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Arcana Coelestia #9372

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9372. And He said unto Moses. That this signifies that which concerns the Word in general, is evident from the representation of Moses, as being the Word (of which below); and from the signification of “He said,” as involving those things which follow in this chapter, thus those which concern the Word (see n. 9370). (That Moses represents the Word, can be seen from what has been often shown before about Moses, as from the preface to Genesis 18; and n. 4859, 5922, 6723, 6752, 6771, 6827, 7010, 7014, 7089, 7382, 8601, 8760, 8787, 8805.) Here Moses represents the Word in general, because it is said of him in what follows, that he alone should come near unto Jehovah (verse 2); and also that, being called unto out of the midst of the cloud, he entered into it, and went up the mount (verses 16-18).

(References: Exodus 24:16, 24:18)


[2] In the Word there are many who represent the Lord in respect to truth Divine, or in respect to the Word; but chief among them are Moses, Elijah, Elisha, and John the Baptist. That Moses does so, can be seen in the explications just cited above; that so do Elijah and Elisha, can be seen in the preface to Genesis 18; and n. 2762, 5247; and that John the Baptist does so is evident from the fact that he was “Elias who was to come.” He who does not know that John the Baptist represented the Lord as to the Word, cannot know what all those things infold and signify which are said about him in the New Testament; and therefore in order that this secret may stand open, and that at the same time it may appear that Elias, and also Moses, who were seen when the Lord was transfigured, signified the Word, some things may here be quoted which are spoken about John the Baptist; as in Matthew:

After the messengers of John had departed, Jesus began to speak concerning John, saying, What went ye out into the wilderness to see? a reed shaken by the wind? But what went ye out to see? a man clothed in soft raiment? Behold, they that wear soft things are in kings’ houses. But what went ye out to see? a prophet? Yea, I say unto you, even more than a prophet. This is he of whom it is written, Behold I send Mine angel before Thy face, who shall prepare Thy way before Thee. Verily I say unto you, Among those who are born of women there hath not arisen a greater than John the Baptist; nevertheless he that is less in the kingdom of the heavens is greater than he. All the prophets and the law prophesied until John. And if ye are willing to believe, he is Elias who was to come. He that hath ears to hear, let him hear (Matthew 11:7-15; and also Luke 7:24-28).

No one can know how these things are to be understood, unless he knows that this John represented the Lord as to the Word, and unless he also knows from the internal sense what is signified by “the wilderness” in which he was, also what by “a reed shaken by the wind,” and likewise by “soft raiment in kings’ houses;” and further what is signified by his being “more than a prophet,” and by “none among those who are born of women being greater than he, and nevertheless he that is less in the kingdom of the heavens is greater than he,” and lastly by his being “Elias.” For without a deeper sense, all these words are uttered merely from some comparison, and not from anything of weight.

(References: Arcana Coelestia 2135)


[3] But it is very different when by John is understood the Lord as to the Word, or the Word representatively. Then by “the wilderness of Judea in which John was” is signified the state in which the Word was at the time when the Lord came into the world, namely, that it was “in the wilderness,” that is, it was in obscurity so great that the Lord was not at all acknowledged, neither was anything known about His heavenly kingdom; when yet all the prophets prophesied about Him, and about His kingdom, that it was to endure forever. (That “a wilderness” denotes such obscurity, see n. 2708, 4736, 7313.) For this reason the Word is compared to “a reed shaken by the wind” when it is explained at pleasure; for in the internal sense “a reed” denotes truth in the ultimate, such as is the Word in the letter.

[4] That the Word in the ultimate, or in the letter, is crude and obscure in the sight of men; but that in the internal sense it is soft and shining, is signified by their “not seeing a man clothed in soft raiment, for behold those who wear soft things are in kings’ houses.” That such things are signified by these words, is plain from the signification of “raiment,” or “garments,” as being truths (n. 2132, 2576, 4545, 4763, 5248, 6914, 6918, 9093); and for this reason the angels appear clothed in garments soft and shining according to the truths from good with them (n. 5248, 5319, 5954, 9212, 9216). The same is evident from the signification of “kings’ houses,” as being the abodes of the angels, and in the universal sense, the heavens; for “houses” are so called from good (n. 2233, 2234, 3128, 3652, 3720, 4622, 4982, 7836, 7891, 7996, 7997); and “kings,” from truth (n. 1672, 2015, 2069, 3009, 4575, 4581, 4966, 5044, 6148). Therefore by virtue of their reception of truth from the Lord, the angels are called “sons of the kingdom,” “sons of the king,” and also “kings.”

(References: Arcana Coelestia 2233-2234, 7996-7997)


[5] That the Word is more than any doctrine in the world, and more than any truth in the world, is signified by “what went ye out to see? a prophet? Yea, I say unto you, and more than a prophet;” and by, “there hath not arisen among those who are born of women a greater than John the Baptist;” for in the internal sense “a prophet” denotes doctrine (n. 2534, 7269); and “those who are born,” or are the sons, “of women” denote truths (n. 489, 491, 533, 1147, 2623, 2803, 2813, 3704, 4257).

[6] That in the internal sense, or such as it is in heaven, the Word is in a degree above the Word in the external sense, or such as it is in the world, and such as John the Baptist taught, is signified by, “he that is less in the kingdom of the heavens is greater than he;” for as perceived in heaven the Word is of wisdom so great that it transcends all human apprehension. That the prophecies about the Lord and His coming, and that the representatives of the Lord and of His kingdom, ceased when the Lord came into the world, is signified by, “all the prophets and the law prophesied until John.” That the Word was represented by John, as by Elijah, is signified by his being “Elias who is to come.”

