3:12-20; 16:15, 16; 23:7, 8; 30:2-11; 31:1-14, 23-40; 33:6-18; Ezekiel 16:60-62; 20:40-42; 34:11-16; 37:21-28; 39:21-29; Hosea 3:5; Joel 2:18-27; 2:32; Amos 9:12-15 elsewhere).
 The two following may be taken as examples of passages whereby the Jews have persuaded themselves, and also Christians have come to believe, that the Jewish nation is to return into the land of Canaan, and be saved before others. In Isaiah:
Then shall they bring all your brethren out of all nations, an offering unto Jehovah, upon horses, and upon the chariot, and upon covered wagons, and upon mules, and upon swift beasts, to the mountain of My holiness, Jerusalem. As the new heavens and the new earth which I am about to make shall stand before Me, so shall your seed and your name stand (Isaiah 66:20, 22).
(What this signifies see above, n. 355, 405, where they are explained.) "The new heaven and the new earth" mean the heaven and the church formed of those who were to be saved by the Lord, when He had glorified His Human, as was said above.
 In the same:
I will lift up My hand towards the nations, and elevate My ensign to the peoples, that they may bring thy sons in the bosom, and carry thy daughters upon the shoulder. Kings shall be thy nourishers, and princesses thy sucklers; with the face to the earth shall they bow down to thee, and lick the dust of thy feet (Isaiah 49:22, 23).
This whole chapter treats of the coming of the Lord and the salvation of those who receive Him, as is clearly evident from verses 6-9 chapter; consequently it does not treat of the salvation of the Jews, much less of their restoration to the land of Canaan. That the Jewish nation is not meant in the above passages can be seen from the fact that it was the worst nation and at heart idolatrous, and that it was brought back into the land of Canaan not because of any goodness or righteousness of heart, but because of the promise made to their fathers; also that they had no truths and goods of the church, but only falsities and evils, and that for this reason they were rejected and driven out of the land of Canaan; as can be seen from all those passages in the Word in which that nation is described.
 Of what quality that nation was, and what it was to become, namely, that it was the very worst, is described by Moses in his song in these words:
I will hide My face from them, I will see what their posterity will be; for they are 7 a generation of perversions, sons in whom is no faithfulness. I have said, I will hurl them into the extreme corners, I will make the remembrance of them to cease from man. For they are a nation lost of counsel, neither is there any intelligence in them. Their vine is of the vine of Sodom, and of the fields of Gomorrah; their grapes are grapes of gall, their clusters are of bitternesses. Their wine is the poison of dragons, and the cruel gall of asps. Is this not 8 laid up in store with Me, sealed up among My treasures? Mine is vengeance and requital (Deuteronomy 32:20-35).
This describes what the nature of the church is with the Jews, namely that it is in dire falsities from evil. What the church is with them is meant by "their vine is of the vine of Sodom and of the fields of Gomorrah," "vine" signifying the church. The falsities from evil that they possess are meant by "their grapes are grapes of gall, their clusters are of bitternesses, their wine is the poison of dragons and the cruel gall of asps;" "grapes" signify the goods of the church, but "grapes of gall" and "clusters of bitternesses" signify evils from dire falsities; their falsities themselves are meant by "their wine is the poison of dragons and the cruel gall of asps;" "wine" signifies truth from the Word, but "the poison of dragons" and "the gall of asps" signify the monstrous falsity that springs from the falsified truths of the Word. In like manner is that nation described in other parts of the Word (as in Deuteronomy, in the book of Judges, and in the prophets, as in Jeremiah 5:20-31; 7:8-34; 9:2-26; 11:6-17; 13:9-27; 19; 32:30-35; 44:2-24). That this nation was at heart idolatrous is evident from the passages cited, and from many others, as in Jeremiah:
According to the number of thy cities were thy gods, O Judah; and according to the number of the streets of Jerusalem have ye 9 set up altars to burn incense unto Baal (Jeremiah 2:28, 11:13).
