701. As the ark is called the ark of the covenant, we have to show from the Word that it was called the ark of the covenant because it contained the law. And the law, which in a broad sense means the Word, signifies the Lord as to the Divine Truth, which is the Word, thus the Divine Truth or Word which is from the Lord, and in which the Lord is, because all Divine Truth proceeds from Him. When this is received by man, conjunction with the Lord takes place, and it is this conjunction that is signified by covenant. How conjunction of the Lord with man, and of man with the Lord, is effected, shall also be explained in a few words. The Lord flows in continually with all men with light that enlightens, and with the love of knowing and understanding truths, and of willing and doing them; and as that light and that affection flow in continually from the Lord, it follows that a man becomes rational so far as he receives that light, and he becomes wise, and is led by the Lord in the degree that he receives that affection. That affection with its light draws to itself and conjoins to itself the truths which a man from infancy has learnt from the Word, from doctrine from the Word, and from preaching; for all affection desires to be nourished by the knowledges (cognitiones) which harmonize with it. From this conjunction man's spiritual love or affection is formed, by means of which he is conjoined to the Lord, that is, by means of which the Lord conjoins man to Himself.
 But in order that man may receive that light and that affection, freedom of choice has been given to him, which, because it is from the Lord, is also His gift with man, and is never taken away from him; for that freedom belongs to man's affection or love, consequently also to his life. Man, from freedom, can think and will what is evil, and also think and will what is good. So far, therefore, as a man from that freedom, which belongs to his love, and thus to his life, thinks falsities and wills evils, which are contrary to the truths and goods of the Word, so far he is not conjoined to the Lord; but so far as he thinks truths and wills goods, which are from the Word, so far he is conjoined to the Lord, and the Lord causes those truths and goods to be of His love, and thus of His life. From these things it is evident that this conjunction is reciprocal, namely, of the Lord with man, and of man with the Lord; such is the conjunction meant in the Word by covenant.
 He who believes that man can do nothing towards his own salvation, because the light to see truths and the affection to do them, and also the freedom to think and will them, are from the Lord, and nothing of these from man, is mistaken. But since those things appear to man to be in himself, and, when they are thought and willed, to be from himself, therefore, because of that appearance, man ought to think and will them as from himself, but at the same time to acknowledge that they are from the Lord. In no other way can anything of truth and good, or of faith and love, be appropriated to him. He who hangs down his hands, and waits for influx, can receive nothing and can have no reciprocal conjunction with the Lord; thus he is not in the covenant. That this is the case is clearly evident from this, that the Lord in a thousand passages in the Word has said that men should do good, and not evil; and the Lord would by no means have said this, unless something had been given to man, which confers upon him ability to act; and that which has been given to man appears to him to be his own, although it is not his. Because this is the case, therefore the Lord thus speaks in John:
"I stand at the door, and knock; if any man hear my voice, and open the door, I will come in to him, and will sup with him, and he with Me" (Apoc. 3:20).
 That covenant signifies conjunction with the Lord through the reception of Divine Truth in the understanding and will, or in the heart and soul, that is, in love and faith, and that conjunction takes place reciprocally, is evident from the Word, where covenant is mentioned. For it is evident from the Word,- 1. That the Lord Himself is called a covenant, because conjunction with Him is effected by Him by means of the Divine which proceeds from Him. 2. That the proceeding Divine, which is the Divine Truth, thus the Word, is a covenant, because it conjoins. 3. That the commandments, judgments, and statutes, given to the sons of Israel, were to them a covenant, because through these there was at that time conjunction with the Lord. 4. That further, whatever conjoins is called a covenant.
 As to the first - That the Lord Himself is called a covenant, because conjunction with Him is effected by Him by means of the Divine which proceeds from Him, is evident from the following passages.
"I, Jehovah, have called thee in justice, and I will hold thine hand, and will keep thee, and I will give thee for a covenant of the people, and for a light of the nations" (42:6).
This is said of the Lord, who is called a covenant of the people, and a light of the nations, because a covenant signifies conjunction, and light Divine Truth, peoples mean those who are in truths, and nations those who are in goods, as may be seen above (n. 175, 331, 625). To call Him in justice signifies that He may accomplish justice by separating the evil from the good, saving the latter but condemning the former. To take hold of the hand and to keep signifies from Divine Omnipotence, which the hells are unable to resist; that Jehovah will do this signifies that it is done by the Divine in the Lord.
