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Arcana Coelestia #9372

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9372. And He said unto Moses. That this signifies that which concerns the Word in general, is evident from the representation of Moses, as being the Word (of which below); and from the signification of “He said,” as involving those things which follow in this chapter, thus those which concern the Word (see n. 9370). (That Moses represents the Word, can be seen from what has been often shown before about Moses, as from the preface to Genesis 18; and n. 4859, 5922, 6723, 6752, 6771, 6827, 7010, 7014, 7089, 7382, 8601, 8760, 8787, 8805.) Here Moses represents the Word in general, because it is said of him in what follows, that he alone should come near unto Jehovah (verse 2); and also that, being called unto out of the midst of the cloud, he entered into it, and went up the mount (verses 16-18).

(References: Exodus 24:16, 24:18)


[2] In the Word there are many who represent the Lord in respect to truth Divine, or in respect to the Word; but chief among them are Moses, Elijah, Elisha, and John the Baptist. That Moses does so, can be seen in the explications just cited above; that so do Elijah and Elisha, can be seen in the preface to Genesis 18; and n. 2762, 5247; and that John the Baptist does so is evident from the fact that he was “Elias who was to come.” He who does not know that John the Baptist represented the Lord as to the Word, cannot know what all those things infold and signify which are said about him in the New Testament; and therefore in order that this secret may stand open, and that at the same time it may appear that Elias, and also Moses, who were seen when the Lord was transfigured, signified the Word, some things may here be quoted which are spoken about John the Baptist; as in Matthew:

After the messengers of John had departed, Jesus began to speak concerning John, saying, What went ye out into the wilderness to see? a reed shaken by the wind? But what went ye out to see? a man clothed in soft raiment? Behold, they that wear soft things are in kings’ houses. But what went ye out to see? a prophet? Yea, I say unto you, even more than a prophet. This is he of whom it is written, Behold I send Mine angel before Thy face, who shall prepare Thy way before Thee. Verily I say unto you, Among those who are born of women there hath not arisen a greater than John the Baptist; nevertheless he that is less in the kingdom of the heavens is greater than he. All the prophets and the law prophesied until John. And if ye are willing to believe, he is Elias who was to come. He that hath ears to hear, let him hear (Matthew 11:7-15; and also Luke 7:24-28).

No one can know how these things are to be understood, unless he knows that this John represented the Lord as to the Word, and unless he also knows from the internal sense what is signified by “the wilderness” in which he was, also what by “a reed shaken by the wind,” and likewise by “soft raiment in kings’ houses;” and further what is signified by his being “more than a prophet,” and by “none among those who are born of women being greater than he, and nevertheless he that is less in the kingdom of the heavens is greater than he,” and lastly by his being “Elias.” For without a deeper sense, all these words are uttered merely from some comparison, and not from anything of weight.

(References: Arcana Coelestia 2135)


[3] But it is very different when by John is understood the Lord as to the Word, or the Word representatively. Then by “the wilderness of Judea in which John was” is signified the state in which the Word was at the time when the Lord came into the world, namely, that it was “in the wilderness,” that is, it was in obscurity so great that the Lord was not at all acknowledged, neither was anything known about His heavenly kingdom; when yet all the prophets prophesied about Him, and about His kingdom, that it was to endure forever. (That “a wilderness” denotes such obscurity, see n. 2708, 4736, 7313.) For this reason the Word is compared to “a reed shaken by the wind” when it is explained at pleasure; for in the internal sense “a reed” denotes truth in the ultimate, such as is the Word in the letter.

[4] That the Word in the ultimate, or in the letter, is crude and obscure in the sight of men; but that in the internal sense it is soft and shining, is signified by their “not seeing a man clothed in soft raiment, for behold those who wear soft things are in kings’ houses.” That such things are signified by these words, is plain from the signification of “raiment,” or “garments,” as being truths (n. 2132, 2576, 4545, 4763, 5248, 6914, 6918, 9093); and for this reason the angels appear clothed in garments soft and shining according to the truths from good with them (n. 5248, 5319, 5954, 9212, 9216). The same is evident from the signification of “kings’ houses,” as being the abodes of the angels, and in the universal sense, the heavens; for “houses” are so called from good (n. 2233, 2234, 3128, 3652, 3720, 4622, 4982, 7836, 7891, 7996, 7997); and “kings,” from truth (n. 1672, 2015, 2069, 3009, 4575, 4581, 4966, 5044, 6148). Therefore by virtue of their reception of truth from the Lord, the angels are called “sons of the kingdom,” “sons of the king,” and also “kings.”

(References: Arcana Coelestia 2233-2234, 7996-7997)


[5] That the Word is more than any doctrine in the world, and more than any truth in the world, is signified by “what went ye out to see? a prophet? Yea, I say unto you, and more than a prophet;” and by, “there hath not arisen among those who are born of women a greater than John the Baptist;” for in the internal sense “a prophet” denotes doctrine (n. 2534, 7269); and “those who are born,” or are the sons, “of women” denote truths (n. 489, 491, 533, 1147, 2623, 2803, 2813, 3704, 4257).

[6] That in the internal sense, or such as it is in heaven, the Word is in a degree above the Word in the external sense, or such as it is in the world, and such as John the Baptist taught, is signified by, “he that is less in the kingdom of the heavens is greater than he;” for as perceived in heaven the Word is of wisdom so great that it transcends all human apprehension. That the prophecies about the Lord and His coming, and that the representatives of the Lord and of His kingdom, ceased when the Lord came into the world, is signified by, “all the prophets and the law prophesied until John.” That the Word was represented by John, as by Elijah, is signified by his being “Elias who is to come.”

[7] The same is signified by these words in Matthew:

The disciples asked Jesus, Why say the scribes that Elias must first come? He answered and said, Elias must needs first come, and restore all things. But I say unto you, that Elias hath come already, and they knew him not, but did unto him whatsoever they wished. Even so shall the Son of man also suffer of them. And they understood that He spoke to them of John the Baptist (Matthew 17:10-13).

That “Elias hath come, and they knew him not, but did unto him whatsoever they wished” signifies that the Word has indeed taught them that the Lord is to come, but that still they did not wish to comprehend, interpreting it in favor of the rule of self, and thus extinguishing what is Divine in it. That they would do the same with the truth Divine itself, is signified by “even so shall the Son of man also suffer of them.” (That “the Son of man” denotes the Lord as to truth Divine, see n. 2803, 2813, 3704)

[8] From all this it is now evident what is meant by the prophecy about John in Malachi:

Behold I send you Elijah the prophet before the great and terrible day of Jehovah cometh (Malachi 4:5).

Moreover, the Word in the ultimate, or such as it is in the external form in which it appears before man in the world, is described by the “clothing” and “food” of John the Baptist, in Matthew:

John the Baptist, preaching in the wilderness of Judea, had His clothing of camel’s hair, and a leathern girdle about his loins; and his food was locusts and wild honey (Matthew 3:1, 4).

In like manner it is described by Elijah in the second book of Kings:

He was a hairy man, and girt with a girdle of leather about his loins (2 Kings 1:8).

