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Arcana Coelestia #9372

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9372. And He said unto Moses. That this signifies that which concerns the Word in general, is evident from the representation of Moses, as being the Word (of which below); and from the signification of “He said,” as involving those things which follow in this chapter, thus those which concern the Word (see n. 9370). (That Moses represents the Word, can be seen from what has been often shown before about Moses, as from the preface to Genesis 18; and n. 4859, 5922, 6723, 6752, 6771, 6827, 7010, 7014, 7089, 7382, 8601, 8760, 8787, 8805.) Here Moses represents the Word in general, because it is said of him in what follows, that he alone should come near unto Jehovah (verse 2); and also that, being called unto out of the midst of the cloud, he entered into it, and went up the mount (verses 16-18).

(References: Exodus 24:16, 24:18)


[2] In the Word there are many who represent the Lord in respect to truth Divine, or in respect to the Word; but chief among them are Moses, Elijah, Elisha, and John the Baptist. That Moses does so, can be seen in the explications just cited above; that so do Elijah and Elisha, can be seen in the preface to Genesis 18; and n. 2762, 5247; and that John the Baptist does so is evident from the fact that he was “Elias who was to come.” He who does not know that John the Baptist represented the Lord as to the Word, cannot know what all those things infold and signify which are said about him in the New Testament; and therefore in order that this secret may stand open, and that at the same time it may appear that Elias, and also Moses, who were seen when the Lord was transfigured, signified the Word, some things may here be quoted which are spoken about John the Baptist; as in Matthew:

After the messengers of John had departed, Jesus began to speak concerning John, saying, What went ye out into the wilderness to see? a reed shaken by the wind? But what went ye out to see? a man clothed in soft raiment? Behold, they that wear soft things are in kings’ houses. But what went ye out to see? a prophet? Yea, I say unto you, even more than a prophet. This is he of whom it is written, Behold I send Mine angel before Thy face, who shall prepare Thy way before Thee. Verily I say unto you, Among those who are born of women there hath not arisen a greater than John the Baptist; nevertheless he that is less in the kingdom of the heavens is greater than he. All the prophets and the law prophesied until John. And if ye are willing to believe, he is Elias who was to come. He that hath ears to hear, let him hear (Matthew 11:7-15; and also Luke 7:24-28).

No one can know how these things are to be understood, unless he knows that this John represented the Lord as to the Word, and unless he also knows from the internal sense what is signified by “the wilderness” in which he was, also what by “a reed shaken by the wind,” and likewise by “soft raiment in kings’ houses;” and further what is signified by his being “more than a prophet,” and by “none among those who are born of women being greater than he, and nevertheless he that is less in the kingdom of the heavens is greater than he,” and lastly by his being “Elias.” For without a deeper sense, all these words are uttered merely from some comparison, and not from anything of weight.

(References: Arcana Coelestia 2135)


[3] But it is very different when by John is understood the Lord as to the Word, or the Word representatively. Then by “the wilderness of Judea in which John was” is signified the state in which the Word was at the time when the Lord came into the world, namely, that it was “in the wilderness,” that is, it was in obscurity so great that the Lord was not at all acknowledged, neither was anything known about His heavenly kingdom; when yet all the prophets prophesied about Him, and about His kingdom, that it was to endure forever. (That “a wilderness” denotes such obscurity, see n. 2708, 4736, 7313.) For this reason the Word is compared to “a reed shaken by the wind” when it is explained at pleasure; for in the internal sense “a reed” denotes truth in the ultimate, such as is the Word in the letter.

[4] That the Word in the ultimate, or in the letter, is crude and obscure in the sight of men; but that in the internal sense it is soft and shining, is signified by their “not seeing a man clothed in soft raiment, for behold those who wear soft things are in kings’ houses.” That such things are signified by these words, is plain from the signification of “raiment,” or “garments,” as being truths (n. 2132, 2576, 4545, 4763, 5248, 6914, 6918, 9093); and for this reason the angels appear clothed in garments soft and shining according to the truths from good with them (n. 5248, 5319, 5954, 9212, 9216). The same is evident from the signification of “kings’ houses,” as being the abodes of the angels, and in the universal sense, the heavens; for “houses” are so called from good (n. 2233, 2234, 3128, 3652, 3720, 4622, 4982, 7836, 7891, 7996, 7997); and “kings,” from truth (n. 1672, 2015, 2069, 3009, 4575, 4581, 4966, 5044, 6148). Therefore by virtue of their reception of truth from the Lord, the angels are called “sons of the kingdom,” “sons of the king,” and also “kings.”

(References: Arcana Coelestia 2233-2234, 7996-7997)


[5] That the Word is more than any doctrine in the world, and more than any truth in the world, is signified by “what went ye out to see? a prophet? Yea, I say unto you, and more than a prophet;” and by, “there hath not arisen among those who are born of women a greater than John the Baptist;” for in the internal sense “a prophet” denotes doctrine (n. 2534, 7269); and “those who are born,” or are the sons, “of women” denote truths (n. 489, 491, 533, 1147, 2623, 2803, 2813, 3704, 4257).

[6] That in the internal sense, or such as it is in heaven, the Word is in a degree above the Word in the external sense, or such as it is in the world, and such as John the Baptist taught, is signified by, “he that is less in the kingdom of the heavens is greater than he;” for as perceived in heaven the Word is of wisdom so great that it transcends all human apprehension. That the prophecies about the Lord and His coming, and that the representatives of the Lord and of His kingdom, ceased when the Lord came into the world, is signified by, “all the prophets and the law prophesied until John.” That the Word was represented by John, as by Elijah, is signified by his being “Elias who is to come.”