The Apocalypse Explained 175, The Apocalypse Explained 331, The Apocalypse Explained 625)
 In the same:
"I have given thee for a covenant of the people, to restore the earth, and to inherit the devastated heritages" (49:8).
This also is said of the Lord; and to give for a covenant of the people signifies that there may be conjunction with Him and by Him; to restore the earth signifies the church; and to inherit the devastated heritages signifies to restore the goods and truths of the church which had been destroyed.
 In David:
"I have made a covenant with mine elect, and I have sworn to David my servant, Even to eternity will I establish thy seed, to eternity will I keep for him my mercy, and my covenant shall be steadfast for him" (Psalm 89:3, 4, 28).
David here means the Lord as to His royalty, as may be seen above (n. 205), who is called Elect from good, and Servant from truth. To make a covenant and swear to Him signifies the union of His Divine with His Human, to make a covenant denoting to be united, and to swear denoting to confirm it. Even to eternity will I establish thy seed, signifies the eternity of Divine Truth from Him; to eternity will I keep for Him my mercy, signifies the eternity of Divine Good from Him; My covenant shall be steadfast, signifies the union of the Divine and Human in Him. This becomes the meaning of these words, when instead of David the Lord as to the Divine Human, and Its royalty are meant; and it is spoken of in this way in the sense of the letter, because in that sense David is treated of, with whom there was no eternal covenant.
Psalms 89:3-4; The Apocalypse Explained 205)
 In the Second Book of Samuel:
"The God of Israel said, The Rock of Israel spake to me, and he shall be as the light of the morning, the sun ariseth, [of a morning] without clouds, from the brightness after rain, grass out of the earth. Is not my house firm with God? because he hath set for me a covenant of eternity, to order over all and to keep" (23:3-5).
This is said by David; and the God of Israel, and the Rock of Israel, mean the Lord as to Divine Truth. The signification of, He shall be as the light of the morning, the sun ariseth, of a morning without clouds, from the brightness after rain, grass out of the earth, may be seen above (n. 644:22). The Divine Truth proceeding from the Lord, from which comes all germination of truth and fructification of good is here described. Is not my house firm with God? signifies the church conjoined with the Lord by means of Divine Truth, the house of David denoting the church. Because He hath set for me a covenant of eternity, signifies that from the union of His Human with the Divine He has conjunction with the men of the church; to order over all and to keep, signifies from which He rules all things and all persons, and saves such as receive.
The Apocalypse Explained 644)
 In Malachi:
"Ye shall know that I have sent unto you this commandment, that my covenant may be with Levi; my covenant with him was of life and of peace, which I gave to him with fear, that he might fear me. The law of truth was in his mouth, and perversity was not found in his lips. But ye have departed from the way, ye have caused many to stumble in the law, ye have corrupted the covenant of Levi" (2:4-6, 8).
The covenant of Jehovah with Levi, in the highest sense, signifies the union of the Divine with the Human in the Lord, and, in the relative sense, the conjunction of the Lord with the church; for the Lord is meant by Levi as well as by David, but by Levi as to Divine Good, which is the priesthood of the Lord, and by David as to the Divine Truth, which is the royalty of the Lord. That the Lord is meant by Levi is plain from the fact that it is said, the law of truth was in His mouth, and perversity was not found in His lips, the law of truth signifying Divine Truth from Divine Good, and lips doctrine of truth and instruction; and afterwards it is said, "The lips of the priest shall keep knowledge (scientia), and they shall seek the law from his mouth, because he is the angel of Jehovah Zebaoth" (verse 7). The covenant of life and of peace signifies that union and that conjunction (of which just above) from which the Lord Himself became life and peace, from which man has eternal life and also peace from infestation by evils and falsities, thus from hell. The signification of His fear, may be seen above (n. 696). Those who live contrary to Divine Truth are understood by those that have departed from the way, caused many to stumble in the law, and corrupted the covenant of Levi; to depart from the way, and to stumble in the law, signify to live contrary to Divine Truth; and to corrupt the covenant of Levi, signifies [to corrupt] conjunction with the Lord.