By “clothing,” or a “garment,” when said of the Word, is signified truth Divine there in the ultimate form; by “camel’s hair” are signified memory-truths such as appear there before a man in the world; by the “leathern girdle” is signified the external bond connecting and keeping in order all the interior things; by “food” is signified spiritual nourishment from the knowledges of truth and of good out of the Word; by “locusts” are signified ultimate or most general truths; and by “wild honey” their pleasantness.

[9] That such things are signified by “clothing” and “food” has its origin in the representatives of the other life, where all appear clothed according to truths from good, and where food also is represented according to the desires of acquiring knowledge and growing wise. From this it is that “clothing,” or a “garment,” denotes truth (as may be seen from the citations above; and that “food” or “meat” denotes spiritual nourishment, n. 3114, 4459, 4792, 5147, 5293, 5340, 5342, 5576, 5579, 5915, 8562, 9003; that “a girdle” denotes a bond which gathers up and holds together interior things, n. 9341; that “leather” denotes what is external, n. 3540; and thus “a leathern girdle” denotes an external bond; that “hairs” denote ultimate or most general truths, n. 3301, 5569-5573; that “a camel” denotes memory-knowledge in general, n. 3048, 3071, 3143, 3145, 4156; that “a locust” denotes nourishing truth in the extremes, n. 7643; and that “honey” denotes the pleasantness thereof, n. 5620, 6857, 8056). It is called “wild honey,” or “honey of the field,” because by “a field” is signified the church (n. 2971, 3317, 3766, 7502, 7571, 9139, 9295). He who does not know that such things are signified, cannot possibly know why Elijah and John were so clothed. And yet that these things signified something peculiar to these prophets, can be thought by everyone who thinks well about the Word.

[10] Because John the Baptist represented the Lord as to the Word, therefore also when he spoke of the Lord, who was the Word itself, he said of himself that he was “not Elias, nor the prophet,” and that he was “not worthy to loose the latchet of the Lord’s shoe,” as in John:

In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and God was the Word. And the Word became flesh, and dwelt among us, and we beheld His glory. The Jews from Jerusalem, priests and Levites, asked John who he was. And he confessed, and denied not, I am not the Christ. Therefore they asked him, What then? Art thou Elias? But he said, I am not. Art thou the prophet? He answered, No. They said therefore unto him, Who art thou? He said, I am the voice of one crying in the wilderness, Make straight the way of the Lord, as said Isaiah the prophet. They said therefore, Why then baptizest thou, if thou art not the Christ, nor Elias, nor the prophet? He answered, I baptize with water; in the midst of you standeth one whom ye know not; He it is who is to come after me, who was before me, the latchet of whose shoe I am not worthy to unloose. When he saw Jesus, he said, Behold the Lamb of God, who taketh away the sin of the world! This is He of whom I said, After me cometh a man who was before me; for he was before me (John 1:1, 14, 19-30).

From these words it is plain that when John spoke about the Lord Himself, who was Truth Divine itself, or the Word, he said that he himself was not anything, because the shadow disappears when the light itself appears, that is, the representative disappears when the original itself makes its appearance. (That the representatives had in view holy things, and the Lord Himself, and not at all the person that represented, see n. 665, 1097, 1361, 3147, 3881, 4208, 4281, 4288, 4292, 4307, 4444, 4500, 6304, 7048, 7439, 8588, 8788, 8806.) One who does not know that representatives vanish like shadows at the presence of light, cannot know why John denied that he was Elias and the prophet.

[11] From all this it can now be seen what is signified by Moses and Elias, who were seen in glory, and who spoke with the Lord when transfigured, of His departure which He should accomplish at Jerusalem (Luke 9:29-31); namely, that they signified the Word (“Moses” the historic Word, and “Elias” the prophetic Word), which in the internal sense throughout treats of the Lord, of His coming into the world, and of His departure out of the world; and therefore it is said that “Moses and Elias were seen in glory,” for “glory” denotes the internal sense of the Word, and the “cloud” its external sense (see the preface to Genesis 18, and n. 5922, 8427).

(References: Arcana Coelestia 2135; Exodus 24:1-2)

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Arcana Coelestia 9374, 9378, 9379, 9382, 9386, 9429, 9504, 9779, 9806, 9828, 9954, 10027, 10090, 10215, 10251, 10337, 10355, 10375, 10396, 10397, 10400, 10432, 10450, 10460, 10468, 10528, 10549, 10551, 10635, 10636, 10641, 10690


References from Swedenborg's unpublished works:

Apocalypse Explained 19, 64, 66, 83, 130, 355, 375, 701, 710, 735, 746

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Arcana Coelestia #1672

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1672. And the kings that were with him. That this signifies the apparent truth which is of that good, is evident from the signification of “kings” in the Word. “Kings,” “kingdoms,” and “peoples,” in the historical and the prophetical parts of the Word, signify truths and the things which are of truths, as may be abundantly confirmed. In the Word an accurate distinction is made between a “people” and a “nation;” by a “people” are signified truths, and by a “nation” goods, as before shown (n. 1259, 1260). “Kings” are predicated of peoples, but not so much of nations. Before the sons of Israel sought for kings, they were a nation, and represented good, or the celestial; but after they desired a king, and received one, they became a people, and did not represent good or the celestial, but truth or the spiritual; which was the reason why this was imputed to them as a fault (see 1 Samuel 8:7-22, concerning which subject, of the Lord’s Divine mercy elsewhere). As Chedorlaomer is named here, and it is added, “the kings that were with him,” both good and truth are signified; by “Chedorlaomer,” good, and by “the kings,” truth. But what was the quality of the good and truth at the beginning of the Lord’s temptations has already been stated.

(References: Arcana Coelestia 1259-1260, Genesis 14:5)

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The New Jerusalem and its Heavenly Doctrine 1


References from Swedenborg's unpublished works:

Apocalypse Explained 27, 126, 236


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Apocalypse Explained #411

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411. (v. 16) And said to the mountains and rocks, Fall on us. That this signifies a covering by evils and the falsities thence, is plain from the signification of mountains, as denoting the evils flowing from the loves of self and of the world (concerning which see above, n. 405); and from the signification of rocks, as denoting falsities from evil, concerning which see below; and from the signification of, to fall on us, as denoting to be covered by them. These thing's also must be illustrated from such things as exist in the spiritual world, when the Last Judgment takes place; for they are said concerning the Last Judgment, as is evident from the verse following, where it is said, "for the great day of his anger is come, and who shall be able to stand?" By which day, are meant the time and the state of the Last Judgment. The state of the wicked then is such, that they cast themselves down from the mountains and rocks, upon which they made their habitations, into hells which are deep according to the atrocity of the evils and falsities with them; and this they themselves do, because they cannot endure the Divine good and the Divine truth. The higher heavens are then opened, from which the light of heaven flows in, which is the Divine truth united with the Divine good. By this light, the pretended goods and truths which are with them are restrained; these being restrained, their evils and falsities are opened; and because these and those cannot endure the light of heaven, for they are straitened and tortured by it, therefore they cast themselves from the mountains and rocks, into hells which are deep according to the quality of their evil and falsity; some into gaps and caves, and some into holes and under rocks, which then stand open before them; and after they have cast themselves thither, the openings are closed. In this manner the ejection of evil spirits from the mountains and hills which they occupied, is effected (as may be seen above, n. 391, 392, 394). When these characters are in the caves and under the rocks, the anguish and torment which they suffered from the influx of the light of heaven, then cease; for they have rest in their evils and in the falsities thence, because these were their delights; for the delights of his life remain with every one after death, and the delights of the life are the delights of the respective loves, every delight of his life being the delights of those loves.