[7] The same is signified by these words in Matthew:

The disciples asked Jesus, Why say the scribes that Elias must first come? He answered and said, Elias must needs first come, and restore all things. But I say unto you, that Elias hath come already, and they knew him not, but did unto him whatsoever they wished. Even so shall the Son of man also suffer of them. And they understood that He spoke to them of John the Baptist (Matthew 17:10-13).

That “Elias hath come, and they knew him not, but did unto him whatsoever they wished” signifies that the Word has indeed taught them that the Lord is to come, but that still they did not wish to comprehend, interpreting it in favor of the rule of self, and thus extinguishing what is Divine in it. That they would do the same with the truth Divine itself, is signified by “even so shall the Son of man also suffer of them.” (That “the Son of man” denotes the Lord as to truth Divine, see n. 2803, 2813, 3704)

[8] From all this it is now evident what is meant by the prophecy about John in Malachi:

Behold I send you Elijah the prophet before the great and terrible day of Jehovah cometh (Malachi 4:5).

Moreover, the Word in the ultimate, or such as it is in the external form in which it appears before man in the world, is described by the “clothing” and “food” of John the Baptist, in Matthew:

John the Baptist, preaching in the wilderness of Judea, had His clothing of camel’s hair, and a leathern girdle about his loins; and his food was locusts and wild honey (Matthew 3:1, 4).

In like manner it is described by Elijah in the second book of Kings:

He was a hairy man, and girt with a girdle of leather about his loins (2 Kings 1:8).

By “clothing,” or a “garment,” when said of the Word, is signified truth Divine there in the ultimate form; by “camel’s hair” are signified memory-truths such as appear there before a man in the world; by the “leathern girdle” is signified the external bond connecting and keeping in order all the interior things; by “food” is signified spiritual nourishment from the knowledges of truth and of good out of the Word; by “locusts” are signified ultimate or most general truths; and by “wild honey” their pleasantness.

[9] That such things are signified by “clothing” and “food” has its origin in the representatives of the other life, where all appear clothed according to truths from good, and where food also is represented according to the desires of acquiring knowledge and growing wise. From this it is that “clothing,” or a “garment,” denotes truth (as may be seen from the citations above; and that “food” or “meat” denotes spiritual nourishment, n. 3114, 4459, 4792, 5147, 5293, 5340, 5342, 5576, 5579, 5915, 8562, 9003; that “a girdle” denotes a bond which gathers up and holds together interior things, n. 9341; that “leather” denotes what is external, n. 3540; and thus “a leathern girdle” denotes an external bond; that “hairs” denote ultimate or most general truths, n. 3301, 5569-5573; that “a camel” denotes memory-knowledge in general, n. 3048, 3071, 3143, 3145, 4156; that “a locust” denotes nourishing truth in the extremes, n. 7643; and that “honey” denotes the pleasantness thereof, n. 5620, 6857, 8056). It is called “wild honey,” or “honey of the field,” because by “a field” is signified the church (n. 2971, 3317, 3766, 7502, 7571, 9139, 9295). He who does not know that such things are signified, cannot possibly know why Elijah and John were so clothed. And yet that these things signified something peculiar to these prophets, can be thought by everyone who thinks well about the Word.

[10] Because John the Baptist represented the Lord as to the Word, therefore also when he spoke of the Lord, who was the Word itself, he said of himself that he was “not Elias, nor the prophet,” and that he was “not worthy to loose the latchet of the Lord’s shoe,” as in John:

In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and God was the Word. And the Word became flesh, and dwelt among us, and we beheld His glory. The Jews from Jerusalem, priests and Levites, asked John who he was. And he confessed, and denied not, I am not the Christ. Therefore they asked him, What then? Art thou Elias? But he said, I am not. Art thou the prophet? He answered, No. They said therefore unto him, Who art thou? He said, I am the voice of one crying in the wilderness, Make straight the way of the Lord, as said Isaiah the prophet. They said therefore, Why then baptizest thou, if thou art not the Christ, nor Elias, nor the prophet? He answered, I baptize with water; in the midst of you standeth one whom ye know not; He it is who is to come after me, who was before me, the latchet of whose shoe I am not worthy to unloose. When he saw Jesus, he said, Behold the Lamb of God, who taketh away the sin of the world! This is He of whom I said, After me cometh a man who was before me; for he was before me (John 1:1, 14, 19-30).

From these words it is plain that when John spoke about the Lord Himself, who was Truth Divine itself, or the Word, he said that he himself was not anything, because the shadow disappears when the light itself appears, that is, the representative disappears when the original itself makes its appearance. (That the representatives had in view holy things, and the Lord Himself, and not at all the person that represented, see n. 665, 1097, 1361, 3147, 3881, 4208, 4281, 4288, 4292, 4307, 4444, 4500, 6304, 7048, 7439, 8588, 8788, 8806.) One who does not know that representatives vanish like shadows at the presence of light, cannot know why John denied that he was Elias and the prophet.

[11] From all this it can now be seen what is signified by Moses and Elias, who were seen in glory, and who spoke with the Lord when transfigured, of His departure which He should accomplish at Jerusalem (Luke 9:29-31); namely, that they signified the Word (“Moses” the historic Word, and “Elias” the prophetic Word), which in the internal sense throughout treats of the Lord, of His coming into the world, and of His departure out of the world; and therefore it is said that “Moses and Elias were seen in glory,” for “glory” denotes the internal sense of the Word, and the “cloud” its external sense (see the preface to Genesis 18, and n. 5922, 8427).