Malachi 2:7; The Apocalypse Explained 696)
 In the same:
"Behold, I send mine angel, who shall prepare the way before me; and suddenly the Lord shall come to his temple, and the angel of the covenant whom ye desire" (3:1).
That the Lord's coming is here proclaimed is plain. The Lord is here called Lord from Divine Good, and the angel of the covenant from Divine Truth, as may be seen above (n. 242:9, 433:12, 444:8), where the rest of the passage is also explained. From this it is evident that covenant, when used in reference to the Lord, means either Himself or the union of His Divine with the Human in Him and that, with reference to those who are in heaven and in the church, it means conjunction with Him, through the Divine which proceeds from Him.
The Apocalypse Explained 242, The Apocalypse Explained 433, The Apocalypse Explained 444)
 Secondly, That the proceeding Divine, which is the Divine Truth, thus the Word, is a covenant, because it conjoins, is evident from the following passages.
Moses coming down from Mount Sinai "told the people all the words of Jehovah, and all the judgments; and all the people answered with one voice, and said, All the words which Jehovah hath spoken will we do; and Moses wrote all the words of Jehovah," in a book; "and he took the book of the covenant, and read it in the ears of the people, and they said, Everything that Jehovah hath spoken we will do, and we will hearken. And Moses took half of the blood" of the burnt-offerings, "and sprinkled upon the people, and said, Behold the blood of the covenant, which Jehovah hath made with you concerning all these words. And they saw the God of Israel, and under his feet as it were a work of sapphire stone" (Exodus 24:3, 4, 7, 8, 10).
That Divine Truth, which with us is the Word, is a covenant, is evident from all these particulars considered in the internal or spiritual sense. For Moses, who said those things to the people, represented the law, that is, the Word, as is evident from various places where it is said, "Moses and the prophets," and in others, "the law and the prophets." Thus Moses denotes the law; and the law, in a broad sense, signifies the Word, which is Divine Truth. The same is also evident from this, that Mount Sinai signifies heaven whence Divine Truth comes; that the book of the covenant, which was read before the people, signifies the Word, and that the blood, of which half was sprinkled upon the people, also signifies Divine Truth, which is the Word, and as this conjoins, it is called the blood of the covenant. And since all conjunction by means of Divine Truth is with the Lord, therefore the God of Israel, who is the Lord, was seen by Moses, Aaron and his sons, and the seventy elders. It is said, "was seen under His feet" there, because when by the Lord is meant the Word, by His feet is meant the Word in its ultimates, that is, in the sense of its letter, for the sons of Israel did not see it, interiorly. As it were a work of sapphire stone, signifies to be transparent, from internal truths, which are the spiritual sense of the Word. But these things may be seen explained in detail in the Arcana Coelestia 9371-9412).
Exodus 24:3-4, 24:7-8)
 What kind of conjunction that is, which is signified by covenant, is also evident from what has been adduced, namely, that it is like the covenants that are accustomed to be made in the world, between one person and another; similarly, the covenants which the Lord makes with men must be in the Lord's part and on man's part; they must be on the part of both, for the sake of conjunction. Those things which were on the Lord's part are stated in the preceding chapter, namely, that He will bless their bread and their waters, that He will take away their diseases, and that they shall possess the land of Canaan from the Sea Suph (Red Sea) even to the river Euphrates (Exodus 23:25-31). Here to bless their bread and their waters, in the internal spiritual sense, signifies the fructification of good and multiplication of truth, bread signifying all the good of heaven and of the church, and waters, all the truths of that good. To take away diseases, signifies to remove evils and falsities which are from hell, for these in the spiritual sense are diseases; and to possess the land from the Sea Suph (Red Sea) to the river Euphrates, signifies the church with its entire extension, which those have from the Lord who are conjoined to Him through Divine Truth. But the things which must be on man's part are stated in the three preceding chapters, and in brief are meant in the passage cited above, by "the words of Jehovah and the judgments," which Moses descending from Mount Sinai related to the people, to which the people responded with one voice, "All the words that Jehovah hath spoken we will do, and we will hearken." For this reason Moses divided the blood of the burnt-offering, and half of it, which was for the Lord, he left in the bowls, but the other half he sprinkled upon the people.