(References: Revelation 6:16; The Apocalypse Explained 391-392, 394, The Apocalypse Explained 405)


[2] Hence it is evident what is signified by their calling to the mountains and the rocks to fall on them. Also what is signified in Hosea:

"They shall say to the mountains, Cover us, and to the hills, Fall on us" (x. 8).

And in Luke:

"Then shall they begin to say to the mountains, Fall on us, and to the hills, Cover us" (xxiii. 30).

Here also the Last Judgment is treated of. The light of heaven, which is the Divine truth united with the Divine good, from the influx and presence of which the evil who cast themselves down are perplexed and tormented, is meant by the words immediately following in this verse:

"Hide us from the face of him that sitteth upon the throne, and from the anger of the Lamb."

The anger of the Lamb is mentioned because they are tormented their torment, however, does not arise thence, but from the evils of their loves and from the falsities of their faith. Because these have formed all the interiors of their mind, for the mind of every one is formed from his love, and the faith thence, so as to be a likeness thereof in form; and because the interiors of the mind of those who are in evils and the falsities thence, are turned away into a contrary part or into a quarter opposite to Divine goods and truths, therefore, when the Divine truth flows in, and endeavours to drive back the interiors of their minds, and thereby to lead them into heaven, which the Divine truth proceeding from the Lord in all cases effects where it flows in, and they are unwilling to recede from the delights of their loves, they thence experience anguish and torment, which cease when they come into the hells, where similar delights or similar loves rule.

(References: Hosea 10:8; Luke 23:30)


[3] Having shown above (n. 405) what mountains and hills signify, it shall, therefore, now be shown that rocks signify truth from spiritual good, also the truth and good of faith, but, in an opposite sense, the falsity of faith. That rocks signify such things, is also from appearances in the spiritual world; for rocks (petroe et rupes) appear there as mountains and hills appear, as was shown above, and upon the rocks there dwell those who are in truths from spiritual good, and who are in the truth and good of faith; but the mountains and hills differ from the rocks (petris et rupibus) here in this, that the mountains and hills are of earth, whereas the rocks are of stone; for ground corresponds to the good of love, and hence signifies it, whereas stone corresponds to the truth of faith, and thence signifies it; and as most things in the Word have also an opposite sense, so also rocks, and in that sense, they signify the falsity of faith, and this also from correspondence, for those who are in the falsities of faith dwell among the rocks in caverns there.

(References: Psalms 141:6; The Apocalypse Explained 405)


[4] That rock signifies truth from good, and the truth of faith, and, in the highest sense, the Lord as to these, is clear from following passages.

In Daniel:

"Thou sawest till that a stone was cut out not by hands, which smote the image upon his feet that were of iron and clay. And the stone that smote the image, became a great rock, and filled the whole earth" (ii. 34, 35).

This was said of the image which Nebuchadnezzar saw in his dream. That by the stone which became a great rock, is meant the Lord, is evident from the particulars here; but what the preceding things signify shall first be explained. By the head of the image which was gold, is signified the Most Ancient Church, which was a celestial church, or the church in which the good of love to the Lord reigned; this good is signified in the Word by gold, and also by the head. By the breast and the arms which were silver, is signified the Ancient Church, which succeeded the Most Ancient, and this church was a spiritual church, or the church in which reigned the good of charity towards the neighbour, and the truth from that good. This truth and that good are signified by silver, and also by the breast and the arms. By the belly and the thighs which were brass, is signified the church which succeeded the Ancient spiritual Church, and may be called spiritual-natural; in it reigned the good of faith, and the truth from that good. This good is signified in the Word by brass, and also by the belly and the thighs; but by the legs and the feet, which were part iron and part clay, is signified the Israelitish and Jewish Church, which was an external church without any internal, which, therefore, did not possess good and truth, but truth falsified, which in itself is falsity, and good adulterated, which in itself is evil; therefore it is said concerning it in that chapter,

"Thou sawest iron mixed with miry clay, they shall mingle themselves with the seed of man; but they shall not cohere one with the other, even as iron is not mixed with clay" (verse 43).

Iron signifies natural truth, and miry clay natural good, similarly the feet and legs; but here, the clay signifies good adulterated, and iron truth such as there is in the external sense of the Word; for the seed of man denotes the Word where goods and truths are, the adulterations and falsifications of which are described by iron mixed with clay, which do not cohere one with the other. That there have been four churches, one after other, may be seen in the Doctrine of the New Jerusalem, n. 247, 248. By the stone which smote the image, is meant Divine truth from the Lord. That it became a great rock, and filled the whole earth, signifies that the Lord by Divine truth is about to rule over heaven and the church, the earth here denoting the church and also heaven; therefore it is also said, that this kingdom shall stand for ever (verse 44). By kingdom also are signified the church and heaven, for there is the kingdom of God. That Divine truth [is signified] by a stone, and that the Lord as to Divine truth is here meant by a rock, is plain from the signification of a stone, in the Word, when said of the Lord:

As in Gen. xlix. 24; Ps. cxviii. 22, 23; Isa. xxviii. 16; Matt. xxi. 42, 44; Mark xii. 10, 11; Luke xx. 17, 18.

Whether you say the Lord, or the Divine truth, it is the same thing, because all Divine truth is from Him, and hence He is in it. It is from this circumstance also that the Lord is called the Word, for the Word is Divine truth. (That a stone in the highest sense, signifies the Lord as to the Divine truth, and thence, in a lower sense, truth from good, may be seen, n. 643, 1298, 3720, 6426, 8609, 10,376.)

(References: Arcana Coelestia 643, Arcana Coelestia 1298, Arcana Coelestia 3720, Arcana Coelestia 6426, Arcana Coelestia 8609, Arcana Coelestia 10376; Daniel 2:34-35, 2:43, 2:44; Genesis 49:23-24, 49:24; Isaiah 28:16; Luke 20:17-18; Mark 12:10-11; Matthew 21:42, 21:44; Psalms 118:22-23; The New Jerusalem and its Heavenly Doctrine 247-248)


[5] That a rock signifies the Lord as to the Divine truth is plain from

the rock in Horeb, from which the waters were given to the Israelitish people (Exod. xvii. 5, 6).

And that it was commanded,

that Moses and Aaron speak unto the rock, and so they should sanctify Jehovah in the eyes of the sons of Israel; but that Moses smote it with a staff twice, wherefore it was denounced unto Moses and Aaron that they should not bring the people into the land of Canaan (Num. xx. 7-12).