(References: Arcana Coelestia 2135; Exodus 24:1-2)

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Arcana Coelestia 9374, 9378, 9379, 9382, 9386, 9429, 9504, 9779, 9806, 9828, 9954, 10027, 10090, 10215, 10251, 10337, 10355, 10375, 10396, 10397, 10400, 10432, 10450, 10460, 10468, 10528, 10549, 10551, 10635, 10636, 10641, 10690


References from Swedenborg's unpublished works:

Apocalypse Explained 19, 64, 66, 83, 130, 355, 375, 701, 710, 735, 746

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 John the Baptist
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Arcana Coelestia #491

Arcana Coelestia (Potts translation)      

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491. The same things are signified by “sons” and “daughters” in this chapter (verses 4, 7, 10, 13, 16, 19, 26, 30), but such as is the church, such are the “sons and daughters” that is, such are the goods and truths; the truths and goods here spoken of are such as were distinctly perceived, because they are predicated of the Most Ancient Church, the principal and parent of all the other and succeeding churches.

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Arcana Coelestia 1147, 1338, 1434, 1719, 1853, 1945, 1960, 2015, 2066, 2194, 2232, 2362, 2390, 2411, 2461, 2466, 2468, 2567, 2623, 2643, 2803, 2928, 3024, 3066, 3243, 3263, 3266, 3373, 3583, 3703, 3762, 3907, 3922, 3926, 3933, 3947, 3959, 3974, ...


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Apocalypse Explained 63, 166


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Apocalypse Explained #701

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701. As the ark is called "the ark of the covenant" it is also to be confirmed from the Word that it was called "the ark of the covenant" because the law was in it, and the "law," which in a broad sense means the Word, signifies the Lord in relation to Divine truth, which is the Word, thus Divine truth or the Word which is from the Lord and in which is the Lord; for all Divine truth proceeds from Him, and when this is received by man conjunction with the Lord is effected, and this conjunction is what is signified by "covenant." How conjunction of the Lord with man and of man with the Lord is effected, shall also be told in a few words. The Lord continually flows into all men with light that enlightens, and with the affection of knowing and understanding truths, also for willing and doing them; and as that light and that affection continually flow in from the Lord, it follows that man becomes rational to the extent that he receives of that light, and he becomes wise and is led by the Lord so far as he receives of that affection. That affection with its light draws to itself and conjoins to itself the truths that man from infancy has learned from the Word, from doctrine out of the Word, and from preaching; for every affection desires to be nourished by the knowledges that are in harmony with it. From this conjunction man's spiritual love or affection is formed, through which he is conjoined to the Lord, that is, through which the Lord conjoins man to Himself.

(References: Revelation 11:19)


[2] But in order that that light and that affection may be received, freedom of choice has been given to man, and as that freedom is from the Lord, it is also a gift of the Lord with man and is never taken away from him; for that freedom belongs to man's affection or love, and consequently also to his life. From freedom a man can think and will what is evil, and can also think and will what is good. So far, therefore, as from that freedom, which belongs to his love and thence to his life, man thinks falsities and wills evils, which are the opposites of the truths and goods of the Word, so far he is not conjoined to the Lord; but so far as he thinks truths and wills goods, which are from the Word, so far he is conjoined to the Lord, and the Lord makes those truths and goods to be of his love, and thence of his life. From this it is evident that this conjunction is reciprocal, namely, of the Lord with man and of man with the Lord; such is the conjunction that is meant in the Word by "covenant."

[3] He greatly errs who believes that man is incapable of doing anything for his own salvation because the light to see truths and the affection of doing them, as well as the freedom to think and will them, are from the Lord, and nothing of these from man. Because these appear to man to be as if in himself, and when they are thought and willed to be as from himself, man ought, because of that appearance, to think and will them as if from himself, but at the same time acknowledge that they are from the Lord. In no other way can anything of truth and good or of faith and love be appropriated to man. If one lets his hands hang down and waits for influx he receives nothing, and can have no reciprocal conjunction with the Lord, thus he is not in the covenant. That this is so is clearly evident from this, that the Lord in a thousand passages in the Word has taught that man must do good and must not do evil, and this the Lord would by no means have said, unless something had been given to man by which he has ability to do, and unless that which has been given to man might seem to him to be as if his own, although it is not his. Because this is so the Lord speaks thus in John:

I stand at the door and knock; if anyone hear My voice and open the door I will come in to him, and will sup with him and he with Me (Revelation 3:20).

[4] That "covenant" signifies conjunction with the Lord through the reception of Divine truth by the understanding and will, or by the heart and soul, that is, by love and faith, and that this conjunction is effected reciprocally, can be seen from the Word where "covenant" is mentioned. For from the Word it is evident:

1. That the Lord Himself is called a "covenant," because conjunction with Him is effected by Him through the Divine that proceeds from Him.

2. That the Divine proceeding, which is Divine truth, thus the Word, is the covenant, because it conjoins.

3. That the commandments, judgments, and statutes commanded to the sons of Israel were to them a covenant, because through these there was then conjunction with the Lord.

4. And further, that whatever conjoins is called a "covenant."

[5] As to the first: That the Lord Himself is called a "covenant," because conjunction with Him is effected by Him through the Divine that proceeds from Him, is evident from the following passages. In Isaiah:

I Jehovah have called Thee in righteousness, and I will take hold of Thine hand and will guard Thee, and I will give thee for a covenant of the people and for a light of the nations (Isaiah 42:6).

This is said of the Lord, who is called "a covenant of the people and a light of the nations," because a "covenant" signifies conjunction, and "light" Divine truth; "peoples" mean those who are in truths, and "nations" those who are in goods (see above, n. 175, 331, 625); "to call Him in righteousness" signifies to establish righteousness by separating the evil from the good and by saving the good and condemning the evil; "to take hold of the hand and to guard" signifies to do this from Divine Omnipotence, which the hells cannot resist; Jehovah's doing this means that it is done by the Divine in the Lord.

(References: The Apocalypse Explained 175, The Apocalypse Explained 331, The Apocalypse Explained 625)


[6] In the same:

I have given Thee for a covenant of the people, to restore the earth and to inherit the wasted heritages (Isaiah 49:8).