 That conjunction of the Lord with man is effected by means of the Divine Truth is also meant by blood in the Evangelists.
Jesus "took the cup, saying, Drink of it all of you, this is my blood, that of the new covenant" (Matthew 26:27; Mark 14:23, 24; Luke 22:20).
Here blood is called the blood of the new covenant, because blood signifies the Divine Truth proceeding from the Lord, and covenant signifies conjunction. That blood signifies the Divine Truth proceeding from the Lord, and received by man, may be seen above (n. 329, 476); and that to drink signifies to receive, to appropriate to oneself, and thus to be conjoined, may also be seen above (n. 617).
Mark 14:23-24; Matthew 26:27-28; The Apocalypse Explained 329, The Apocalypse Explained 476, The Apocalypse Explained 617)
 Similarly in Zechariah:
"By the blood of thy covenant, I will send forth thy bound out of the pit in which there is no water" (9:11).
This is said of the Lord, who is plainly treated of in that chapter; and by the blood of the covenant is meant, as above, the Divine Truth, by means of which conjunction takes place with the Lord. Who are meant by the bound in the pit, in which there is no water, may be seen above (n. 537:12).
The Apocalypse Explained 537)
 Since the Lord called His blood, which means the Divine Truth proceeding from Him, the blood of the new covenant, the meaning of the old covenant and the new covenant shall be briefly explained. The old covenant means conjunction by means of Divine Truth such as was given to the sons of Israel, which was external, and therefore representative of internal Divine Truth. They had no other Divine Truth, because they were not able to receive any other, for they were external and natural men, and not internal or spiritual, as is evident from this consideration, that those who did know anything of the Lord's coming had no other idea of Him than that He was to be a king, who would exalt them above all the peoples in the whole world, and thus establish a kingdom with them on the earth, and not in the heavens, and thence in the earth with all who should believe in Him. The old covenant therefore was a conjunction by means of the Divine Truth which is contained in the books of Moses, and was called the commandments, judgments, and statutes, in which, however, there lay inwardly concealed such Divine Truth as is in heaven, this being internal and spiritual. This Divine Truth was made manifest by the Lord when He was in the world; and as by means of this alone there is conjunction of the Lord with men, therefore this is meant by the new covenant, and also by His blood, which is consequently called the blood of the new covenant. Wine (vinum) also has a similar meaning.
 This new covenant, which was to be entered into with the Lord when He should come into the world, is frequently treated of in the Word of the Old Covenant.
As in Jeremiah:
"Behold, the days come, in which I will make a new covenant with the house of Israel and with the house of Judah, not as the covenant which I made with your fathers, because they made my covenant void. But this is the covenant which I will make with the house of Israel after those days; I will put my law in the midst of them, and upon their heart will I write it, and I will be to them for a God, and they shall be to me for a people; neither shall they teach any more a man his companion, or a man his brother, saying, Know ye Jehovah, for they shall all know me, from the least of them even unto the greatest of them " (31:31-34).
That Jehovah, that is the Lord, was to make a new covenant with the house of Israel and with the house of Judah, does not mean with the sons of Israel and with Judah, but with all who are in truths of doctrine and in the good of love to the Lord from the Lord. That such are meant by the sons of Israel and by Judah, in the Word, may be seen above (n. 433); it is evident that "the days come" means the Lord's coming. That conjunction with the Lord would then take place by means of Divine Truth, internal and spiritual, is meant by these words, "This is the covenant which I will make with the house of Israel after those days; I will put my law in the midst of them, and upon their heart will I write it." This signifies that they shall then receive Divine Truth interiorly in themselves. For spiritual Divine Truth is received by man interiorly, which was not the case with the sons of Israel and the Jews, who received it exteriorly. For when man receives Divine Truth within himself, that is to say, causes it to be of his love and thus of his life, then truth is known from truth itself, since the Lord flows in into His own truth with man, and teaches him. This is meant by these words, "They shall no more teach a man his companion, or a man his brother, saying, Know ye Jehovah, for they shall all know me, from the least even unto the greatest." The conjunction itself thereby effected, which the new covenant signifies, is meant by "I will be to them for a God, and they shall be to me for a people."