[7] The same is signified by these words in Matthew:

The disciples asked Jesus, Why say the scribes that Elias must first come? He answered and said, Elias must needs first come, and restore all things. But I say unto you, that Elias hath come already, and they knew him not, but did unto him whatsoever they wished. Even so shall the Son of man also suffer of them. And they understood that He spoke to them of John the Baptist (Matthew 17:10-13).

That “Elias hath come, and they knew him not, but did unto him whatsoever they wished” signifies that the Word has indeed taught them that the Lord is to come, but that still they did not wish to comprehend, interpreting it in favor of the rule of self, and thus extinguishing what is Divine in it. That they would do the same with the truth Divine itself, is signified by “even so shall the Son of man also suffer of them.” (That “the Son of man” denotes the Lord as to truth Divine, see n. 2803, 2813, 3704)

[8] From all this it is now evident what is meant by the prophecy about John in Malachi:

Behold I send you Elijah the prophet before the great and terrible day of Jehovah cometh (Malachi 4:5).

Moreover, the Word in the ultimate, or such as it is in the external form in which it appears before man in the world, is described by the “clothing” and “food” of John the Baptist, in Matthew:

John the Baptist, preaching in the wilderness of Judea, had His clothing of camel’s hair, and a leathern girdle about his loins; and his food was locusts and wild honey (Matthew 3:1, 4).

In like manner it is described by Elijah in the second book of Kings:

He was a hairy man, and girt with a girdle of leather about his loins (2 Kings 1:8).

By “clothing,” or a “garment,” when said of the Word, is signified truth Divine there in the ultimate form; by “camel’s hair” are signified memory-truths such as appear there before a man in the world; by the “leathern girdle” is signified the external bond connecting and keeping in order all the interior things; by “food” is signified spiritual nourishment from the knowledges of truth and of good out of the Word; by “locusts” are signified ultimate or most general truths; and by “wild honey” their pleasantness.

[9] That such things are signified by “clothing” and “food” has its origin in the representatives of the other life, where all appear clothed according to truths from good, and where food also is represented according to the desires of acquiring knowledge and growing wise. From this it is that “clothing,” or a “garment,” denotes truth (as may be seen from the citations above; and that “food” or “meat” denotes spiritual nourishment, n. 3114, 4459, 4792, 5147, 5293, 5340, 5342, 5576, 5579, 5915, 8562, 9003; that “a girdle” denotes a bond which gathers up and holds together interior things, n. 9341; that “leather” denotes what is external, n. 3540; and thus “a leathern girdle” denotes an external bond; that “hairs” denote ultimate or most general truths, n. 3301, 5569-5573; that “a camel” denotes memory-knowledge in general, n. 3048, 3071, 3143, 3145, 4156; that “a locust” denotes nourishing truth in the extremes, n. 7643; and that “honey” denotes the pleasantness thereof, n. 5620, 6857, 8056). It is called “wild honey,” or “honey of the field,” because by “a field” is signified the church (n. 2971, 3317, 3766, 7502, 7571, 9139, 9295). He who does not know that such things are signified, cannot possibly know why Elijah and John were so clothed. And yet that these things signified something peculiar to these prophets, can be thought by everyone who thinks well about the Word.

[10] Because John the Baptist represented the Lord as to the Word, therefore also when he spoke of the Lord, who was the Word itself, he said of himself that he was “not Elias, nor the prophet,” and that he was “not worthy to loose the latchet of the Lord’s shoe,” as in John:

In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and God was the Word. And the Word became flesh, and dwelt among us, and we beheld His glory. The Jews from Jerusalem, priests and Levites, asked John who he was. And he confessed, and denied not, I am not the Christ. Therefore they asked him, What then? Art thou Elias? But he said, I am not. Art thou the prophet? He answered, No. They said therefore unto him, Who art thou? He said, I am the voice of one crying in the wilderness, Make straight the way of the Lord, as said Isaiah the prophet. They said therefore, Why then baptizest thou, if thou art not the Christ, nor Elias, nor the prophet? He answered, I baptize with water; in the midst of you standeth one whom ye know not; He it is who is to come after me, who was before me, the latchet of whose shoe I am not worthy to unloose. When he saw Jesus, he said, Behold the Lamb of God, who taketh away the sin of the world! This is He of whom I said, After me cometh a man who was before me; for he was before me (John 1:1, 14, 19-30).

From these words it is plain that when John spoke about the Lord Himself, who was Truth Divine itself, or the Word, he said that he himself was not anything, because the shadow disappears when the light itself appears, that is, the representative disappears when the original itself makes its appearance. (That the representatives had in view holy things, and the Lord Himself, and not at all the person that represented, see n. 665, 1097, 1361, 3147, 3881, 4208, 4281, 4288, 4292, 4307, 4444, 4500, 6304, 7048, 7439, 8588, 8788, 8806.) One who does not know that representatives vanish like shadows at the presence of light, cannot know why John denied that he was Elias and the prophet.

[11] From all this it can now be seen what is signified by Moses and Elias, who were seen in glory, and who spoke with the Lord when transfigured, of His departure which He should accomplish at Jerusalem (Luke 9:29-31); namely, that they signified the Word (“Moses” the historic Word, and “Elias” the prophetic Word), which in the internal sense throughout treats of the Lord, of His coming into the world, and of His departure out of the world; and therefore it is said that “Moses and Elias were seen in glory,” for “glory” denotes the internal sense of the Word, and the “cloud” its external sense (see the preface to Genesis 18, and n. 5922, 8427).