 That they were not brought into the land of Canaan on account of any goodness or righteousness of heart, but on account of the promise made to their fathers, see in Moses:
Not for thy righteousness nor for the uprightness of thy heart dost thou come to possess the land, but to establish the word that Jehovah sware unto thy fathers, to Abraham, to Isaac, and to Jacob. Know therefore, that Jehovah thy God giveth thee not this good land to possess it for thy righteousness; for thou art a stiffnecked people (Deuteronomy 9:5, 6).
(Referenties: Deuteronomy 9:5-6)
 That they had no truths and goods of the church, but only falsities and evils is evident from the Word, where their whoredoms and adulteries are treated of (in Jeremiah 3 end; Ezekiel 23 the end). "Whoredoms and adulteries" mean in the Word falsifications of truth and adulterations of good (see above, n. 141, 161); consequently the Lord says that they are:
An adulterous generation (Matthew 12:39; Mark 8:38);
Also that they are full of hypocrisy, iniquity, and uncleanness (Matthew 23:27, 28);
Also that they have falsified the Word by their traditions (Matthew 15:1-6; Mark 7:1-14).
And in plain words in John:
Ye are of your father the devil, and the lusts of your father ye will do. He was a murderer from the beginning, and stood not in the truth, because there is no truth in him. When he speaketh a lie he speaketh from his own, for he is a liar and the father thereof (John 8:44).
"A lie" means falsity from evil; "the devil" the extinction of all good; "a murderer" the extinction of all truth; "father" means both those who are from hell and those who lived from that generation back to the earliest times; "to speak from his own" means to speak from what is innate.
 That thus everything of the church with them was destroyed, and they were therefore rejected, is evident from Isaiah:
The Lord Jehovih of Hosts doth take away from Jerusalem and from Judah the stay and the staff, the whole stay of bread and the whole stay 10 of water, the mighty one and the man of war, the judge and the prophet, and the diviner and the old man. For Jerusalem hath stumbled, and Judah hath fallen; because their tongue and their doings are against Jehovah to rebel against the eyes of His glory (Isaiah 3:1, 2, 8).
"To take away the whole stay of bread and the whole stay of water" signifies to take away all the good of love, and the truth of faith by which there is spiritual life; "bread" meaning the good of love, and "water" the truth of faith, and "stay" and "staff" powers, and from these are all things of spiritual life; "to take away the mighty one and the man of war" signifies to take away all resistance to evils and falsities; "to take away the judge and the prophet" signifies all good and truth of doctrine; "to take away the diviner and the old man" signifies all intelligence and wisdom; "their tongue and their doings are against Jehovah, to rebel against the eyes of His glory" signifies that everything of their doctrine and of their life is utterly opposed to Divine truth; "tongue" meaning doctrine, "doings" life, and "the eyes of Jehovah's glory" the Divine truth; "to rebel" means to be opposed to it.
(Referenties: Isaiah 3:1-2)
 In the same:
What could have been done more to My vineyard? Judge between Me and My vineyard. What could have been done more to My vineyard that I have not done in it? Therefore I expected that it would bring forth grapes, but it brought forth wild grapes. Now I will make known to you what I will do to My vineyard; in taking away its hedge that it may be eaten up, in breaking down its wall that it may be trampled down, I will lay it waste, that there may come up the brier and the bramble; I will even command the clouds that they rain no rain upon it (Isaiah 5:3-6).
The "vineyard" here means the church with that nation; "I expected that it would bring forth grapes, but it brought forth wild grapes," signifies that with that nation in place of the goods of truth of the church there were the evils of falsity; "to take away its hedge that it may be eaten up, to break down the wall that it may be trampled down," signifies the destruction of the church in respect to goods and truths, so that evils and falsities rush in, which are "the brier and the bramble" that should come up; "I will command the clouds that they rain no rain upon it" signifies that with them there is no more any reception of truth and good through the Word out of heaven.
