The Bible

 

Matthew 2 : Two Stories of Christmas

Study the Inner Meaning

        

1 Now when Jesus was born in Bethlehem of Judaea in the days of Herod the king, behold, there came wise men from the east to Jerusalem,

2 Saying, Where is he that is born King of the Jews? for we have seen his star in the east, and are come to worship him.

3 When Herod the king had heard these things, he was troubled, and all Jerusalem with him.

4 And when he had gathered all the chief priests and scribes of the people together, he demanded of them where Christ should be born.

5 And they said unto him, In Bethlehem of Judaea: for thus it is written by the prophet,

6 And thou Bethlehem, in the land of Juda, art not the least among the princes of Juda: for out of thee shall come a Governor, that shall rule my people Israel.

7 Then Herod, when he had privily called the wise men, inquired of them diligently what time the star appeared.

8 And he sent them to Bethlehem, and said, Go and search diligently for the young child; and when ye have found him, bring me word again, that I may come and worship him also.

9 When they had heard the king, they departed; and, lo, the star, which they saw in the east, went before them, till it came and stood over where the young child was.

10 When they saw the star, they rejoiced with exceeding great joy.

11 And when they were come into the house, they saw the young child with Mary his mother, and fell down, and worshipped him: and when they had opened their treasures, they presented unto him gifts; gold, and frankincense, and myrrh.

12 And being warned of God in a dream that they should not return to Herod, they departed into their own country another way.

13 And when they were departed, behold, the angel of the Lord appeareth to Joseph in a dream, saying, Arise, and take the young child and his mother, and flee into Egypt, and be thou there until I bring thee word: for Herod will seek the young child to destroy him.

14 When he arose, he took the young child and his mother by night, and departed into Egypt:

15 And was there until the death of Herod: that it might be fulfilled which was spoken of the Lord by the prophet, saying, Out of Egypt have I called my son.

16 Then Herod, when he saw that he was mocked of the wise men, was exceeding wroth, and sent forth, and slew all the children that were in Bethlehem, and in all the coasts thereof, from two years old and under, according to the time which he had diligently inquired of the wise men.

17 Then was fulfilled that which was spoken by Jeremy the prophet, saying,

18 In Rama was there a voice heard, lamentation, and weeping, and great mourning, Rachel weeping for her children, and would not be comforted, because they are not.

19 But when Herod was dead, behold, an angel of the Lord appeareth in a dream to Joseph in Egypt,

20 Saying, Arise, and take the young child and his mother, and go into the land of Israel: for they are dead which sought the young child's life.

21 And he arose, and took the young child and his mother, and came into the land of Israel.

22 But when he heard that Archelaus did reign in Judaea in the room of his father Herod, he was afraid to go thither: notwithstanding, being warned of God in a dream, he turned aside into the parts of Galilee:

23 And he came and dwelt in a city called Nazareth: that it might be fulfilled which was spoken by the prophets, He shall be called a Nazarene.

   Study the Inner Meaning

Exploring the Meaning of Matthew 2      

By Rev. Dr. Ray Silverman

Chapter 2.

After Jesus is Born

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1. And when Jesus was born in Bethlehem of Judea, in the days of Herod the king, behold, there came Magi from the east into Jerusalem,

2. Saying, “Where is He that is born King of the Jews? For we have seen His star in the east, and are come to worship Him.”

3. But having heard, Herod the king was disturbed, and all Jerusalem with him.

4. And when he had gathered all the chief priests and scribes of the people, he inquired of them where Christ should be born.

5. And they said unto him, “In Bethlehem of Judea; for thus it is written by the prophet:

6. ‘And thou Bethlehem, [of] the land of Judah, art by no means the least among the governors of Judah, for out of thee shall come a Governor, who shall shepherd My people Israel.’”

7. Then Herod, privately calling the Magi, precisely inquired of them at what time the star appeared.

8. And sending them to Bethlehem, he said, “Go and search earnestly for the little Child; and when you have found [Him], report to me, so that I also may come and worship Him.”

9. And when they had heard the king they went [out]; and behold, the star which they saw in the east went before them, till it came [and] stood over where the little Child was.

10. And having seen the star, they rejoiced with exceedingly great joy.

11. And coming into the house, they found the little Child with Mary His mother, and falling [down] they worshiped Him; and opening their treasures, they offered to Him gifts: gold, and frankincense, and myrrh.