The Apocalypse Explained 433)
 In the same:
"They shall be to me for a people, and I will be to them for a God, and I will give to them one heart and one way, to fear me all their days, and I will make with them an eternal covenant, that I will not turn myself away from after them, that I may do them good; and I will put my fear into their heart, that they may not depart from before me" (32:38-40).
This also treats of the Lord, and of a new covenant with Him; and conjunction by means of it is meant by "I will be to them for a God, and they shall be to me for a people," and is further described by the words, "I will give to them one heart and one way, to fear me all their days"; and by not turning Himself away from after them, and by putting His fear into their heart, that they may not depart from before Him. One heart and one way, to fear Me, signifies one will of good and one understanding of truth to worship the Lord. And as the conjunction is reciprocal, that is to say, of the Lord with them, and of them with the Lord, therefore it is said, that He will not turn away from after them, to do them good, and that they shall not depart from before Him. The signification of the eternal covenant, which He will enter into with them is therefore evident, namely, conjunction by means of spiritual Divine Truth, which when received, constitutes the life of man, and from which eternal conjunction results.
 In Ezekiel:
"I will set up over them one shepherd who shall feed them, my servant David. I, Jehovah, will be to them for a God, and my servant David a prince in the midst of them. Then will I make with them a covenant of peace, I will cause the evil beast to cease, that they may dwell confidently in the wilderness, and sleep in the woods" (34:23-25).
This is also said of the Lord. David, who shall feed them, and who shall be a prince in the midst of them, means the Lord as to Divine Truth, who is called a servant from serving. Conjunction with the Lord by means of Divine Truth is meant by the covenant which He will make with them; this is called a covenant of peace, because man through conjunction with the Lord is at peace, being freed from the infestation of evil and falsity from hell. Therefore it is also said, "I will cause the evil beast to cease, that they may dwell confidently in the wilderness, and sleep in the forests," the evil beast meaning falsity and evil from hell, and to dwell confidently in the wilderness and to sleep in the forests signifying that they shall be everywhere safe from all infestation by evil and falsity.
 In the same:
"My servant David shall be king over them, that they all may have one shepherd; and I will make with them a covenant of peace, it shall be a covenant of eternity with them; and I will place them, and multiply them; and I will set my sanctuary in the midst of them for ever, and my dwelling-place with them; and I will be to them for a God, and they shall be to me for a people" (37:24. 26, 27).
Here also David means the Lord, for it is evident that David, will not come again to be their king and shepherd; but the Lord is called king from Divine Truth, for this is the royalty of the Lord, while Divine Good is His priesthood. The Lord is also called Shepherd, because He will feed them with Divine Truth, and by means of it lead to the good of love, and thus to Himself; and because conjunction is the result of this; it is said, "I will make with them a covenant of peace, a covenant of eternity." It has been shown above what a covenant of peace signifies, and also that I will be to them for a God; and they shall be to Me for a people, means conjunction. The sanctuary which He shall set in the midst of them, and the dwelling-place which shall be with them, signify heaven and the church, which are called a sanctuary from the good of love and a dwelling-place from the truth of that good, for the Lord dwells in truths from good.
 In Hosea:
"In that day I will make for them a covenant with the wild beast of the field, with the birds of the heavens, and with the creeping things of the earth; the bow, and the sword, and the war, will I break from off the earth; and I will cause them to lie down securely; and I will betroth thee to me for ever" (2:18, 19).
This is said of the establishment of a new church by the Lord. That the Lord would not then make a covenant with the wild beast of the field, with the bird of the heavens, and with the creeping thing of the earth, is plain; therefore these things signify such things as pertain to man, the wild beast of the field signifying the affection for truth and good, the bird of the heavens, spiritual thought, and the creeping thing of the earth, the scientific (scientificum) pertaining to the natural man. The signification of the rest of this passage may be seen above (n. 650:34). It is therefore evident that the covenant which the Lord will make is a spiritual covenant, or a covenant by means of spiritual truth, and not a covenant by means of natural truth; the latter is the old covenant made with the sons of Israel, and the former the new covenant.