(References: Arcana Coelestia 2135; Exodus 24:1-2)

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Arcana Coelestia #9093

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9093. And they shall divide the silver of it. That this signifies that the truth thereof shall be dissipated, is evident from the signification of “dividing,” as being to banish and dissipate (see n. 6360, 6361); and from the signification of “silver,” as being truth (n. 1551, 2048, 5658, 6112, 6914, 6917, 7999). That “to divide” denotes to dissipate, is because if those things which have been associated together are divided, they are also scattered, as he who divides his mind destroys it. For the mind of man is an association of two parts, one part being called the understanding, the other the will. He who divides these two parts scatters the things which belong to one part, for one part must live from the other; consequently the other also perishes. It is the same with him who divides truth from good, or what is the same, faith from charity. He who does this destroys both. In a word, all things which ought to be united in a one, if divided perish.

(References: Arcana Coelestia 6360-6361)


[2] This division is meant by the Lord’s words in Luke:

No one can serve two masters; for either he will hate the one, and love the other; or else he will prefer the one, and despise the other. Ye cannot serve God and mammon (Luke 16:13).

That is, by faith serve the Lord, and by love the world; thus acknowledge truth, and do evil. He who does this has a divided mind, from which comes its destruction. From all this it is evident whence it is that “to divide” denotes to dissipate; as is also evident in Matthew:

The lord of that servant shall come in a day when he expecteth not, and in an hour when he knoweth not, and shall divide him, and appoint him his portion with the hypocrites (Matthew 24:50-51); where “to divide” denotes to separate and remove from goods and truths (n. 4424), thus to dissipate.

(References: Luke 19:11-19, 22:24-27, 22:30)


[3] In Moses:

Cursed be their anger, for it was vehement; and their wrath, for it was hard. I will divide them in Jacob, and scatter them in Israel (Genesis 49:7); where Israel speaks prophetically of Simeon and Levi. By Simeon and Leviticus are there represented those who are in faith separate from charity (n. 6352), by Jacob and Israel the church external and internal, and also the external and internal man (n. 4286, 4598, 5973, 6360, 6361). “To divide them in Jacob” denotes to expel them from the external church; and “to scatter them in Israel” denotes from the internal church; thus to dissipate the goods and the truths of the church appertaining to them.

(References: Arcana Coelestia 6360-6361)


[4] That “dividing” has this signification is also plain from the words written on the wall when Belshazzar king of Babel, together with his lords, his wives, and his concubines, drank wine from the vessels of gold and of silver which belonged to the temple that was at Jerusalem. The writing was:

Numbered, numbered, weighed, and divided (Daniel 5:2-4, 25-28); where “divided” means separated from the kingdom. In this passage it is plain how all things were at that time representative. In it is described the profanation of good and truth, which is signified by “Babel” (that Babel” denotes profanation, see n. 1182, 1283, 1295, 1304-1308, 1321, 1322, 1326); “vessels of gold and of silver” denote the goods of love and the truths of faith from the the Lord, (n. 1551, 1552, 5658, 6914, 6917). Profanation is signified by “drinking therefrom, and at the same time praising the gods of gold, of silver, of brass, of iron, of wood, and of stone,” as we read in the fourth verse of the chapter, which denote evils and falsities in a series (n. 4402, 4544, 7873, 8941). By the “temple at Jerusalem” from which the vessels came, is signified in the supreme sense the Lord, in the representative sense His kingdom and church (n. 3720). The kingdom of Belshazzar being “divided” signified the dissipation of good and truth, and he himself being “slain that night” signified the loss of the life of truth and good, thus damnation; for “to be divided” denotes to be dissipated; “a King” denotes the truth of good (n. 1672, 2015, 2069, 3009, 3670, 4575, 4581, 4966, 5044, 5068, 6148); the like is signified by “kingdom” (n. 1672, 2547, 4691); “to be slain” denotes to be deprived of the life of truth and good (n. 3607, 6767, 8902); and the “night” in which he was slain denotes a state of evil and falsity (n. 2353, 7776, 7851, 7870, 7947). From this it is plain that all things there were representative.

(References: Arcana Coelestia 1321-1322, 1551-1552; Daniel 5:25, Daniel 5:28)


[5] We read in the following passages:

They divided My garments among them, and upon My vesture did they cast a lot (Psalms 22:18).

They divided His garments, casting a lot; that it might be fulfilled which was spoken by the prophet (Matthew 27:35).

The soldiers took His garments, and made four parts; and the tunic, the tunic was without seam, woven from the top throughout. They said therefore, Let us not divide it, but cast lots for it, whose it shall be; that the Scripture might be fulfilled (John 19:23-24).

He who reads these words and knows nothing of the internal sense of the Word, is not aware that anything secret lies hidden in them, when yet in each word there is a Divine secret. The secret was that Divine truths had been dissipated by the Jews, for the Lord was the Divine truth; and hence He is called “the Word” (John 1). “The Word” denotes Divine truth; His garments represented truths in the external form; and His tunic, truths in the internal form; the division of the garments represented the dissipation of the truths of faith by the Jews. (That “garments” denote truths in the external form, see n. 2576, 5248, 5954, 6918; also that “a tunic” denotes truth in the internal form, n. 4677.) Truths in the external form are such as are those of the Word in the literal sense; but truths in the internal form are such as are those of the Word in the spiritual sense. The division of the garments into four parts signified total dissipation, in like manner as the division in Zechariah 14:4, and in other passages; likewise the division into two parts, as we read of the veil of the temple (Matthew 27:51; Mark 15:38). The rending of the rocks also at that time (Matthew 27:51) represented the dissipation of all things of faith, for a “rock” denotes the Lord as to faith, consequently it denotes faith from the Lord.