That this rock signified the Lord, is known in the church; but it is not known that the reason of this signification is, that a rock, in the Word, signifies the Divine truth proceeding from the Lord; therefore also Moses and Aaron were commanded to speak to it, and thus to sanctify Jehovah in the eyes of the sons of Israel. By the waters also that flowed forth, is signified the Divine truth; and by making the people drink of them is signified to nourish spiritually, which is effected by instructing and teaching. (That waters signify truths, may be seen above, n. 71; and that to drink, and to be given to drink, signify to be instructed and to be taught, in the Arcana Coelestia, n. 3069, 3772, 4017, 4018, 8562, 9412.)

The same is signified by a rock in Isaiah:

"They shall not thirst; he led them in the waste places; he shall cause the waters to flow out of the rock for them: when he cleaveth the rock, that the waters flow out" (xlviii. 21).

In David:

"He clave asunder the rocks in the wilderness, and made the great depths to drink; and he brought streams also out of the rock, and they remembered that God was their Rock, and the high God their Redeemer" (Ps. lxxviii. 15, 16, 20, 35).

In the same:

"He opened the rock, that the waters should flow out; they went in the dry places, like a river" (Ps. cv. 41).

In the same:

"Bring forth, thou earth, at the presence of the Lord, at the presence of the God of Jacob; who turned the rock into a pool of waters, the flinty rock into a fountain of waters" (Ps. cxiv. 7, 8).

That a rock in these passages signifies the Lord as to Divine truth, or what is the something, Divine truth from the Lord, is evident from what has been said above, and further from the fact, that in those two passages in David, the redemption and the regeneration of the men of the church are treated of, which are effected by Divine truth from the Lord. Redemption [is meant] by these words; "they remembered that God was their Rock, and the high God their Redeemer"; regeneration, by these words; "bring forth, thou earth, at the presence of the Lord"; to bring forth, when said of the church, signifies to be reformed and regenerated.

(References: Arcana Coelestia 3069, Arcana Coelestia 3772, Arcana Coelestia 4017-4018, Arcana Coelestia 8562, Arcana Coelestia 9412; Exodus 17:5-6; Isaiah 48:21; Numbers 20:8-12, Numbers 20:8-13; Psalms 78:15-16, 78:20, 78:35, Psalms 105:41, 114:7-8; The Apocalypse Explained 71)


[6] In Isaiah

"Hearken unto me, ye that follow after justice, ye that seek Jehovah; look back to the rock out of which ye were hewn, and to the digging out of the pit out of which ye were digged" (li. 1).

By the rock is meant the Lord as to the Divine truth, and by the pit is signified the Word, as also in other places; to be hewn out of the rock, and to be digged out of the pit, signify to be regenerated from Divine truths and Divine goods, thus by truths from good from the Lord; for stones that are cut out of a rock, signify truths from the Lord; and ground which is dug out of the pit, signifies good from the Lord, therefore it is called the digging out of the pit.

(References: Isaiah 51:1)


[7] In Moses:

"Ascribe ye greatness unto our God. He is the Rock, whose work is perfect and all his ways are judgment. He made him ride on the high places of the earth, and feedeth him with the produce of the fields; he maketh him to suck honey out of the rock, and oil out of the stone of the rock. The Rock that begat thee hast thou given to forgetfulness, and hast forgotten God thy Former. Is it not because their Rock has sold them, and Jehovah has shut them up? For their rock is not as our Rock, neither are our enemies judges" (Deut. xxxii, 3, 4, 13, 18, 30, 31).

These things are said concerning the Ancient Church, which was a church that was in truths from good; therefore truths from good are described by various things that correspond, as by, "He made him to ride upon the high places of the earth, he fed him with the produce of the fields, he made him to suck honey out of the rock, and oil out of the stone of the rock." The understanding of the spiritual things of this church is signified by, "He caused him to ride upon the high places of the earth"; to ride signifying to understand, the high places of the earth denoting the spiritual things of the church; spiritual nourishment thence is signified by, "He fed him with the produce of the fields"; to eat denoting to nourish, and the produce of the fields denoting all things of the church. That they had natural good and spiritual good by Divine truth from the Lord, is signified by, "He made them to suck honey out of the rock, and oil out of the stone of the rock"; honey denoting natural good, and oil denoting spiritual good, the rock denoting external Divine truth from the Lord, which is for the natural man, and the stone of the rock denoting internal Divine truth from the Lord, which is for the spiritual man. The Jewish Church, which was in no Divine truth, is after this here treated of, concerning which it is said, "The Rock that begat thee hast thou given to forgetfulness, and hast forgotten God thy Former," by which is signified that the Lord, and hence the Divine truth, by which the church is reformed, were rejected. The Rock denotes the Lord as to Divine truth, and reformation thereby from Him is signified by, "that begat thee," and by, "God thy Former." That they were entirely deprived of truth and good, is signified by, "their Rock has sold them, and Jehovah has shut them up," Rock being said of truth, and Jehovah of good; to sell and to shut up denote to be deprived of. That they would be in falsity from evil is signified by, "their rock is not as our Rock, neither are our enemies judges"; their rock denoting falsity, our enemies denoting evils, not judges signifying without truths and good. From these things it is evident that a rock signifies the Lord as to Divine truth, and in an opposite sense falsity.

(References: Deuteronomy 32:3-4, 32:13, 32:18, 32:30-31)


[8] In the second book of Samuel:

"The Spirit of Jehovah spake in me, and his word was upon my tongue. The God of Israel said, the Rock of Israel spake, he that ruleth in the just man, the fear of God that ruleth" (xxiii. 2, 3).

Rock is here clearly [used] for the Lord, for by the God of Israel, in the Word, is meant the Lord; therefore it is said, "The Spirit of Jehovah spake in me, and his word was upon my tongue," likewise, "The God of Israel said, the Rock of Israel spake to me." The Spirit of Jehovah, and His word signify the Divine truth, and the Lord is called the God of Israel from worship, and the Rock of Israel from the Divine truth, from which worship [springs]. Because it is the Lord who is meant, therefore it is said that the Rock of Israel spake. His dominion over those who are in good and those who are in truth, is signified by, ruling over the just man, ruling over him who has the fear of God; just being said of good, and the fear of God of truth. For in that Psalm of David the Lord is treated of; whence also it is evident that the Lord is meant by the God of Israel, and by the Rock of Israel.

(References: 2 Samuel 23:2-3)


[9] In David:

"O that my people had hearkened unto me, that Israel had walked in my ways! I would have fed them with the fat of the wheat; and with honey out of the rock would I have satisfied them" (Ps. lxxxi. 13, 16).

By the rock here also is meant the Lord as to Divine truth, as may be seen above (n. 374), where they are explained. In the same:

"Who is God save Jehovah? or who is a Rock besides our God? Jehovah liveth, and my Rock is blessed, and the God of my salvation shall be exalted" (Ps. xviii, 31, 46; 2 Sam. xxii. 2, 3, [32], 47).

The reason why it is said, "Who is God save Jehovah? and, who is a Rock besides our God? is, because where Divine good is treated of, the Lord is called Jehovah; and where Divine truth is treated of, He is called God, and also Rock, as [He is] here. Similarly afterwards, "Jehovah liveth, and my Rock is blessed; and the God of my salvation shall be exalted," signifies that He is to be worshipped by means of truths from good, whence there is salvation; to be exalted, when said of God, is said of worship from good by means of truths.