This, too, is said of the Lord; and "to give for a covenant of the people" signifies that there may be conjunction with Him and by Him; "to restore the earth" signifies the church; and "to inherit the wasted heritages" signifies to restore the goods and truths of the church that have been destroyed.

[7] In David:

I have made a covenant with My chosen, and I have sworn to David My servant, even to eternity will I establish thy seed, to eternity will I keep for him My mercy, and My covenant shall be steadfast for Him (Psalms 89:3, 4, 28).

"David" here means the Lord in relation to His royalty (see above, n. 205, and he is called "chosen" from good, and "servant" from truth; "to make a covenant and swear to him" signifies the uniting of the Lord's Divine with His Human, "to make a covenant" meaning to become united, and "to swear" meaning to confirm it; "even to eternity will I establish thy seed" signifies the eternity of Divine truth from Him; "to eternity will I keep for him My mercy" signifies the eternity of Divine good from Him; "My covenant shall be steadfast" signifies the union of the Divine and Human in Him. This becomes the sense of these words when, instead of David, the Lord in relation to the Divine Human and its royalty is understood, respecting which this is said in the sense of the letter, because in that sense David is treated of, with whom there was no eternal covenant.

(References: Psalms 89:3-4; The Apocalypse Explained 205)


[8] In the second book of Samuel:

The God of Israel said, the rock of Israel spake to me; and He shall be as light in the morning when the sun riseth, without clouds; from the brightness after rain cometh grass out of the earth. Is not my house firm with God? For He hath set for me a covenant of eternity, to order over all and to keep (2 Samuel 23:3-5).

This is said by David; and "the God of Israel" and "the rock of Israel" mean the Lord in relation to Divine truth; what is signified by "He shall be as light in the morning when the sun riseth, a morning without clouds, from the brightness after rain cometh grass out of the earth," may be seen above n. 644. This describes Divine truth proceeding from the Lord, from which is all germination of truth and fructification of good. "Is not my house firm with God?" signifies the church conjoined with the Lord through the Divine truth, "the house of David" meaning the church; "for He hath set for me a covenant of eternity" signifies that from the union of His Human with the Divine He has conjunction with the men of the church; "to order over all and to keep" signifies from which He rules over all things and all persons, and saves such as receive.

(References: The Apocalypse Explained 644)


[9] In Malachi:

Ye shall know that I have sent this commandment unto you, that My covenant may be with Levi. My covenant with him was of life and of peace, which I gave to him with fear, that he might fear Me. The law of truth was in his mouth, and perversity was not found in his lips. But ye have turned aside out of the way, ye have caused many to stumble in the law, ye have corrupted the covenant of Levi (Malachi 2:4-6, 8).

"The covenant of Jehovah with Levi" signifies in the highest sense the union of the Divine with the Human in the Lord, and in a relative sense, the Lord's conjunction with the church; for by "Levi" as by "David" the Lord is meant, but "Levi" means the Lord in relation to Divine good, which is the priesthood of the Lord, and "David" in relation to Divine truth, which is the royalty of the Lord. That the Lord is meant by "Levi" is evident from its being said, "the law of truth was in his mouth, and perversity was not found in his lips," "the law of truth" signifying Divine truth from Divine good, and "lips" the doctrine of truth and instruction; and afterwards it is said:

The priest's lips shall keep knowledge; and they shall seek the law from His mouth, for He is the angel of Jehovah of Hosts (Malachi 2:7).

"A covenant of life and of peace" signifies that union and that conjunction (of which just above) from which the Lord Himself became life and peace, from which man has eternal life, and peace from the infestation by evils and falsities, thus by hell. What is signified by "His fear" may be seen above n. 696. Those who live contrary to Divine truth are meant by "ye have turned aside out of the way, ye have caused many to stumble in the law, ye have corrupted the covenant of Levi;" "to turn aside out of the way and to stumble in the law" signifies to live contrary to Divine truth, and "to corrupt the covenant of Levi" signifies to corrupt conjunction with the Lord.

(References: The Apocalypse Explained 696)


[10] In the same:

Behold, I send My messenger, and he shall prepare the way before Me; and the Lord shall suddenly come to His temple; and the angel of the covenant whom ye desire (Malachi 3:1).

It is evidently the Lord's coming that is here proclaimed. The Lord is here called "Lord" from Divine good, and "the angel of the covenant" from Divine truth (as may be seen above, n. 242, 433, 444, where the rest of the passage is explained). From this it can be seen that "covenant," in reference to the Lord, means either Himself or the union of His Divine with the Human in Him, and in reference to those who are in heaven and in the church it means conjunction with Him through the Divine that proceeds from Him.

(References: The Apocalypse Explained 242, The Apocalypse Explained 433, 444)


[11] Secondly, That the Divine proceeding, which is Divine truth, thus the Word, is the covenant, because it conjoins, can be seen from the following passages. In Moses:

Moses came down out of Mount Sinai, and told the people all the words of Jehovah and all the judgments. And all the people answered with one voice and said, All the words which Jehovah hath spoken will we do. And Moses wrote all the words of Jehovah in a book. And he took the book of the covenant, and read in the ears of the people; and they said, All that Jehovah hath spoken we will do and will hearken. And Moses took half of the blood of the burnt-offerings, and sprinkled upon the people, and said, Behold, the blood of the covenant that Jehovah hath concluded with you upon all these words. And they saw the God of Israel, and under His feet as it were a work of sapphire stone (Exodus 24:3, 4, 7, 8, 10).