(References: Daniel 5:25, Daniel 5:28; Exodus 21:35; John 1:1)

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Apocalypse Explained #328

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328. For thou wast slain, and hast redeemed us to God in thy blood. That this signifies the separation of all from the Divine, and conjunction with the Divine by the acknowledgment of Him, and by the reception of Divine truth from Him, is evident from the signification of being slain, when predicated of the Lord, as denoting the separation of all from the Divine, for to be slain in the Word signifies to be spiritually slain, that is, to perish by evils and falsities, as may be seen above, n. 315; and because the Lord also is not with them, for He is denied, therefore by being slain, when said of the Lord, is signified not to be acknowledged (as above, n. 315), and also to be denied; and when the Lord is denied, He is, as it were, slain with them, and they are thereby separated from the Divine. For those who deny the Lord, that is, His Divine, separate themselves altogether from the Divine, for He is the God of the universe, and He is one with the Father, also the Father is in Him and He in the Father, and no one cometh to the Father but by Him, as the Lord Himself teaches; therefore those in the church who do not acknowledge His Divine, are altogether separated from the Divine, and more so they who in heart deny it.

(References: Revelation 5:9; The Apocalypse Explained 315)


[2] To deny it is here meant by slaying Him in themselves. This is also meant in the internal sense of the Word by their crucifying the Lord (as may be seen above, n. 83, 195); for the Jews, with whom the church then was, denied that He was the Christ, and consequently separated themselves from the Divine, and therefore they put Him to death, or crucified Him. Even at this day those do this who deny His Divine; whence it is a common remark of preachers, that they who lead an evil life, and blaspheme Him, crucify Him in themselves. This, therefore, is what is here signified by, "Thou wast slain"; and from the signification of, "Thou hast redeemed us to God by thy blood," as denoting that He would conjoin us to the Divine by the acknowledgment of Him, and by the reception of Divine truth from Him. For that to redeem signifies to liberate from hell, and thereby to take them to Himself, and thus conjoin them to the Divine, will be evident from the passages in the Word, where to redeem and redemption are mentioned, which will be adduced below; and the Lord's blood signifies the Divine truth proceeding from Him; and because a man by the reception of Divine truth from the Lord is liberated from hell and conjoined to Him, therefore by, "Thou hast redeemed us to God by thy blood," there is signified conjunction with the Divine by the reception of the Divine truth from Him.

(References: The Apocalypse Explained 83, 195)


[3] That this sense is concealed in those words, no one can see who confines himself to the sense of the letter, for in that sense nothing else can be seen, except that by, "Thou wast slain," is meant crucified; and by, "Thou hast redeemed by thy blood," is meant that He has reconciled us to His Father by the passion of the cross; and because that sense is the sense of the letter, and it has remained unknown hitherto, that in every particular of the Word there is an internal sense which is spiritual, therefore from the sense of the letter they have made it a doctrine of the church, that the essential Divine which they call the Father, rejected the whole human race, and that the Lord, by the passion of the cross, made reconciliation, and thus that those for whom He intercedes are saved. How can he, whose understanding is in some measure enlightened, help seeing that this doctrinal is contrary to the Divine itself? For the Divine never rejects any man, for He loves all, and thence desires the salvation of all. And it is also contrary to the Divine itself to be reconciled by the shedding of blood, and to be brought back to mercy through the consideration of the passion of the cross which His own Son sustained, and that thence He has mercy, and not from Himself; and although this is contrary to the Divine essence, still they call it essential faith or justifying faith to believe this.

[4] Who also from enlightened reason can suppose that the sins of the whole world were transferred to the Lord, and taken away from every one who has that faith alone? And yet this is the doctrine of those who do not think beyond the sense of the letter. But yet, the angels who are with men, do not perceive it according to that sense, but according to the spiritual sense, for they are spiritual, and hence they think spiritually and not naturally. By redeeming man by His blood, they understand the freeing man from hell, and so claiming and conjoining him to Himself by the acknowledgment of Him, and by the reception of Divine truth from Him. That this is the case the church also may know; for it may know that no one can be conjoined to the Divine by blood, but by the reception of the Divine truth, and the application of it to the life.

[5] The Lord's deliverance [of man] from hell was accomplished by His assuming the Human, and thereby subjugating the hells, and reducing all things in the heavens into order, which could have been done in no other way than from the Human, for the Divine operates from primaries by means of ultimates, thus from Himself by those things that are from Himself in ultimates, these being in the Human. This is the operation of the Divine power in heaven and in the world. (But concerning this matter some particulars may be seen above, n. 41; also in the work concerning Heaven and Hell, n. 315; and in the Arcana Coelestia, n. 5897, 6239, 6451, 6465, 8603, 9215, 9216, 9824, 9828, 9836, 10,044, 10,099, 10,329, 10,335, 10,548.) The Lord's deliverance [of man] from hell was also accomplished by His glorifying His Human, that is, by making it Divine, for thus and in no other way could the hells be kept in subjection for ever; and because the subjugation of the hells and the glorification of His Human was accomplished by temptations admitted into His Human, the passion of His cross was the last temptation and complete victory. By bearing the sins of all, is signified that He admitted into Himself all the hells when tempted, for all sins and evils come up therefrom, and enter into and are with man; therefore by bearing them is signified His admitting the hells into Himself when tempted; and by His taking away sins, is signified that He subjugated the hells, in order that evils may thence no more arise in those who acknowledge the Lord and receive Him, that is, the Divine truth proceeding from Him in faith and life, and are thus conjoined to the Lord. It is said that by "Thou hast redeemed us to God by thy blood," is signified conjunction with the Divine by the acknowledgment of Him, and the reception of Divine truth from Him; and because the church is founded upon this, I wish in a few words to state how conjunction is thereby effected.