(References: 2 Samuel 22:2-3, 22:32, 22:47; Psalms 18:2, 18:31, 18:46, Psalms 81:13, 81:16; The Apocalypse Explained 374)


[10] In the same:

"Let the words of my mouth, and the meditation of my heart, be well-pleasing in thy sight, O Jehovah, my Rock, and my Redeemer" (Ps. xix. 14).

By Jehovah, the Rock, is signified the same as by Jehovah God, namely, the Lord as to Divine good and Divine truth; and [He is called] Redeemer from regeneration, which is effected by means of the Divine truth. The words of the mouth signify the understanding of truth, and the meditation of the heart the perception of good. In the same:

"I say unto God my Rock, Why hast thou forgotten me?" (Ps. xlii. 9).

By, God the Rock, is meant the Lord as to Divine truth, here as to defence. In the same:

"Unto thee do I cry, O Jehovah, my Rock; be not silent from me; be not thou peradventure silent from me" (Ps. xxviii. 1).

Here also Jehovah and Rock are mentioned, because by Jehovah is meant the Lord as to Divine good, and by the Rock the Lord as to Divine truth, and because both are meant, therefore also it is twice said, "Be not silent from me; be not thou peradventure silent from me"; for one has reference to the Divine good, the other to the Divine truth, for in the Word there is a heavenly marriage in all its details, which is the marriage of good and truth.

In Habakkuk:

"O Jehovah, thou hast ordained him for judgment; and thou, O Rock, hast strengthened him for trial" (i. 12).

In Isaiah:

"Trust ye in Jehovah for ever; for in Jah Jehovah is the Rock of eternity" (xxvi. 4).

In the same:

"Ye shall have a song, as of the night of sanctifying the feast; and gladness of heart, as of one going with a pipe to come into the mountain of Jehovah, to the Rock of Israel" (xxx. 29).

In the same:

"Is there a God beside me? yea, there is no Rock, I have not known any" (xliv. 8).

In David:

"We shall make a joyful noise unto the Rock of our salvation; we shall come before his face with confession" (Ps. xcv. 1, 2).

In the first book of Samuel:

"There is none holy as Jehovah; for there is none beside thee; and there is not any Rock like our God" (ii. 2).

In David:

"Upright is Jehovah my Rock" (xcii. 15).

In the same:

"He shall cry unto me, Thou art my Father, my God, the Rock of my salvation. Also I will make him the first-born, high over the kings of the earth" (Ps. lxxxix. 27, 28).

In these passages, by Rock is meant the Divine truth from the Lord, and the Lord Himself.

(References: 1 Samuel 2:2; Habakkuk 1:12; Isaiah 26:4, Isaiah 30:29, Isaiah 44:8; Psalms 19:14, 28:1, 42:9, Psalms 89:26-27, 92:15, 95:1-2)


[11] Besides also in other passages: as in the Evangelists:

"Everyone who heareth my words, and doeth them, I will liken him unto a prudent man, who built his house upon a rock; and the rain descended, and the floods came, and the winds blew, and beat upon that house; yet it fell not; for it was founded upon a rock" (Matt. vii. 24, 25; Luke vi. 48).

By the house founded upon a rock are meant the church, and the men of the church, who have founded their doctrine and life upon the Divine truth which is from the Lord, thus upon those things that are in the Word, [and] who, consequently, are in truths from good from the Lord. It is said, who are in truths from good, because the Divine truth is received only by him who is in good. To be in good is to be in the good of life, which is charity, therefore it is said, "He who heareth my words and doeth them"; to do the Lord's words is the good of life. For truth, when a man does it, becomes good, because it enters the will and love, and that which becomes of the will and love, is called good. The temptations, in which such a man of the church does not fall but conquers, are signified by, "the rain descended, the floods came, the winds blew and beat upon the house; and yet it fell not; for it was founded upon a rock"; for in the Word, by floods of waters, and showers, and also by whirlwinds, are signified temptations; it is indeed a comparison, but it should be known, that all comparisons in the Word are equally from correspondences, as are the things not said comparatively (as may be seen above, n. 69, and in Arcana Coelestia, n. 3579, 8989). From these things it is now quite clear, that by a rock in the Word is signified the Lord as to Divine truth, or Divine truth from the Lord.

(References: Arcana Coelestia 3579, Arcana Coelestia 8989; Luke 6:48; Matthew 7:24-25; The Apocalypse Explained 69)


[12] Hence it is evident what is signified by the Lord's words to Peter, in Matthew:

"He said to the disciples, But whom say ye that I am? Simon Peter answered, Thou art the Christ, the Son of the living God. Jesus answering said unto him, Blessed art thou, Simon, son of Jona; for flesh and blood have not revealed it unto thee, but my Father who is in the heavens. I say unto thee, Thou art Peter, and upon this rock I will build my church; and the gates of hell shall not prevail against it. And I will give unto thee the keys of the kingdom of the heavens, that whatsoever thou shalt bind on earth, shall be bound in the heavens; and whatsoever thou shalt loose on earth, shall be loosed in the heavens" (xvi. 15-19).

By Peter here is not meant Peter, but Divine truth from the Lord is meant, as in the passages adduced above; for all the Lord's disciples together represented the church, and every one of them some [particular] of the church; Peter the truth of the church, James its good, and John good in act or works. The rest of the disciples represented the truths and goods which are derived from these, in the same manner as the twelve tribes of Israel. That this is the case, will be seen in what follows, when the tribes and the disciples are treated of. Hence it is, that those three disciples are mentioned in the Word more frequently than the others.

(References: Matthew 16:15-19)


[13] The reason why the Lord addressed those words to Peter is because he then confessed, saying, "Thou art the Christ, the Son of the living God," which in the spiritual sense signifies that He was the Divine truth, which Christ and also the Son of God signify. That Christ [signifies this] may be seen in the Arcana Coelestia, n. 3004, 3005, 3009; that the Son of God also [signifies this], above, n. 63, 151, 166. By virtue of this confession, Peter represented the Divine truth from the Lord in the church, therefore he was also called Peter [Petra], and it is said, "thou art Peter [Petra], upon this rock [Petra] I will build my church"; by which therefore is signified, upon the Divine truth from the Lord, or what is the same thing, upon truths from good, for upon these the church is built. That Peter might represent this in the church, he was called by the Lord a rock, as is evident in John:

"Jesus beholding him said unto him, Thou art Simon the son of Jona; thou shalt be called Cephas, which is, by interpretation, a rock" (i. 42).

Cephas signifies a rock in the Syriac tongue, therefore also Peter, in that text, is everywhere called Cephas; and Cephas also is a rock in the Hebrew tongue, as is evident in Jer. iv. 29, and Job xxx. 6 where rocks are mentioned in the plural number; but Peter is not called a rock in the Greek and Latin tongues, because the name was given to him as a person.