 The destruction of the church with that nation is also treated of in Isaiah (Isaiah 7:17-19, and following verses), in Jeremiah (Jeremiah 1:15), and in many other passages. For this reason that nation was driven out of the land of Canaan, first the Israelitish nation and afterwards the Jewish nation; and this because the land of Canaan signifies the heavenly Canaan, which is heaven and the church. The quality of each of these nations is fully described in the internal sense in Exodus 32 and 33, where the golden calf that they made for themselves is treated of, on account of which Jehovah wished to consume them, and to raise up from Moses another generation (all of which may be seen explained in Arcana Coelestia 10393- 10512, and n. 10523-10557).
 What the quality of the Jewish nation was is described also in the internal sense of Genesis 38, which treats of their origin, which was from a Canaanitish woman, and from whoredom with a daughter-in-law; for there were three stocks of that nation, one from the Canaanitish woman whom Judah took to himself for a wife, and two from Tamar his daughter-in-law, with whom he lay as with a harlot (for Arcana Coelestia 4813-4930 the explanation of which see Arcana Coelestia 4813-4930).
(Referenties: Genesis 38:1)
 What the quality of that nation was is also described by what is said of Judas Iscariot, for he represented the Jewish nation in respect to the church. For the Lord's twelve disciples represented the church of the Lord in general, and each one of them some universal essential of it, and Judas Iscariot represented it such as it was with the Jews. (Besides the above, see what has been written respecting that nation in Arcana Coelestia, as follows: a representative church was instituted with the Jewish nation, but in that nation itself there was no church, n. 4899, 4912, 6304.) Consequently in respect to the nation itself, there was a representative of a church, but not a church, n. 4281, 4288, 4311, 4500, 6304, 7048, 9320, 10396, 10526, 10531, 10698. The Israelitish and Jewish nation was not chosen, but was accepted to represent a church, because of the persistency with which their fathers and Moses urged it, n. 4290, 4293, 7051, 7439, 10430, 10535, 10632. Their worship was merely external, without any internal worship, n. 1200, 3147, 3479, 8871. They knew not at all the internals of worship, nor did they wish to know, n. 301-303, 3479, 4429, 4433, 4680, 4844, 4847, 10396, 10401, 10407, 10694, 10701, 10707. How they regard the internal things of worship, of the church, and of the Word, n. 4865. Their interiors, which are of thought and affection, were filthy, full of the loves of self and the world, and of avarice, n. 3480, 9962, 10454-10457, 10462-10466, 10575. Therefore the internals of the church were not disclosed to them, because they would have profaned them, n. 2520, 3398, 3479, 4289. The Word was altogether closed to them, and is yet, n. 3769. They see the Word from without, and not from within, n. 10549-10551. Consequently when they were in worship their internal was closed, n. 8788, 8806, 9320, 9377, 9380, 9962, 10396, 10401, 10407, 10492, 10498, 10500, 10575, 10629, 10694. Still that nation excelled all others in the ability to keep up a holy external, although the internal was closed, n. 4293, 4311, 4903, 9373, 9377, 9380. Their state at that time, n. Arcana Coelestia 4311. They were preserved for the sake of the Word in the original tongue, and because they could be kept in such a state, n. 3479. Their holy external was miraculously raised up into heaven by the Lord, and in this way the interiors of worship, of the church, and of the Word, were there perceived, n. 3480, 4307, 4311, 6304, 8588, 10493, 10499, 10500, 10602. That this might be done they were forced by external means to observe strictly the rituals and statutes in external form, n. 3147, 4281, 10149. Because of their ability to be in a holy external, without the internal, they were able to represent the holy things of heaven and the church, n. 3479, 3881, 4208, 6306, 6589, 9377, 10430, 10500, 10570. Yet they themselves were not affected by the holy things, n. 3479. It does not matter of what quality the person is who represents, since representation has respect to the thing, not to the person, n. 665, 1097, 1361, 3147, 3881, 4208, 4281, 4288, 4292, 4307, 4444, 4500, 6304, 7048, 7439, 8588, 8788, 8806.