(References: Arcana Coelestia 5897, 6239, 6451, 6465, 8603, 9215-9216, 9824, 9828, 9836, 10044, 10099, 10329, 10335, 10548; Ezekiel 18:12; Heaven and Hell 315; The Apocalypse Explained 41)


[6] The chief thing is to acknowledge the Lord, His Divine in the Human, and His Omnipotence in saving the human race; for by that acknowledgment man is conjoined to the Divine, because there is no Divine elsewhere; for there is the Father, the Father being in Him, and He in the Father, as the Lord Himself teaches; therefore those who look to another Divine near Him, or at His side, as those are accustomed to do who pray to the Father to have mercy for the sake of the Son, turn aside from the way and worship a Divine elsewhere than in Him. And, moreover, they think nothing at that time concerning the Lord's Divine, but solely concerning His Human, which nevertheless cannot be separated, for the Divine and the Human are not two but a single person conjoined like soul and body, according to the doctrine received by the churches from the Athanasian Creed. To acknowledge the Divine in the Lord's Human, or the Divine Human, is the chief thing of the church, by this there is conjunction; and because it is the primary it is also the first thing of the church. Because this is the first thing of the church, the Lord therefore, when He was in the world, so often asked those whom He healed, "Believest thou that I am able to do this?" and when they answered that they did believe, He said, "Be it done according to your faith." This He so often asked that they might first believe that He had Divine Omnipotence from His Divine Human, for without that faith the church could not be begun, and without that faith they could not be conjoined with the Divine, but must have been separated from it, and, consequently, they could not receive any thing good from Him.

[7] Afterwards the Lord taught how they would be saved, namely, that they should receive Divine truth from Him; and this is received, when it is applied to, and implanted in, the life by doing it; therefore the Lord so often said, that they should do His words. From these considerations it is evident that these two things, namely, to believe in the Lord and to do His words, make one, and that they can by no means be separated; for he who does not the Lord's words does not believe in Him; nor also does he believe in Him who supposes that he does believe in Him and does not do His words; for the Lord is in His words, that is, in His truths, and from them the Lord imparts faith to man. From these few remarks, it can be known that conjunction with the Divine is effected by the acknowledgment of the Lord and by the reception of Divine truth from Him. This, therefore, is what is signified by the Lamb redeeming us to God by His blood. That by the Lamb is signified the Lord as to the Divine Human, may be seen above, n. 314. Concerning this circumstance more may be seen in the Doctrine of the New Jerusalem, n. 293-297; and from the Arcana Coelestia there, n. 300-306, as also at the end of this work, where the Lord is particularly treated of. That blood signifies the Divine truth proceeding from the Lord, and that salvation through His blood signifies through the reception of Divine truth from Him, will be explained in the following article.

(References: The Apocalypse Explained 314; The New Jerusalem and its Heavenly Doctrine 293-297, The New Jerusalem and its Heavenly Doctrine 300-306)


[8] That to redeem, however, signifies to deliver and set free, and when predicated of the Lord to deliver and free from hell, and thus to claim and conjoin to Himself, is evident from the following passages. In Isaiah:

"Who cometh from Edom, travelling in the multitude of his strength? I who speak in justice, mighty to save. For the day of vengeance is in my heart, and the year of my redeemed is come. In all their want he suffered want, and the angel of his faces preserved them; in his love and his pity he redeemed them; and he took them, and carried them all the days of eternity" (lxiii. 1, 4, 9).

The Lord is here treated of, and His temptation-combats, by which He subjugated the hells. By Edom, from which He cometh, is signified His Human, and also by the angel of His faces. His Divine power from which He fought, is signified by travelling in the multitude of His strength; the casting down into hell of those who rose up against Him, and the elevation of the good into heaven, are meant by justice, therefore, by these words, "I who speak in justice, mighty to save. For the day of vengeance is in my heart, and the year of my redeemed is come." His Divine love from which He did those things, is described by, "In all their want he suffered want, and the angel of his faces preserved them; in his love and his pity he redeemed them; and he took them, and carried them all the days of eternity." Hence it is evident that by the redeemed and by those whom He redeemed, are signified those whom He delivered and saved from the fury of those who are from hell.

(References: Isaiah 63:1, 63:4, 63:9)


[9] In the same:

"Thus said Jehovah thy Creator, O Jacob, and thy Former, O Israel; [Fear not;] for I have redeemed thee, I have called thee by thy name; thou art mine" (xliii. 1).

That by redeeming is signified to free from hell, and to claim and conjoin to Himself, so that they may be His, is evident; for it is said, "I have redeemed thee, I have called thee by thy name; thou art mine," because this is effected by reformation and regeneration from the Lord, it is therefore said, "Jehovah thy Creator, O Jacob, and thy Former, O Israel." He is called Creator because by to create in the Word is signified to regenerate, as may be seen above, n. 294. Jacob and Israel signify those who belong to the church, and are in truths from good.