That Divine truth which with us is the Word is a covenant, is evident from all these particulars regarded in the internal or spiritual sense; for Moses, who said these things to the people, represented the law, that is, the Word, as can be seen from various places where it is said, "Moses and the prophets," and elsewhere "the law and the prophets;" thus "Moses" stands for the law, and the law in a broad sense signifies the Word, which is Divine truth. The same may also be evident from this, that "Mount Sinai" signifies heaven, from which is Divine truth; likewise from this, that "the book of the covenant, which was read before the people," signifies the Word; also that the "blood," half of which was sprinkled upon the people, also signifies Divine truth, which is the Word, and as this conjoins, it is called "the blood of the covenant." Again, since all conjunction through Divine truth is conjunction with the Lord, "the God of Israel," who is the Lord, was seen by Moses, Aaron and his sons, and the seventy elders. What was "under His feet" was seen, because when "the Lord" means the Word, "His feet" mean the Word in its ultimates, that is, in the sense of its letter, for the sons of Israel did not see the Word interiorly; "as it were a work of sapphire stone" signifies to be transparent from internal truths, which are the spiritual sense of the Word. (But this may be seen explained in detail in Arcana Coelestia 9371-9412.)

(References: Exodus 24:3-4, 24:7-8)


[12] Of what nature the conjunction is that is signified by "covenant" can be seen from what has been set forth, namely, that it is like the covenants commonly made in the world, that is, on the part of one and on the part of the other; in like manner the covenants that the Lord makes with men must be on the part of the Lord and on the part of men; they must be on the part of both that there may be conjunction. The things on the Lord's part are stated in the preceding chapter, namely:

That He will bless their bread and their waters, that He will take away their diseases, and that they shall possess the land of Canaan from the Sea Suph even to the river Euphrates (Exodus 23:25-31).

Here "to bless the bread and the waters" signifies in the internal spiritual sense the fructification of good and the multiplication of truth, "bread" signifying every good of heaven and the church, and "waters" all the truths of that good; "to take away diseases" signifies to remove evils and falsities which are from hell, for these are diseases in the spiritual sense; "to possess the land from the Sea Suph to the river Euphrates" signifies the church in all its extension, which those have from the Lord who are conjoined to Him through Divine truth. But the things that must be on man's part are recounted in the three preceding chapters, and in brief are meant in the passage cited above by "the words and judgments of Jehovah" that Moses coming down from Mount Sinai declared to the people, to which the people, with one voice said, "All the words that Jehovah hath spoken we will do and will hearken. " It was for this reason that Moses divided the blood of the burnt offerings, and half of it, which was for the Lord, he left in the bowls, but the other half he sprinkled upon the people.

[13] That the conjunction of the Lord with men is effected through Divine truth is also meant by "blood" in the Gospels:

Jesus took the cup, saying, Drink ye all of it; this is My blood, that of the new covenant (Matthew 26:27, 28; Mark 14:23, 24; Luke 22:20).

This blood is called "the blood of the new covenant," because "blood" signifies the Divine truth proceeding from the Lord, and "covenant" signifies conjunction. (That "blood" signifies the Divine truth proceeding from the Lord, received by man, may be seen above, n. 329, 476; and that "to drink" signifies to receive, to make one's own, and thus be conjoined, may also be seen above, n. 617.)

(References: Mark 14:23-24; Matthew 26:27-28; The Apocalypse Explained 329, The Apocalypse Explained 476, The Apocalypse Explained 617)


[14] Likewise in Zechariah:

By the blood of thy covenant I will send forth thy bound out of the pit wherein is no water (Zechariah 9:11).

This is said of the Lord, who is plainly treated of in this chapter; and "the blood of the covenant" means, as above, the Divine truth, by which there is conjunction with the Lord. Who are meant by "those bound in the pit wherein is no water" can be seen above n. 537.

(References: The Apocalypse Explained 537)


[15] As the Lord called His blood, meaning the Divine truth proceeding from Him, "the blood of the new covenant," it shall be said briefly what is meant by "the old covenant" and "the new covenant." "The old covenant" means conjunction through such Divine truth as was given to the sons of Israel, which was external, and therefore representative of internal Divine truth. They had no other Divine truth, because they could not receive any other, for they were external and natural men, and not internal or spiritual, as can be seen from the fact that such as knew anything about the Lord's coming had no other thought of Him than that He was to be a king who would raise them above all the peoples in the whole world, and thus establish a kingdom with them on the earth, and not in the heavens and therefrom on the earth with all who believe on Him. "The old covenant," therefore, was a conjunction through such Divine truth as is contained in the books of Moses and is called "commandments, judgments, and statutes," in which, nevertheless, there lay inwardly hidden such Divine truth as is in heaven, which is internal and spiritual. This Divine truth was disclosed by the Lord when He was in the world; and as through this alone there is conjunction of the Lord with men, therefore this is what is meant by "the new covenant," also by "His blood," which is therefore called "the blood of the new covenant." "Wine" has a similar meaning.

[16] This "new covenant," which was to be entered into with the Lord when He should come into the world, is sometimes treated of in the Word of the Old Covenant. Thus in Jeremiah:

Behold the days come in which I will make a new covenant with the house of Israel and with the house of Judah, not as the covenant which I made with your fathers, for they have made My covenant void. But this is the covenant that I will make with the house of Israel after these days; I will give My law in the midst of them, and will write it upon their heart, and I will be to them for God, and they shall be to Me for a people; neither shall they teach anymore a man his companion, a man his brother, saying, Know ye Jehovah, for all shall know Me, from the least of them even to the greatest of them (Jeremiah 31:31-34).