(References: Arcana Coelestia 3004-3005, 3009; Jeremiah 4:29; Job 30:6; John 1:42; The Apocalypse Explained 63, The Apocalypse Explained 151, 166)


[14] The reason why the Lord said, Simon son of Jona, and afterwards he was called a rock, is, because Simon son of Jona signifies truth from good, or faith from charity; and because as truth from good or faith from charity is only given with those who are in Divine truth from the Lord, and Peter then confessed [the Lord], therefore he is called Peter, not himself, as a person, but that Divine truth which was from the Lord in his confession. That it was from the Lord is meant by the Lord's words, that flesh and blood hath not revealed it unto thee, but My Father who is in the heavens; by the Father in the heavens is meant the Divine in the Lord, because the Father was in Him, and He in the Father, and thus they were one (John xiv. 7-11; x. 30-38). That Simon signifies truth in the will, will be seen in the following chapter; and that a dove, which is signified by Jona, signifies spiritual good, may be seen in the Arcana Coelestia (n. 870, 1826, 1827). Hence by Simon son of Jona is signified the truth of good, or truth from good. Because the hells can avail nothing against the Divine truth proceeding from the Lord, nor against any man in whom there is Divine truth from the Lord, therefore the Lord declares that the gates of hell shall not prevail against it.

(References: Arcana Coelestia 870, Arcana Coelestia 1826-1827; John 10:30, 10:38, 14:7-11)


[15] The Lord further said:

"I will give unto thee the keys of the kingdom of the heavens; and whatsoever thou shalt bind on earth, shall be bound in the heavens; and whatsoever thou shalt loose on earth, shall be loosed in the heavens."

This signifies that all things are possible to those who are in truths from good from the Lord, in perfect agreement with these words:

"Whatsoever things we desire, when ye pray, believe that ye will receive them, and it shall also be done unto you" (Mark xi. 24; Matt. vii. 8; Luke xi. 9).

How these words are to be understood, may be seen above (n. 405), namely, that if they ask from the faith of charity, they do not ask from themselves, but from the Lord, for whatever any one asks from the Lord and not from himself, he receives. That these words, "whatsoever thou shalt bind on earth, shall be bound in the heavens; and whatsoever thou shalt loose on earth, shall be loosed in the heavens," signify that which was then declared, is evident from the Lord's words to the disciples (and thus to all who are in truths from good from the Lord), in Matthew:

"Verily I say unto you, Whatsoever ye shall bind on earth, shall be bound in heaven; and whatsoever ye shall loose on earth, shall be loosed in heaven" (xviii. 18).

(References: Luke 11:9; Mark 11:24; Matthew 7:8, Matthew 18:18; The Apocalypse Explained 405)


[16] These words were spoken to all, thus not to Peter only. That this is so the Lord in that chapter immediately declares by these words:

"I say unto you, That if two of you shall agree on earth in my name respecting anything that they shall ask, it shall be done for them by my Father who is in the heavens. For where two or three are gathered together in my name, there am I in the midst of them" (verses 19, 20).

By the Lord's name is meant everything by which He is worshipped; and because He is worshipped by means of truth from good, which is from Him, this therefore is meant by His name (that this is meant by the Lord's name may be seen above, n. 102, 135). The same, consequently, is signified by, everything they should ask on earth should be done for them in the heavens, which is signified by, whatsoever ye shall bind and loose on earth, shall be bound or loosed in the heavens, for the former words are explained by the Lord by the latter. He who is acquainted with the spiritual sense of the Word, may also know why it is said, If two shall agree, and afterwards, where there are two or three, namely, because two are said of good, and three of truth, consequently, two and three, of all who are in truths from good. (That the Divine truth from the Lord has all power in the heavens and in the earth may be seen above, n. 209, 333; and in the work concerning Heaven and Hell, n. 230, 231, 539; and in the Arcana Coelestia, n. 3091, 3563, 6344, 6423, 6948, 8200, 8304, 9643, 10,019, 10,182.) The reason why two are said of good is, because they signify conjunction by love (n. 1686, 5194, 8423); the reason why three are said of truths is, because they signify all truths in the aggregate, in like manner as twelve (n. 577, 2089, 2129, 2130, 3272, 3858, 3913); therefore when two and three are mentioned in the spiritual world, two and three are not meant, but all those who are in truths from good. (That Peter signifies truth from good which is from the Lord, may be seen in the small work concerning the Last Judgment, n. 57.)

(References: Arcana Coelestia 577, Arcana Coelestia 1686, Arcana Coelestia 2089, 2129-2130, Arcana Coelestia 3091, 3272, 3563, Arcana Coelestia 3858, 3913, Arcana Coelestia 5194, 6344, 6423, Arcana Coelestia 6948, 8200, 8304, 8423, Arcana Coelestia 9643, 10019, 10182; Heaven and Hell 230-231, 539; Matthew 18:19-20; The Apocalypse Explained 102, 135, The Apocalypse Explained 209, 333; The Last Judgment 57)


[17] Thus far it has been shown what a rock signifies in this sense it now follows that it should be shown what a rock signifies in the opposite sense. In the opposite sense a rock signifies the infernal falsity, which is trusted in; as in the following passages. In Isaiah:

"Hewing out his sepulchre in the height, growing for himself a dwelling in the rock" (xxii. 16).

The valley of vision is treated of in this chapter, by which is signified the falsity of doctrine confirmed by the sense of the letter of the Word. The love of falsity is signified by the sepulchre in the height, and the faith of falsity, by the habitation in the rock; their making such things for themselves, is signified by hewing out and graving for themselves.

(References: Isaiah 22:16)


[18] In the same:

"In that day they shall cast away [every] man the idols of his silver and the idols of his gold which your hands make for you; then shall Asshur fall by the sword not of a man (vir), and the sword not of a man (homo) shall devour him; his rock also shall pass away for fear, and his princes shall be dismayed by the ensign" (xxxi. 7-9).

The subject here treated of is, the judgment upon those who, from their own intelligence, imagine themselves to be wise in Divine things. Such are those who are in the love of self and the world, and who seek the reputation of learning on account of these; such persons, because they cannot see truths, seize on falsities and boast of them as truths. The falsities favouring their principles and their loves, are signified by the idols of silver and the idols of gold; that they are from man's own intelligence, is signified by, which your own hands have made for you; that they should perish by their own falsities, is signified by, "then shall Asshur fall by the sword not of a man (vir), and the sword not of a man (homo) shall devour him." Asshur denoting the Rational perverted, and, consequently, those who are in falsities from their own intelligence; to fall, and to be devoured by the sword, denotes, to perish. This was also represented by the king of Assyria being slain by his own sons (Isa. xxxvii. 38) his sons there signifying his own falsities, by which he perished. His rock which shall pass away for fear, signifies all falsity in general, in which such persons trust; and the princes who shall be dismayed by the ensign, signify primary falsities; it is said, by the ensign, because they are not dissipated by any combat with truths, but solely by the sign of combat, which is an ensign. Such also have been seen by me cast down from the rocks upon which they were, by the waving of an ensign.

(References: Isaiah 31:7-9, 37:38)


[19] In Jeremiah:

"Before the voice of the horseman and of the archers the whole city fleeth; they entered the clouds and ascended into the rocks: the whole city is deserted, neither does any man dwell therein" (iv. 29).