(References: Isaiah 43:1; The Apocalypse Explained 294)


[10] In the same:

"Say ye to the daughter of Zion, Behold! thy salvation cometh; behold! His reward is with him, and the worth of the trouble is before him; And they shall call them, A people of holiness, the redeemed of Jehovah" (lxii. 11, 12).

Here also the Lord's advent is treated of, and the establishment of the church by Him. The daughter of Zion signifies the church which is in love to the Lord; His advent is meant by "Behold! thy salvation cometh; behold! his reward is with him, and the worth of the trouble is before him"; those who are reformed and regenerated by Him are meant by the redeemed of Jehovah.

(References: Isaiah 62:11-12)


[11] The reason why they are called the redeemed is, because they are freed through regeneration from evils, and are claimed by and conjoined to the Lord. In the same:

"No lion shall be there, and the ravenous of the wild beasts shall not be found therein; but the redeemed shall walk there. Thus the redeemed of Jehovah shall return, and come to Zion with singing, the joy of eternity upon their head" (xxxv. 9, 10).

Here also the Lord's advent is treated of, and the salvation of those who suffer themselves to be regenerated by the Lord. That there shall not be with them falsity destroying truth, nor evil destroying good, is signified by "no lion shall be there, and the ravenous of the wild beasts shall not be found therein"; that they are delivered from evils and freed from falsities is signified by, "the redeemed shall walk there; thus the redeemed of Jehovah shall return"; their eternal felicity is signified by, "They shall come to Zion with singing, and the joy of eternity upon their head"; Zion denotes the church. What singing signifies may be seen just above, n. 326. There are two words in the original tongue by which to redeem is expressed; one signifies deliverance from evils, the other liberation from falsities; those two expressions are here. Hence it is said, the redeemed shall walk, and the redeemed of Jehovah shall return. Those two expressions are also used in Hosea (xiii. 14); and in David (Ps. lxix. 18; cvii. 6).

(References: Hosea 13:14; Isaiah 30:9-10, Isaiah 35:9-10; Psalms 69:18, Psalms 107:2; The Apocalypse Explained 326)


[12] That to redeem signifies to deliver from evils and to free from falsities, and also to deliver and free from hell, is, because all the evils and falsities with a man arise from hell; and because they are removed through reformation and regeneration by the Lord, reformation and regeneration also are signified by to redeem or by redemption; as in the following passages.

(References: Psalms 49:15)


[13] In David:

"Arise for our help, and redeem us for thy mercy's sake" (Ps. xliv. 26).

To redeem [is here used] for to set free and to reform.

Again:

"God hath redeemed my soul out of the hand of hell; and he shall receive me" (Ps. xlix. 15).

To redeem from the power of hell, means to free; to receive me, to claim and to conjoin to Himself, or to make them His, as servants sold and redeemed.

In Hosea:

"Out of the hand of hell will I redeem them; I will redeem them from death" (xiii. 14).

To redeem means to deliver and free from damnation.

In David:

"Bless Jehovah, O my soul, bless his holy name; who hath redeemed thy life from the pit" (ciii. 1-4).

To redeem from the pit, means to free from damnation, the pit denoting damnation.

Again:

"Draw nigh unto my soul, redeem it, and because of mine enemies redeem me" (lxix. 18).

To draw nigh to the soul signifies to conjoin it to Himself; to redeem it signifies to deliver from evils; redeem me because of mine enemies, signifies to free from falsities, enemies denoting falsities.

Again:

"Let the redeemed of Jehovah say so, whom he hath redeemed out of the hand of the restraining enemy" (Ps. cvii. 2).

The redeemed of Jehovah are those who are delivered from evils; "whom he hath redeemed out of the hand of the restraining enemy," are those whom He has freed from falsities.

In Jeremiah:

"I am with thee, to keep thee and to deliver thee; and I will deliver thee out of the hand of the evil, and I will redeem thee from the hand of the violent" (xv. 20, 21).

To redeem out of the hand of the violent means to liberate from falsities which offer violence to the good of charity; the violent signify those falsities, consequently, also those who are in them.

(References: Hosea 13:14; Isaiah 13:14; Jeremiah 15:20-21; Psalms 44:26, 49:15, Psalms 69:18, Psalms 103:1, 103:4, 107:2)


[14] In David

"Let Israel hope in Jehovah, for with Jehovah there is mercy, and in him is plenteous redemption, and he shall redeem Israel from all his iniquities" (Ps. cxxx. 7, 8).

Redemption here means liberation; Israel, the church; and to reform those who are of the church, and free them from falsities, is signified by, "He shall redeem Israel from all his iniquities."

Again:

"Let integrity and uprightness guard me; for I have waited for thee. Redeem Israel, O God, out of all his distresses" (Ps. xxv. 21, 22).

To redeem Israel from distresses, means also here to free those who belong to the church from falsities which cause distress.

In Isaiah:

"Is my hand shortened, that there is no redemption, or is there no power in me to deliver?" (l. 2).

That redemption denotes liberation is evident, for it is also said, "Is my hand shortened, or is there no power in me to deliver?" In David:

"God shall hear my voice; he shall redeem my soul with peace " (Ps. lv. 16-18).

To redeem here means to free.

Again:

"Unto thee will I sing with the harp, thou Holy One of Israel. My lips shall praise; and my soul, which thou hast redeemed" (Ps. lxxi. 22, 23).