That Jehovah, that is, the Lord, "was to make a new covenant with the house of Israel and house of Judah" does not mean that it was to be made with the sons of Israel and with Judah, but with all who from the Lord are in the truths of doctrine and in the good of love to the Lord. That these are meant in the Word by "the sons of Israel" and by "Judah" may be seen above n. 433; that "the days come" means the Lord's coming is evident. That there would then be conjunction with the Lord through Divine truth, internal and spiritual, is meant by the words, "This is the covenant that I will make with the house of Israel after these days, I will give My law in the midst of them, and will write it upon their heart." This signifies that they would then receive Divine truth inwardly in themselves; for spiritual Divine truth is received by man inwardly, thus otherwise than with the sons of Israel and the Jews, who received it outwardly; for when a man receives Divine truth inwardly in himself, that is, makes it to be of his love and thus of his life, truth is known from the truth itself, because the Lord flows into His own truth with man, and teaches him; this is what is meant by the words, "they shall no more teach a man his companion, and a man his brother, saying, Know ye Jehovah, for all shall know Me, from the least even to the greatest." The conjunction itself thereby effected, which "the new covenant" signifies, is meant by "I will be to them for God, and they shall be to Me for a people."

(References: The Apocalypse Explained 433)


[17] In the same:

They shall be to Me for a people, and I will be to them for God, and I will give them one heart and one way, to fear Me all the days; and I will make with them an eternal covenant that I will not turn Me back from after them, that I may do them good; and My fear will I put into their heart that they may not depart from with Me (Jeremiah 32:38-40).

This, too, is said of the Lord and of the new covenant with Him; conjunction thereby is meant by "I will be to them for God, and they shall be to me for a people," and is further described by this, that "He would give to them one heart and one way, to fear Him all the days," and that "He would not turn Himself back from after them, and that He would put fear into their heart that they might not depart from with Him;" "one heart and one way to fear Me" signifies one will of good and one understanding of truth for worshiping the Lord; and as the conjunction is reciprocal, that is, a conjunction of the Lord with them and of them with the Lord, it is said that He will not turn Him back from after them "that I may do them good, and they will not depart from with Me." From this it is clear what is signified by "the eternal covenant" that He will enter into with them, namely, conjunction through spiritual Divine truth, which truth, when received, constitutes the life of man, and from it comes eternal conjunction.

[18] In Ezekiel:

I will raise up over them one shepherd who shall feed them, My servant David. I Jehovah will be to them for God, and My servant David a prince in the midst of them. Then will I make with them a covenant of peace, I will cause the evil wild beast to cease that they may dwell securely in the wilderness, and sleep in the forests (Ezekiel 34:23-25).

This also is said of the Lord; and "David," who shall feed them and who shall be a prince in the midst of them, means the Lord in relation to the Divine truth, who is called a servant from serving; conjunction with the Lord through the Divine truth is meant by "the covenant" which He will make with them; this is called "a covenant of peace," because man by conjunction with the Lord has peace from the infestation of evil and falsity from hell; therefore also it is added, "I will cause the evil wild beast to cease, that they may dwell securely in the wilderness and sleep in the forests," "evil wild beast" meaning falsity and evil from hell, and "to dwell securely in the wilderness and to sleep in the forests" signifying that they shall be safe everywhere from all infestation from falsity and evil.

[19] In the same:

My servant David shall be a king over them, that they all may have one shepherd. And I will make a covenant of peace with them, it shall be a covenant of eternity with them; and I will give them and multiply them, and I will set My sanctuary in the midst of them to eternity, and My habitation with them; and I will be to them for God, and they shall be to Me for a people (Ezekiel 37:24, 26, 27).

Here also by "David" the Lord is meant, for it is evident that David was not to come again to be their king and shepherd; but the Lord is called "king" from Divine truth, for this is the royalty of the Lord, while Divine good is His priesthood; and the Lord is called "shepherd," because He will feed them with Divine truth, and thereby lead to the good of love, and thus to Himself; and because from this there is conjunction it is said, "I will make with them a covenant of peace, a covenant of eternity." What "a covenant of peace" signifies has been told just above, also that "I will be to them for God, and they shall be to Me for a people," means conjunction. The "sanctuary" that He will set in the midst of them, and the "habitation" that will be with them, signify heaven and the church, that are called a "sanctuary" from the good of love, and a "habitation" from the truths of that good, for the Lord dwells in truths from good.

(References: Ezekiel 37:26-27)


[20] In Hosea:

In that day will I make a covenant for them with the wild beast of the field, with the bird of the heavens, and with the creeping thing of the earth; and I will break the bow and the sword and war from the earth; and I will make them to lie down securely; and I will betroth thee to Me forever (Hosea 2:18, 19).

This treats of the establishment of a New Church by the Lord. It is clear that the Lord would not then make a covenant with the wild beast of the field, with the bird of the heavens, and with the creeping thing of the earth, therefore these signify such things as are with man; "the wild beast of the field" signifying the affection of truth and good, "the bird of the heavens" spiritual thought, and "the creeping thing of the earth" the knowledge of the natural man. (What the rest signifies may be seen above, n. 650.) This makes evident that the covenant the Lord will make is a spiritual covenant, or a covenant through spiritual truth, and not a covenant through natural truth such as was made with the sons of Israel; this latter was "the old covenant," the former was "the new covenant."

(References: Hosea 2:18-19; The Apocalypse Explained 650)


[21] As "the law" that was promulgated by the Lord from Mount Sinai meant in a broad sense the Word, so also the tables on which that law was written are called "tables of the covenant" in Moses:

I went up into the mount to receive the tables of stone, the tables of the covenant which Jehovah made with you. At the end of forty days and forty nights Jehovah gave to me the two tables of stone, the tables of the covenant (Deuteronomy 9:9, 11).

These "tables," that is, the law written upon them, mean the Divine truth, through which there is conjunction with the Lord, and because of that conjunction they are called "the tables of the covenant;" and as all conjunction, like a covenant, is effected from the part of one and the part of the other, thus in turn on the one side and on the other, so there were two tables, and these were of stone; they were of stone because "stone" signifies the Divine truth in ultimates (see Arcana Coelestia 643, 3720, 6426, 8609, 10376). For the same reason the ark in which these tables were placed was called "the ark of the Covenant," and with the sons of Israel this was the most holy thing of their worship, as has been shown in the preceding article.