That nation was worse than other nations, their quality described from the Word of both Testaments, n. 4314, 4316, 4317, 4444, 4503, 4750, 4751, 4815, 4820, 4832, 5057, 5998, 7248, 8819, 9320, 10454-10457, 10462-10466. The tribe of Judah sank into worse evil than the other tribes, n. Arcana Coelestia 4815. How cruelly from delight they treated the nations, n. 5057, 7248, 9320. That nation was idolatrous in heart, and worshiped other gods more than others, n. 3732, 4208, 4444, 4825, 5998, 6877, 7401, 8301, 8871, 8882. Their worship viewed in regard to the nation itself, was also idolatrous, being external, without any internal, n. 4281, 4825, 8871, 8882. They worshipped Jehovah only in name, n. 6877, 10559-10561, 10566; and solely because of miracles, n. Arcana Coelestia 4299. Those are mistaken who believe that the Jews are to be converted at the end of the church, and brought back into the land of Canaan, n. 4847, 7051, 8301. Many passages cited from the Word concerning this, which must however be understood according to the internal sense, thus not according to the letter, n. Arcana Coelestia 7051. The Word in respect to the external sense was changed because of that nation, but not in respect to the internal sense, n. 10453, 10461, 10603, 10604. Jehovah appeared to them from Mount Sinai according to their quality, in a consuming fire, in a dense cloud, and in smoke as of a furnace, n. 1861, 6832, 8814, 8819, 9434. The Lord appears to everyone according to his quality, as a vivifying and recreating fire to those who are in good, and as a consuming fire to those who are in evil, n. 934, 1861, 6832, 8814, 8819, 9434, 10551. One origin of this nation was from a Canaanite woman, and the other two from whoredom with a daughter-in-law, n. 1167, 4818, 4820, 4825, 4874, 4899, 4913. These origins signified what their conjunction with the church was, namely, that it was like that with a Canaanite woman and by whoredom with a daughter-in-law, n. 4868, 4874, 4899, 4911, 4913, of their state in another life, n. 939, 940, 5057. Because that nation, although it was such, represented the church, and the Word was written with that nation and respecting it, therefore Divine celestial things were signified by their names, as by Reuben, Simeon, Levi, Judah, Ephraim, Joseph, and the rest; "Judah" in the internal sense signifying the Lord in respect to celestial love, and His celestial kingdom, n. 3654, 3881, 5583, 5603, 5782, 6363. The prophesy of Israel respecting Judah (Genesis 49:8-12), in which the Lord is treated of, explained, n. 6362-6381. The tribe of Judah, and Judea, signify the celestial church, n. 3654, 6364. The twelve tribes represented and thus signified all things of love and faith in the complex, n. 3858, 3926, 4060, 6335; consequently also heaven and the church, n. 6337, 6637, 7836, 7891. Their signification is according to the order in which they are named, n. 3862, 3926, 3939, 4603, et seq., 6337, 6640. The twelve tribes were divided into two kingdoms, that the Jews might represent the celestial kingdom, and the Israelites the spiritual kingdom, n. 8770, 9320. "The seed of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob," signifies the goods and truths of the church, n. 3373, 10445.
1. Photolithograph has "my," as also elsewhere in Swedenborg, but Hebrew has "thy."
2. Photolithograph has "I," but Hebrew has "they," which we also find in AC 9594.
3. This is the Photolithograph, the Hebrew is "saved" or "saving." The latter translation is found in AE 31, 850, and "saved" in AC 2781, Doctrine of the Lord 6.
4. Photolithograph has "and the house of Israel shall go;" the Hebrew has "shall go unto the house of Israel," which is also found in Doctrine of the Lord 4 and AC 3654.
5. Photolithograph for "written" has "I will write."
6. Photolithograph has "in that day;" the Hebrew "those days" is found in AE 455, 675, etc.
7. Photolithograph has "it is," the Hebrew "they are" is found in AE 412; AC 4317, 7051.
8. Photolithograph has "all this is," the Hebrew "is it not" is found in AC 7051, 9320.
9. Photolithograph has "hast thou," the Hebrew "have ye" is found in AE 324, 652.
10. Photolithograph has "staff," but see AE 727.