In these words is described the desolation of the church as to truths. The desolation of all the truth of doctrine by false reasonings and the false doctrines thence, is signified by, "the whole city fleeth before the voice of the horseman and of the archers"; the voice of the horseman signifying false reasonings, and the voice of the archers false doctrinals; the whole city fleeth signifies the desolation of all the truth of doctrine, city denoting doctrine. That there is no truth acknowledged, but merely falsity, is signified by, "they entered the clouds, and ascended into the rocks," to enter the clouds signifying [to be] in no acknowledgment of truth, and to ascend into the rocks signifying [to be] in mere falsity.

(References: Jeremiah 4:29)


[20] I have also seen rocks which consisted of stones heaped together, and without any plains where verdure [could live] as elsewhere upon rocks; upon them were spirits, who, while they lived in the world as men, had been in faith separated from charity which is called faith alone, and had confirmed themselves therein both in doctrine and in life. This is meant by the dryness of the rock, in Ezekiel:

"I have set him upon the dryness of the rock; he hath not poured him upon the earth that dust may cover him" (xxiv. 7, 8).

And in the same:

"I will cause many nations to come up against thee, who shall throw down the walls of Tyre, and destroy her towers; and I will purge her dust from her, and give her the dryness of a rock" (xxvi. 3, 4, 14).

By dust, in these two passages, is meant the ground, by which the good of the church is signified. When there is no earth upon the rocks, and the rocks are dry, or consisting of mere heaps of stones, as stated above, it is an indication that there remains no good; and where there is no good, there is absolute falsity; this, therefore, is signified by, "the dryness of a rock, and by the dust covering him, and by, I will purge her dust from her." From these things it is also evident what is signified by the Lord's words in the Evangelists:

"Some seed fell upon stony places, where they had not much earth; whence they forthwith sprung up, because they had no deepness of earth; and they were dried up" (Matt. xiii. 5, 6; Mark iv. 5, 6; Luke viii. 6).

But these things may be seen explained above, n. 401.

(References: Ezekiel 24:7-8, 24:7, Ezekiel 26:3-4, 26:14; Luke 8:6; Mark 4:5-6; Matthew 13:5-6; The Apocalypse Explained 401)


[21] Most of those in the spiritual world who have their light from the moon there, dwell upon rocks. Those who are spiritual-natural dwell upon rocks that are covered with a thin surface of ground, whence there are plains, verdure, and shrubberies, but not such as are upon the mountains and hills, upon which dwell those who receive light from the sun of heaven; whereas those who are not spiritual-natural, but merely natural, are not at this day upon rocks, but in caverns in the rocks there; and those who are in falsities from evil, dwell among heaps of stones there; all these things are correspondences.

[22] In Jeremiah:

"Behold, I am against thee, O mountain that destroyest the whole earth; and I will stretch out mine hand against thee, and roll thee down from the rocks, and will make thee a mountain of burning" (li. 25).

This is said of Babylon, whose damnation by falsities is signified by, "I will roll thee down from the rocks," and [whose] damnation by evils is signified by, "I will make thee a mountain of burning" (but these things may be seen more fully explained above, n. 405).

(References: Jeremiah 51:25; The Apocalypse Explained 405)


[23] In the same:

"Leave the cities, and dwell in the rock, ye inhabitants of Moab, and be like the dove that maketh her nest in the passages of the mouth of the pit" (xlviii. 28).

These things are said of Moab, by which is signified the adulteration of good and truth, and thence those who pervert the good and truth of the Word. "Leave the cities," signifies the truths of doctrine; "dwell in the rock," signifies in falsities and the doctrine thereof; "be like the dove that maketh her nest in the passages of the mouth of the pit," signifies the intuition of truth from without, and not from within; for a pit signifies the Word where truths are, to make a nest in the passages of its mouth denotes without it and not within, to make a nest signifying the same as to dwell, namely, to live the life; but to build a nest is said of a bird, and to dwell, of man. What it is to regard the Word from without, and not from within, may be seen in the Arcana Coelestia (n. 10,549, 10,550, 10,551); namely, that it is to see it, not from doctrine, but only from the letter, whence the thought and affection wander in every direction whither the mind leads, nothing being certain to them, whence [arise] perpetual adulterations, which are signified by Moab. This is the case with those who study the Word for the sake of glory and honour, who, because they regard themselves in everything whilst they study the Word, remain outside the Word; whereas those who love the truth and the good thence, are within the Word, for they view it from the Lord, and not from themselves. Hence it is evident what, "Leave the cities and dwell in the rock, ye inhabitants of Moab, and be like the dove that maketh her nest in the passages of the mouth of the pit," signifies.

(References: Arcana Coelestia 10549-10551; Jeremiah 48:28)


[24] In the same:

"Is not my word like a fire; and like a hammer that scattereth the rock?" (xxiii. 29).

The Word is said to be like a fire and like a hammer, because fire signifies the good of love, and a hammer the truth of faith; for a hammer signifies the same as iron, and iron signifies truth in ultimates, and the truth of faith. Both fire and hammer are mentioned, consequently good and truth, by reason of the marriage of good and truth in every particular of the Word. By the rock which it scatters, is signified falsity in its whole extent, and the doctrine of falsity; but its dispersion or destruction takes place when man, in whom they exist, is judged.

(References: Jeremiah 23:29)


[25] In Nahum:

"Before his indignation who shall stand up? or who shall stand in the wrath of his anger? His wrath is poured out like fire, and the rocks shall be overturned before him" (i. 6).

That the indignation, wrath, and anger of Jehovah, signify the Last Judgment, and the state of damnation of those who are in evils and the falsities thence, will be seen in the following articles. The damnation of evils is signified by His wrath, which is poured out like fire; and the damnation of falsities from evils [is signified] by His anger, and by the rocks being overturned before Him for fire signifies the evils of the loves of self and of the world, and rocks signify the falsities thence, and to be overturned signifies to perish. The rocks also upon which those are who are in principles of falsity and thence in falsities of every kind, are visibly overthrown, and those who are upon them are thus cast down into hell; but this takes place in the spiritual world, where all dwell according to the quality of their interiors, to which their externals correspond.

(References: Nahum 1:6)


[26] In Isaiah

"Ye who have inflamed yourselves with gods under every green tree, who have slain the children in the rivers under the shelves of the rocks" (lvii. 4, 5).

What it is to be inflamed with gods under every green tree, and to slay the children in the rivers under the shelves of the rocks, no one can know except from the internal sense. In that sense, by being inflamed with gods under every green tree, is signified to worship God from every falsity which occurs; to be inflamed with idols, denotes ardent worship; every green tree denotes every falsity which occurs, for a tree signifies knowledges (cognitions) and perceptions, here knowledges and perception of falsity; and by slaying the children in the rivers under the shelves of the rocks, is signified to extinguish truths by falsities from one's own intelligence; children denoting truths; rivers denoting one's own intelligence; the shelves of the rocks denoting falsities; under the shelves of these signifies that this is done from the Sensual in which the light is ultimate natural, for those who are in this light only, stand under broken rocks, and do not see any truth, and if it is stated they do not perceive it. In such a position have I also seen them in the spiritual world. Whence it is evident that to slay children is not meant to slay children, but to extinguish truths.