[22] Thirdly, That the commandments, judgments, and statutes commanded to the sons of Israel were to them a covenant, because through these there was then conjunction with the Lord, can be seen from the following passages. In Moses:

If ye walk in My statutes, and keep My commandments and do them, I will have respect unto you, and will make you fruitful and multiply you, and I will establish My covenant with you. But if ye reject My statutes, so that ye do not all My commandments, whilst ye make My covenant void, I will do to you the opposite (Leviticus 26:3, 9, 15 seq.).

The statutes and commandments that were to be observed and done are set forth in the preceding chapter, and the goods they were to enjoy if they kept those commandments and statutes, and afterwards the evils that would come upon them if they did not keep them are set forth in this chapter. But the goods they were to enjoy were earthly and worldly goods, so too were the evils, because they were earthly and natural men, and not celestial and spiritual men, and consequently they knew nothing about the goods that affect man inwardly or the evils that afflict him inwardly; nevertheless the externals they were bound to observe were such as inwardly contained celestial and spiritual things, through which there is conjunction itself with the Lord; and as these were perceived in heaven, therefore the externals that the sons of Israel were to observe were called a "covenant." (But what the conjunction was of the Lord with the sons of Israel through these means may be seen in the New Jerusalem and Its Heavenly Doctrine, n. 248.)

[23] "Covenant" has a like meaning in the following passages. In Moses:

Jehovah said unto Moses, Write thou these words, for upon the mouth of these words I have made a covenant with thee and with Israel (Exodus 34:27).

In the same:

Keep the words of this covenant and do them, ye that stand here this day, your heads, your tribes, your officers, and every man of Israel, to pass over into the covenant of Jehovah and into His oath which Jehovah thy God maketh with thee this day, that He may establish thee this day for a people, and that He may be to thee for God; not with you only do I make this covenant and this oath, but also with everyone who is not here with you this day (Deuteronomy 29:9, 10, 12 -15).

In the second book of Kings:

King Josiah sent and gathered unto him all the elders of Judah and of Jerusalem; and the king went up to the house of Jehovah, and every man of Judah and all the inhabitants of Jerusalem with him, also the priests and the prophets, and the whole people from small even to great; and he read in their ears all the words of the book of the covenant which was found in the house of Jehovah; and the king stood by the pillar, and made the covenant before Jehovah to go after Jehovah and to keep His commandments and His testimonies and His statutes with all the heart and with all the soul, to establish all the words of this covenant written upon this book; and all the people stood in the covenant (2 Kings 23:1-3).

So, too, in other passages (Jeremiah 22:8, 9; 33:20-22; 50:5; Ezekiel 16:8; Malachi 2:14; Psalms 78:37; 50:5, 16; 103:17, 18; 105:8, 9; 106:45; 111:5, 9; Deuteronomy 17:2; 1 Kings 19:14). In all these passages "covenant" is mentioned, and by it the externals that the sons of Israel were to observe are meant.

(References: Deuteronomy 29:9-10, 29:12-15; Jeremiah 22:8-9; Psalms 103:17-18, 105:8-9)


[24] But as regards the covenant that the Lord made with Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, this was not the same as the covenant He made with the posterity of Jacob, but it was a covenant on the part of the Lord that their seed should be multiplied, and to their seed the land of Canaan should be given, and on the part of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, that every male should be circumcised. That the covenant with the posterity of Jacob was different is evident in Moses:

Jehovah our God made with us a covenant in Horeb; Jehovah made not this covenant with our fathers, but with us (Deuteronomy 5:2, 3).

Regarding the former covenant it is written in Moses:

Jehovah brought Abraham forth abroad, and said, Look toward heaven and number the stars; and He said to him, So shall thy seed be. And He said to him, Take to thee 1 a heifer of three years old, and a she-goat of three years old, and a ram of three years old, and a turtle-dove, and a young pigeon. And he divided them in the midst, and he laid each part over against the other, but the birds divided he not. And the sun went down and it became very dark; and behold a furnace of smoke and a torch of fire passed through between the pieces. In that day Jehovah made a covenant with Abraham 2 saying, Unto thy seed will I give this land, from the river of Egypt to the great river Euphrates (Genesis 15:5-18).

And afterwards:

I will give My covenant between Me and thee, and I will multiply thee exceedingly. I, behold, My covenant is with thee, and thou shalt be for a father of a multitude of nations, and I will make thee fruitful; and I will give to thee and to thy seed after thee the land of thy sojournings, all the land of Canaan, for an everlasting possession. This is My covenant that ye shall keep between Me and you and thy seed after thee. Every male shall be circumcised to you; he who is not circumcised in the flesh of the foreskin, that soul shall be cut off from his peoples, he hath made void My covenant. And My covenant will I set up with Isaac, whom Sarah shall bear to thee (Genesis 17:1-21).

From this it is clear what kind of a covenant was entered into with Abraham, namely, that "his seed should be multiplied exceedingly, and that the land of Canaan should be given to his seed for a possession. " The commandments, judgments, and statutes themselves by which the covenant was to be established are not mentioned, but still they are signified by "the heifer, she-goat, and ram of three years old," and by "the turtle-dove and young pigeon," for these animals signify such things as belong to the church, and "the land of Canaan" itself signifies the church. And because the Lord foresaw that the posterity of Abraham from Jacob would not keep the covenant, there appeared to Abraham "a furnace of smoke and a torch of fire passing through between the pieces;" "a furnace of smoke" signifying the dense falsity, and "the torch of fire" the direful evil into which the posterity of Jacob would come. This is confirmed also in Jeremiah 33:18-20. "Abraham divided the heifer, the she-goat, and the ram, and laid each part over against the other," according to the ritual of covenants between two parties. (But this may be seen fully explained in Arcana Coelestia 1783-1862.)