Hosea 2:18-19; The Apocalypse Explained 650)
 Since the law, which was proclaimed by the Lord from Mount Sinai, signifies, in a comprehensive sense, the Word, therefore also the tables, on which that law was written, are called the tables of the covenant.
"I went up into the mount to receive the tables of stone, the tables of the covenant which Jehovah made with you; at the end of forty days and forty nights Jehovah gave to me two tables of stone, the tables of the covenant" (Deuteronomy 9:9, 11).
Those tables, that is, the law written upon them, mean the Divine Truth, through which there is conjunction with the Lord, and because of that conjunction they are called the tables of the covenant. And as all conjunction, just as is the case with a covenant, is effected on the one part and on the other part, that is, reciprocally by both parties, therefore there were two tables, and they were of stone; they were of stone because stone also signifies Divine Truth in ultimates, as may be seen in the Arcana Coelestia 643, 3720, 6426, 8609, 10376). For this reason, the ark, in which those tables were deposited, was called the ark of the covenant, and it was the holiest thing in worship with the sons of Israel, as shown in the preceding article.
 Thirdly - That the commandments, judgments, and statutes, given to the sons of Israel, were to them a covenant, because through these conjunction with the Lord was then effected, is evident from the following passages.
"If ye walk in my statutes, and observe my commandments, and do them, I will have respect unto you, and will make you fruitful, and multiply you, and I will confirm my covenant with you. But if ye reject my statutes, so as not to do all my commandments, while ye make my covenant void," I will do contrary to you (Leviticus 26:3, 9, 15, and following verses).
The statutes and commandments that were to be observed and done are set forth in the preceding chapter, and the goods which they should enjoy if they kept those commandments and statutes; and afterwards the evils which would come upon them if they did not keep them are detailed in this chapter. But the goods which they were to enjoy were earthly and worldly goods, and so also were the evils, for the reason that they were earthly and natural men, and not celestial and spiritual. They therefore knew nothing of the goods which interiorly affect man, or of the evils which interiorly afflict him, nevertheless the external things which they were bound to observe were such as contained interiorly in themselves celestial and spiritual things, by means of which there is real conjunction with the Lord; and as these were perceived in heaven, therefore the externals which were to be observed by the sons of Israel are called a covenant. But what was the nature of the conjunction of the Lord with the sons of Israel by means of those things, may be seen in the Doctrine of the New Jerusalem 248).
 Similar things are meant by covenant in the following passages.
"Jehovah said unto Moses, Write thou these words, because upon the mouth of these words have I made a covenant with thee and with Israel" (Exodus 34:27)
"Keep ye the words of this covenant, and do them, ye that stand here this day, your heads, your tribes, your moderators, and every man of Israel, to pass over into the covenant of Jehovah, and into his oath, which Jehovah God maketh with thee this day, that he may appoint thee this day for a people, and that he may be to thee for a God. Not with you only do I make this covenant, and oath, but also with every one who is not here with you this day" (Deuteronomy 29:9, 10, 12-15).
And in the Second Book of Kings:
King Josiah "sent, and gathered unto him all the elders of Judah and Jerusalem; and the king went up to the house of Jehovah, and every man of Judah, and all the inhabitants of Jerusalem with him, likewise the priests and the prophets, and the whole people from small even to great, and he read in their ears all the words of the book of the covenant found in the house of Jehovah; and the king stood by a pillar, and made a covenant before Jehovah, to go after Jehovah, and to keep his precepts, and his testimonies, and his statutes, with all the heart and with all the soul, to establish all the words of this covenant written in this book; and all the people stood in the covenant" (23:1-3).
And in other places, as Jeremiah 22:8, 9; 33:20-22; 50:5; Ezekiel 16:8; Malachi 2:14; Psalm 78:37; 50:5, 16; 103:17, 18; 105:8, 9; 106:45; 111:5, 9; Deuteronomy 17:2; 1 Kings 19:14. In all these passages the covenant is mentioned, and the external rites which the sons of Israel were to observe are signified by it.