(References: Isaiah 57:4-5, Isaiah 57:5)


[27] Similarly in David:

"Blessed is he who shall take and dash thy infants against the rock" (Ps. cxxxvii. 9).

By infants here are not meant infants, but falsities springing up; for the subject treated of is Babylon, whereby are signified the falsities of evil destroying the truths of the good of the church; the destruction of these is signified by dashing them against the rock; the rock denoting the ruling falsity of evil, and to dash denoting to destroy. He who abides only in the sense of the letter of the Word, and thinks no further, may easily be induced to believe, that he is called blessed who thus treats the children of his enemies, when, notwithstanding, it would be an enormous crime; whereas he is blessed who disperses the falsities of evil springing up in the church, which are here signified by the infants of Babylon.

(References: Psalms 137:9)


[28] In Jeremiah:

"Who hath heard such a thing as this? the virgin of Israel hath done an abominable thing; doth the snow of Lebanon from the rock desert my fields? will the strange cold flowing waters carry them away? My people have forgotten me, they have burnt incense to vanity" (xviii. 13-15).

By the virgin of Israel here and elsewhere, is meant the spiritual church, for the Israelites represented this [church]; the abominable thing which they did, was their turning the goods of the church into evils, and the truths of the church into falsities, and worshipping Jehovah from the latter and the former. The evils from which [such] worship [springs] are signified by, "My people have forgotten me"; for he who forgets God is in evils; and the falsities from which [such] worship [springs], are signified by, "they have burned incense to vanity," vanity denoting falsity, and to burn incense denoting worship. "Doth the snow of Lebanon from the rock desert my fields?" signifies whether they have the truths of the church from the Word, rock here signifying the Word, because [it signifies Divine truth], as [was said] above; the snow of Lebanon signifies the truths of the church thence. Snow here signifies the same as water, namely, truths; but snow signifies cold truths, because a church of such a nature is treated of. Lebanon denotes the church from which [they originated], and fields denote all the goods and truths of the church. By "the strange cold flowing waters," are signified falsities in which there is no good, strange waters denoting falsities, and cold denoting, in which there is no good, for truths possess all their heat from the good of love.

(References: Jeremiah 18:13-15)


[29] In the same:

"Behold, I am against thee, O inhabitress of the valley, [and] thou rock of the plain; that say, Who shall come down against us? and who shall enter into our habitations?" (xxi. 13).

By the inhabitress of the valley and the rock of the plain, are signified those who are in the ultimates of the Word, and do not suffer themselves to be enlightened from the interior; and those who are of such a nature do not see truths, but instead thereof falsities; for all the light of truth being out of heaven from the Lord, comes and descends from the interior. Such are meant by the inhabitress of the valley and the rock of the plain; the valley and the plain denote the ultimates of the Word in which they are; and the inhabitress and the rock signify falsities, the inhabitress falsity of life, and the rock falsity of doctrine. The faith of falsity and evil to which they firmly adhere, believing it to be truths and goods, is signified by their saying, "Who shall come down against us? and who shall enter into our habitations?"

(References: Jeremiah 21:13)


[30] In Isaiah

"Enter into the rock, and hide thee in the dust, for fear of Jehovah" (ii. 10).

To enter into the rock, denotes into falsity, and to hide themselves in the dust denotes into evil. The Last Judgment is here treated of, when those who are in the falsities of evils, and in the evils of falsity, cast themselves into the hells which are in rocks, and under the earths, in the spiritual world; but these things may be seen more amply deduced and explained in the preceding article.

In Job:

"The mountain falling melteth, and the rock is removed out of his place" (xiv. 18).

By the mountain is signified the love of evil; and by the rock the faith of falsity; and by melting and being removed out of its place, are signified to perish.

(References: Acts of the Apostles 14:18; Isaiah 2:10; Job 14:18)


[31] In David:

"Let their judges be cast down through places of the rock" (Ps. cxli. 6).

By judges are signified those who are in falsities, and in an abstract sense, the falsities of thought and doctrine. The same is signified by judges in the Word, as by judgments, and judgments signify the truths from which judgments [are made], and, in the opposite sense, falsities. And since those who are in falsities, in the spiritual world, dwell in rocks, it is therefore said, let them be cast down through places of the rock, by which is signified that they are let into their falsities, and dwell in hells corresponding to their falsities. In Job:

"To dwell in the cleft of the valleys, in holes of the earth, and in the rocks" (xxx. 6).

This [is said] of those who are in the hells, because in evils and in the falsities thence; the hells of those who are in evils as to life, being under valleys and in caves there; and [of those] who are in falsities thence, in rocks. Hence it is evident what is signified by dwelling in the cleft of the valleys, in holes of the earth, and in rocks. (But concerning the caverns and caves in which those dwell who are in the hells, and the clefts and holes by which they are entered, see the article just preceding, n. 410.)

(References: Job 30:6; Psalms 141:6; The Apocalypse Explained 410)


[32] These things have been adduced that it may be known that by rock, in the opposite sense, is signified falsity in general; this signification of rock is from correspondence, as is evident from the appearances and visible objects in the spiritual world, where all dwell according to the correspondences of the interiors of their mind and life; therefore those who are in wisdom and intelligence, because in love to the Lord, and in charity towards the neighbour, and thence in the spiritual affection of truth, dwell upon mountains and hills of earth, where there are paradises, gardens, rosaries, and lawns; but those who are in the faith of the doctrinals of their church, and in some degree of charity, dwell upon rocks where there are plains upon which are some groves and some trees, and also grassy places; whereas those who were in faith alone, as it is called, as to doctrine and as to life, and thence in falsities of faith and evils of life, dwell among the rocks, in caverns and cells there.

[33] This signification of rock is from the correspondence [which has been] stated. But the signification of rock from its hardness, is [contained] in the following passages.

In Jeremiah:

"They have made their faces harder than the rock" (v. 3).

In Ezekiel:

"As an adamant harder than rock have I made thy forehead; fear ye not" (iii. 8, 9).

In Job:

"They shall be graven with an iron pen and with lead in the rock for ever" (xix. 24).

In Isaiah:

"The hoofs of the horses are counted like rock" (v. 28).

The reason why hardness is expressed by a rock, is also from the correspondence of a rock with truth from good, for all power belongs to truth from good, as said above; but when truth acts against falsity from evil, then good is blunted, and the remaining truth acts harshly, according to the above words in Ezekiel:

"As an adamant harder than rock have I made thy forehead."

And truth also without good is hard, but still it is brittle. What, however, has been adduced concerning rocks, will be more fully elucidated by those things that shall be said concerning the signification of stones in the following pages.

(References: Acts of the Apostles 19:24; Ezekiel 3:9, Ezekiel 24:7-8; Isaiah 5:28, Isaiah 57:4-5; Jeremiah 5:3; Job 19:24; Matthew 18:18-20; Numbers 20:8-12)

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