(References: Deuteronomy 5:2-3; Genesis 17:2, Genesis 17:21)


[25] The covenant was made by circumcision because circumcision represented the purification from the loves of self and of the world which are bodily and earthly loves, and the removal of these; therefore also the circumcision was made with a little knife of stone, which signified the truth of doctrine, by which all purification from evils and falsities and their removal is effected. (But the particulars recorded in that chapter respecting this covenant are explained in Arcana Coelestia 1987-2095; and respecting circumcision, n. 2039 at the end, 2046 at the end , 2632, 2799, 4462, 7044, 8093.) But as "Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob," mean in the internal sense the Lord, so "their seed" signify all who are of the Lord's church, which church is meant by "the land of Canaan," which their seed was to inherit.

(References: Arcana Coelestia 2039)


[26] There was also a covenant entered into with Noah:

That men should no more perish by the waters of a flood, and that a bow should be in the cloud for a sign of that covenant (Genesis 6:17, 18; 9:9, 17).

Conjunction of the Lord through Divine truth is involved also in that covenant, as can be seen from (Arcana Coelestia 659-675) the (Arcana Coelestia 1022-1059) explanation of the above in the Arcana Coelestia 659-675, 1022-1059). That "the bow in the cloud," or the rainbow, here signifies regeneration, which is effected by Divine truth and a life according to it, and that consequently that bow was taken for a sign of the covenant, may also be seen in the (Arcana Coelestia 1042) same work (n. 1042).

(References: Genesis 6:17-18)


[27] Fourth, That further, whatever conjoins is called a covenant; as the Sabbath in Moses:

The sons of Israel shall keep the Sabbath in their generations, the covenant of an age (Exodus 31:16).

The Sabbath was called "the covenant of an age," because the "Sabbath" signified in the highest sense the union of the Divine with the Human in the Lord, and in a relative sense the conjunction of the Lord with heaven and the church, and in a universal sense the conjunction of good and truth, which conjunction is called the heavenly marriage. Therefore "the rest on the Sabbath day" signified the state of that union and of that conjunction, since by that state there is peace and rest to the Lord, and thereby peace and salvation in the heavens and on the earth. (That this is the signification of "the Sabbath" and "the rest," then, can be seen in Arcana Coelestia 8494, 8495, 8510, 10356, 10360, 10367, 10370, 10374, 10668, 10730.)

(References: Arcana Coelestia 8494-8495)


[28] Again, the salt in the sacrifices is called "the salt of the covenant" in Moses:

Thou shalt not cause the salt of the covenant of thy God to cease upon thine offering, upon all thine offering thou shalt offer salt (Leviticus 2:13).

The salt upon the offering is called "the salt of the covenant," because "salt" signifies the desire of truth for good, whereby the two are conjoined. (On this signification of "salt" see Arcana Coelestia 9207.)

[29] A wife is called "the wife of a covenant" in Malachi:

Jehovah hath been a witness between thee and the wife of thy youth, against whom thou hast dealt treacherously, though she is thy companion and the wife of thy covenant (Malachi 2:14).

A wife is here called "the wife of the covenant" from her conjunction with her husband, but "wife" here signifies the church, and "the wife of youth" the Ancient Church, against which the Jewish Church is said to have dealt treacherously. Because these were both representative churches, and in this respect alike, and thus were conjoined, it is said, "though she is thy companion and the wife of thy covenant."

[30] "A covenant with the stones of the field" is spoken of in Job:

Thou shalt not be afraid of the wild beast of the field, for with the stones of the field is thy covenant, and the wild beast of the field shall be at peace with thee (Job 5:22, 23).

"A covenant with the stones of the field" signifies conjunction with the truths of the church, for "stones" signify truths, "field" the church, and "covenant" conjunction; "the wild beast of the field" signifies the love of falsity, of which wild beast "thou shalt not be afraid," and which "shall be at peace," when there is conjunction with the church through truths.

(References: Acts of the Apostles 5:22-23; Job 5:22-23)


[31] Again, "a covenant with wild beasts and birds" is spoken of in Hosea:

In that day will I make a covenant for them with the wild beast of the field, with the bird of the heavens, and with the creeping thing of the earth (Hosea 2:18).

And in Moses:

God said unto Noah, Behold I establish My covenant with you and with every living soul that is with you, the bird, the beast, and every wild beast of the earth with you, of all that go out of the ark, even every wild beast of the earth (Genesis 9:9, 10).

"A covenant with beast, wild beast, bird and creeping thing of the earth," signifies conjunction with such things with man as are signified by these, for "beast" signifies the affection of good, "wild beast" the affection of truth, "bird" the thinking faculty, and "creeping thing of the earth" the knowing faculty which lives from these affections.

(References: Genesis 9:9-10)


[32] "A covenant with death" is spoken of in Isaiah:

Ye have said, We have made a covenant with death, and with hell we have made vision. Your covenant with death shall be abolished, and your vision with hell shall not stand (Isaiah 28:15, 18).

"To make a covenant with death" signifies conjunction through falsity from hell, from which man dies spiritually; "to make a vision with hell" signifies divination from hell as if prophetic. From the passages here cited in series it can be seen that "covenant," where the Lord is treated of, signifies conjunction through Divine truth. There is, indeed, a conjunction with Him through the good of love; but because the Lord flows in with man through good into truths, whereby man has the affection of truth, and receives the Lord's good in truths, from which he acknowledges, confesses, and worships the Lord, thence the good of love conjoins through truth, comparatively as the heat of the sun in the time of spring and summer conjoins itself with the fructifications of the earth.

-----
Footnotes:

1.  The Hebrew has "for Me."

2.  The Hebrew has "Abram," as found in Arcana Coelestia 1863, 1864.

-----

(References: Genesis 17:2, Genesis 17:21; Malachi 2:4-8; Revelation 11:19)

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