Deuteronomy 29:9-10; Jeremiah 22:8-9; Psalms 103:17-18, 105:8-9)
 But as to the covenant which the Lord made with Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, this was not the same as that made with the posterity of Jacob, but it was a covenant on the part of the Lord that their seed should be multiplied, and that the land of Canaan should be given to it; and on the part of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, that every male should be circumcised. That a different covenant was made with the posterity of Jacob, is clear in Moses:
"Jehovah God made with us a covenant in Horeb, not with our fathers did Jehovah God make this covenant, but with us" (Deuteronomy 5:2, 3).
Concerning this covenant, it is written as follows in Moses:
"Jehovah brought" Abraham "forth abroad, and said, Look towards heaven, and number the stars; and he said to him, Thus shall thy seed be. And he said to him, Take to thee a heifer of three years old, and a she-goat of three years old, and a ram of three years old, and a turtle dove, and a young pigeon; and he divided them in the midst, and he laid each part over against the other; and the birds he did not divide. And the sun went down, and there was a thick darkness; and lo! a furnace of smoke and a torch of fire passed between the pieces. In that day Jehovah made a covenant with Abraham, saying, To thy seed will I give this land, from the river of Egypt even to the great river Euphrates" (Genesis 15:5-18).
"I will give my covenant between me and thee, and I will multiply thee exceedingly; I, behold, my covenant is with thee, and thou shalt be for a father of a multitude of nations, and I will make thee exceeding fruitful; and I will give to thee, and to thy seed after thee, all the land of thy sojournings, all the land of Canaan, for an everlasting possession. This is my covenant which ye shall keep between me and you, and between thy seed after thee; every male shall be circumcised to you; he who is not circumcised in the flesh of his foreskin, that soul shall be cut off from his people, he hath made my covenant void; and my covenant will I set up with Isaac, whom Sarah shall bear to thee" (Gen, 17:1-21).
From these things the nature of the covenant entered into with Abraham is evident, namely, that his seed should be multiplied exceedingly, and, that the land of Canaan should be given to him for a possession. The commandments, judgments, and statutes which constituted the covenant are not mentioned; but still they are signified by the heifer, the she-goat, and the ram of three years old, and by the turtle dove and young pigeon, for these animals signify those things that pertain to the church, while the land of Canaan itself signifies the church. And because the Lord foresaw that the posterity of Abraham from Jacob would not keep the covenant, therefore a furnace of smoke and a torch of fire passing between the pieces appeared to Abraham; and the furnace of smoke signifies the dense falsity, and the torch of fire the direful evil, in which the posterity of Jacob would be. This is also confirmed in Jeremiah (33:18-20). That Abraham divided the heifer, the she-goat, and the ram, and laid each part over against the other, was according to the form of covenants made between two parties. But these things maybe seen fully explained in the Arcana Coelestia 1783-1862).
Deuteronomy 5:2-3; Genesis 17:2, Genesis 17:21)
 The covenant was made by circumcision, because circumcision represented purification from the loves of self and of the world, which are corporeal and terrestrial loves, and the removal of them; therefore also circumcision was performed with a small stone knife, which signified truth of doctrine, by means of which all purification from evils and falsities, and their removal, is effected. But the details recorded in that chapter respecting this covenant are also explained in the Arcana Coelestia 1987-2095; and respecting circumcision n. 2039 at the end, n. 2046 at the end, 2632, 2799, 4462, 7044, 8093). But because Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, in the internal sense, mean the Lord, therefore their seed signify all who are of the church of the Lord, and this church is also meant by the land of Canaan which their seed was to inherit.
Arcana Coelestia 2039)
 There was also the covenant entered into with Noah, that men should no more perish by the waters of a flood, and that the bow should be in the cloud for a sign of that covenant (Genesis 6:17, 18; 9:9-17). That that covenant also involves the conjunction of the Lord through Divine Truth is evident from the explanation of the above words in the Arcana Coelestia 659-675, and n. 1022-1059). That the bow in the cloud, or the rainbow there, signifies regeneration, which is effected by means of Divine Truth and by a life in agreement with it, and that therefore that bow was taken for a sign of the covenant, may also be seen in the same work (n. 1042).