To redeem the soul here means to free from falsities; for by soul in the Word is signified the life of faith, and by heart the life of love; therefore to redeem the soul signifies to free from falsities, and to give the life of faith.

(References: Isaiah 50:2; Psalms 25:21-22, Psalms 55:17-18, Psalms 71:22-23, Psalms 130:7-8)


[15] And again:

"Redeem me from the oppression of man, that I may keep thy commandments" (Ps. cxix. 134).

To deliver from the oppression of man signifies to free from the falsities of evil, for man signifies the spiritual affection of truth and thence wisdom, and in the opposite sense, as here, the lust of falsity, and thence insanity; the oppression thereof, signifies the destruction of truth by falsities.

So again:

"Into thine hand I commend my spirit; thou hast redeemed me, O Jehovah, God of truth" (Ps. xxxi. 5).

To redeem here means to free from falsities and to reform by truths. Because this is signified by to redeem, therefore it is also said, "O Jehovah, God of truth."

And again:

"Mischief is in the hands of sinners, and their right hand is full of bribes. But as for me, I walk in mine integrity; redeem me, and be merciful unto me" (Ps. xxvi. 9-11).

To redeem here means to free from falsities, and to reform.

So again:

"He shall redeem their soul from deceit and violence; and precious shall their blood be in his eyes. And he shall live, and he shall give him of the gold of Sheba; and he shall pray for him continually; daily shall he bless him" (Ps. lxxii. 14, 15).

The needy are here treated of, by whom are signified those who desire truths from a spiritual affection. Concerning them it is said, that "He shall redeem their soul from deceit and violence," by which is signified liberation from evils and falsities which destroy the goods of love and the truths of faith; the reception of Divine truth by them is signified by, "precious shall their blood be in his eyes"; their reformation is described by, "He shall live, and he shall give him of the gold of Sheba; and he shall pray for him continually; daily shall he bless him." The gold of Sheba denotes the good of charity; to pray for him continually, signifies that they shall continually be withheld from falsities and kept in truths; and daily shall he bless him, signifies that they shall continually be in the good of charity and faith, for this is the Divine benediction, and this is to pray for him continually.

(References: Psalms 26:9-11, 26:10-11, 31:5, Psalms 72:14-15, Psalms 119:134)


[16] In Isaiah:

"Thus said Jehovah, Ye are sold for nought, and ye shall not be redeemed by silver; into Egypt have my people descended to dwell there as strangers, but Asshur oppressed them for nothing" (lii. 3, 4).

The desolation of truths by scientifics, and by the reasonings of the natural man from them, is here treated of; for by, "into Egypt have my people descended to dwell there as strangers," is signified the instruction of the natural man by means of scientifics and by the knowledges of truth. Egypt signifies scientifics and also knowledges, but such as are from the sense of the letter of the Word; and to dwell as a stranger signifies to be instructed. By Assyria oppressing them for nothing, is signified the falsification of those things by the reasonings of the natural man. Assyria signifies reasonings, and to oppress for nothing signifies falsification; for falsities are nothing, because there is nothing of truth in them, which is the case when the natural man, separate from the spiritual, draws conclusions; hence it is that it is preceded by, "Ye are sold for nought; and ye shall not be redeemed by silver." To be sold for nought signifies, from himself, or from the proprium, to alienate oneself, and to renounce falsities; and not to be redeemed by silver, signifies that they could not be delivered from the falsities of evil by truth; money signifies truth, and to be redeemed signifies to be delivered from the falsities of evil, and to be reformed.

(References: Isaiah 52:3-4)


[17] In Zechariah:

"I will gather them together, because I will redeem them; then shall they be multiplied; and I will sow them among the peoples; and I will bring them back out of the land [of Egypt], and will gather them together out of Assyria, and to the land of Gilead, and to Lebanon will I bring them" (x. 8-10).

The subject here treated of is the restoration of the church, and reformation by means of truths from good; and by, "I will gather them, because I will redeem them," is signified the dispersion of falsities, and reformation by truths; therefore it is said, "they shall be multiplied, and I will sow them among the peoples," by which is signified the multiplication and insemination of truth from good; to bring them back out of the land of Egypt, and to gather them from Assyria, signifies, to lead them away from the falsification of the truth which they have by means of reasonings from scientifics (as may be seen above). "To bring them to the land of Gilead, and to Lebanon," signifies, to the good of the church, which is the good of charity, and to the good and truth of faith; the former is the land of Gilead, and the latter Lebanon.

(References: Zechariah 10:8-10)


[18] From these things it is evident what is signified, in the spiritual sense, by Jehovah leading the people out of Egypt and redeeming them; as in Moses:

"I will free you from bondage; and I will redeem you with a stretched-out arm, and with great judgments" (Exod. vi. 6).

So again:

"I brought you out of Egypt with a stretched-out arm, and I redeemed you out of the house of servants" (Deut. ix. 26-29; xiii. 5; xv. 15; xxiv. 18).

"Thou in thy mercy hast led forth thy people whom thou hast redeemed; thou hast brought them in the strength of thy hand to the dwelling of thy holiness" (Exod. xv. 13).

And in Micah:

"I made thee ascend out of the land of Egypt, and I redeemed thee out of the house of bondage" (vi. 4).

In the sense of the letter it means here that they were, by the Divine power, brought out of Egypt, where they had been made servants; but, in the internal or spiritual sense, no such thing is meant, but that those who belong to the church, who are those who are reformed by the Lord, by truths and by a life according to them, are delivered and freed from evils and the falsities thence, for these are the things that make man a slave; this is the spiritual sense of those words, in which the angels are, while man is in the sense of the letter.

(References: Deuteronomy 7:8, 9:26-29, 13:5, 15:15, 24:18; Exodus 6:6, Exodus 15:13; Micah 6:4)


[19] The angels also by redemption understand deliverance from evils, and liberation from falsities, in the following passages.

In Moses:

"I will put redemption between my people and Pharaoh's people" (Exod. viii. 23).

In David:

"He hath sent redemption unto his people; he hath commanded his covenant for ever; holy and reverend is his name" (Ps. cxi. 9).

In Matthew:

"What is a man profited, if he shall gain the whole world, but shall lose his soul? or what shall a man give as a price sufficient for the redemption of his soul?" (xvi. 26; Mark viii. 36, 37).

(References: Exodus 8:23; Mark 8:36-37; Matthew 16:26; Psalms 111:9)


[20] Redemption here means deliverance from damnation. From these considerations it is evident what is signified by the Lord redeeming mankind, namely, that He has delivered and freed them from hell, and from the evils and falsities which thence continually rise up and bring man into condemnation, and that He continually delivers them and frees them. This deliverance and liberation was brought about by His subjugating the hells; and the continual deliverance and liberation, by His having glorified His Human, that is, having made it Divine, for thereby He keeps the hells continually in subjection; this, therefore, is what is signified by His redeeming man, and by His being called in the Word a Redeemer; as in the following passages.

In Isaiah:

"Fear not, thou worm of Jacob, and ye dying men of Israel; I am he who helpeth thee, and thy Redeemer, the Holy One of Israel" (xli. 14).

In the same prophet:

"Thus said Jehovah, the Redeemer of Israel, his Holy One, because of Jehovah that is faithful, the Holy One of Israel, who hath chosen thee" (xlix. 7).

Again:

"Our Redeemer is Jehovah Zebaoth; his name, the Holy One of Israel" (xlvii. 4).

Again:

"Thus said Jehovah, your Redeemer, the Holy One of Israel" (xliii. 14).

Again:

"That all flesh may know that I Jehovah am thy Saviour and thy Redeemer, the Mighty One of Jacob" (xlix. 26).

Again:

"That thou mayest know that I Jehovah am thy Saviour and thy Redeemer, the Mighty One of Jacob" (lx. 16).

By the Holy One of Israel, and by the Mighty One of Jacob, who in these passages is called the Redeemer, is meant the Lord as to the Divine Human, and by Jehovah His essential Divine. The reason why the Lord as to His Divine Human is called the Holy One of Israel, and the Strong and Mighty One of Jacob, is, because Israel and Jacob signify the church, thus those who are regenerated and reformed, that is, who are redeemed by the Lord, for these alone belong to the church, or constitute the Lord's church.

(References: Isaiah 41:14, Isaiah 43:14, 47:4, Isaiah 49:7, 49:26, Isaiah 60:16)


[21] That the Lord's Divine Human is what is called holy, is evident in Luke:

The angel said unto Mary, "The Holy Spirit shall come upon thee, and the power of the Highest shall overshadow thee; therefore that holy thing which shall be born of thee shall be called the Son of God" (i. 35).

And that the Lord as to the Divine Human is the Strong and Mighty One of Jacob, in the same:

The angel said unto Mary, "Behold, thou shalt conceive in thy womb, and bring forth a son. He shall be great, and he shall reign in the house of Jacob for ever, and of His Kingdom there shall be no end" (i. 30-33).

By the house of Jacob is meant the Lord's church; that it is not the Jewish nation, is evident.

(References: Luke 1:30-33, 1:35)


[22] Because the Lord's Human was equally Divine as His essential Divine, which assumed the Human, therefore also Jehovah is called the Redeemer in the following passages.

In Isaiah:

"Thus said Jehovah thy Redeemer, the Holy One of Israel, I am Jehovah thy God" (xlviii. 17).

And again:

"Jehovah of hosts is his name; and thy Redeemer the Holy One of Israel; the God of the whole earth shall he be called" (liv. 5).

In David:

"O Jehovah my Rock, and my Redeemer" (Ps. xix. 14).

In Jeremiah:

"Their Redeemer is strong; Jehovah of hosts is his name" (l. 34).

In Isaiah:

"Thou, O Jehovah, art our Father, our Redeemer; thy name is from everlasting" (lxiii. 16).

From these considerations it is now evident how what the Lord said is to be understood:

The Son of man hath come "that he may give his soul a redemption for many" (Matt. xx. 28; Mark x. 45).

That is, that they might be freed and delivered from hell; for the passion of the cross was the last combat and full victory, by which He subjugated the hells, and by which He glorified His Human. (As may be seen in the Doctrine of the New Jerusalem, n. 293-297; and 300-306.)

(References: Isaiah 35:9-10, Isaiah 48:17, Isaiah 54:5, Isaiah 63:16; Jeremiah 50:34; Mark 10:45; Matthew 20:28; Psalms 19:14; Revelation 5:9; The New Jerusalem and its Heavenly Doctrine 293-297, The New Jerusalem and its Heavenly Doctrine 300-306)

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From Swedenborg's Works

References from Swedenborg's unpublished works:

Apocalypse Explained 320, 329, 340, 374, 375, 376, 655, 748, 750, 860, 960, 966, 973, 975, 1049

Other New Christian Commentary

Thanks to the Swedenborg Society for the permission to use this translation.


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