Arcana Coelestia 1022-1059, Genesis 6:17-18, Genesis 9:17)
 Fourthly - That, further, whatever conjoins is called a Covenant; as the sabbath, in Moses:
"The sons of Israel shall keep the sabbath in their generations, the covenant of an age" (Exodus 31:16).
The sabbath was called the covenant of an age, because the sabbath, in the highest sense, signified the union of the Divine with the Human in the Lord, and, in the relative sense (sensu respectivo), the conjunction of the Lord with heaven and the church, and, in the universal sense, the conjunction of good and truth, and this conjunction is called the heavenly marriage. Therefore the rest on the sabbath day signified the state of that union, and of that conjunction, since by that state the Lord has peace and rest, and by it also there are peace and salvation in the heavens and on earth.
Arcana Coelestia 8494-8495, 10370)
 That this is the signification of the sabbath, and of rest thereon, may be seen in the Arcana Coelestia 8494, 8495, 8510, 10356, 10360, 10367, 10374, 10668, 10730). The salt in the sacrifices is called the salt of the covenant, also in Moses:
"Thou shalt not cause the salt of the covenant of thy God to cease upon thine offering, upon all thine offering thou shalt offer salt" (Leviticus 2:13).
The salt upon the offering is called the salt of the covenant, because salt signifies the desire of truth for good, by which means the two are conjoined. On this signification of salt, see the Arcana Coelestia 9207).
 A wife is also called a wife of the covenant, in Malachi:
"Jehovah hath been a witness between thee and the wife of thy youth, against whom thou hast dealt treacherously, though she is thy companion, and the wife of thy covenant" (Malachi 2:14).
A wife is here called the wife of a covenant, from conjunction with her husband, but wife here signifies the church, and a wife of youth the Ancient Church against which the Jewish Church is said to have dealt treacherously. And because these were both representative churches, and in this respect alike, and so were conjoined, therefore it is said, although she was thy companion and the wife of thy covenant.
 A covenant with the stones of the field is spoken of in Job, in these words:
"Thou shalt not be afraid of the wild beast of the field, for with the stones of the field is thy covenant, and the wild beast of the field shall be at peace with thee" (5:22, 23).
A covenant with the stones of the field signifies conjunction with the truths of the church, for stones signify truths, - field, the church, and covenant, conjunction. The wild beast of the field signifies the love of falsity, of which wild beast "thou shalt not be afraid," and which "shall be at peace," when there is conjunction with the church through truths.
Acts of the Apostles 5:22-23; Job 5:22-23)
 Mention is also made of a covenant with wild beasts and birds in Hosea:
"In that day I will make for them a covenant with the wild beast of the field, with the bird of the heavens, and with the creeping thing of the earth" (Hosea 2:18).
And in Moses:
"God said to Noah, Behold, I set up my covenant with you, and with every living soul which is with you, to the bird, to the beast, and to every wild beast of the earth with you, of all that go out of the ark as to every wild beast of the earth" (Genesis 9:9, 10).
A covenant with beast, wild beast, bird, and creeping thing of the earth, signifies conjunction with such things in man as are signified by these; for beast signifies the affection for good, wild beast the affection for truth, bird, the thinking faculty, and the creeping thing of the earth, the Scientific, which lives from those affections.
 Mention is also made of a covenant with death, in Isaiah:
"Ye have said, We have made a covenant with death, and with hell we have made a vision; your covenant with death shall be abolished, and your vision with hell shall not stand" (28:15, 18).
To make a covenant with death signifies conjunction through falsity from hell, from which a man spiritually dies; to make a vision with hell signifies divination, as if prophetic, from hell. From these passages now quoted connectedly, it is evident that a covenant, where the Lord is treated of, signifies conjunction by means of Divine Truth. There is indeed a conjunction with Him by means of the good of love; but because the Lord flows in with man through good into truths, whereby man has affection for truth, and receives the good of the Lord in truths, from which he acknowledges, confesses, and adores the Lord, therefore the good of love conjoins by means of truth, comparatively as the heat of the sun, in the time of spring and summer, conjoins itself with the fructifications of the earth.
Genesis 17:2, 17:21; Malachi 2:4-8; Revelation 11:19)