12. And being warned in a dream not to return to Herod, they departed into their own country by another way.

13. And when they had departed, behold, the angel of the Lord appears in a dream to Joseph, saying, “Arise and take the little Child and His mother, and flee into Egypt, and be there until I tell thee; for Herod is about to seek the little Child to destroy Him.”

14. And when he arose, he took the little Child and His mother by night, and departed into Egypt,

15. And was there until the death of Herod, that it might be fulfilled which was declared by the Lord through the prophet, saying, “Out of Egypt have I called My Son.”

16. Then Herod, when he saw that he was mocked by the Magi, was exceedingly wrathful, and sent out and slew all the boys that were in Bethlehem, and in all her borders , from two years and under, according to the time which he had precisely inquired of the Magi.

17. Then was fulfilled what was declared by Jeremiah the prophet, saying,

18. “A voice was heard in Rama, lamentation, and weeping, and much howling, Rachel weeping [for] her children; and she was not willing to be comforted, because they are not.”

19. And when Herod was dead, behold, the angel of the Lord, in a dream appears to Joseph in Egypt,

20. Saying, “Arise, take the little Child and His mother, and go to the land of Israel; for they are dead who sought the soul of the little Child.”
---

Joseph’s struggle within himself — as to whether or not to accept Mary and the child — represents the spiritual battle which each of us must undergo in the course of our regeneration. It is one thing to receive the Lord in the understanding (represented by Joseph), but quite another to allow Him to order the things of our will — represented by the angel telling Joseph to take Mary as his wife. This is the fiercer battle which now begins “after Jesus is born.”

The antagonist is Herod, the king of Judea at the time of Jesus’ birth. Comfortable and secure in his role as the supreme ruler of the land, Herod is deeply troubled by the report of the Wise Men who say, “Where is He who is born King of the Jews?” Spiritually seen, Herod, as king of Israel, represents total self-absorption, our corrupt hereditary will, setting itself up as the ruler of our lives. This is our state after fourteen generations of captivity in Babylon — a state in which we are governed by our basest emotions: greed, control, anger, fear, hatred and jealousy. We can be sure that whenever we find ourselves in a state like this, Herod is sitting comfortably and securely on his throne. He is a tyrannical ruler, easily threatened, but not easily dethroned. His motivating force is to destroy the Lord in us — even at His birth — rather than relinquish his control over us.

God knows that we need divine protection from the wrath of Herod who represents our selfish desire to control. God therefore speaks to Joseph (as He does to us) in a dream, saying “Arise, take the young Child and His mother, flee to Egypt, and remain there until I bring you word; for Herod is about to seek the young Child to destroy Him” (2:13).

Egypt, at that time, was a world center for education and learning. Medicine, mathematics, poetry and many other fields of study were flourishing. So Jesus’ flight into Egypt represents the need that all of us have for basic education, not just the standard three “R’s,” (reading, ‘riting, and ‘rithmetic) but the fourth “R” as well — the basics of religion.

Religious truth, especially the most basic, can help defend us against the onslaughts of Herod — the despot of our lower nature, a fierce tyrant who strives to murder everything that is true in us, even in its most innocent beginning. This is represented by Herod’s massacre of the male children in and around Bethlehem: “Then Herod, when he saw that he was mocked by the wise men, was exceedingly angry; and he sent forth and put to death all the male children who were in Bethlehem, and in all its districts, from two years old and under” (2:16; emphasis added).

The name “Bethlehem,” comes from two Hebrew words: “Beth” meaning “house” and “lechem” meaning “bread.” Therefore, Bethlehem means “House of Bread” — a place of spiritual nourishment. In the context of this episode, Herod’s destruction of all the male children of Bethlehem, two years old and under, represents how evil inclinations can destroy our earliest impulses to learn truth. These earliest desires to acquire knowledge of truth are symbolized by the male babies of Bethlehem. Whenever we fall into states of cynicism and skepticism, refusing to learn or trust the simple teachings of the Word, whenever we find ourselves without desire to seek the truth, and whenever the distractions of the world lure us away from the quest for wisdom, we can know that “Herod” has risen up in our hearts. A massacre has begun. “Herod in us” is striving to murder the innocent and tender qualities that have been born in our heavenly Bethlehem.

But if we flee to and remain in Egypt (as Jesus does), we will be protected. It is the place where our instruction begins. This is a temporary, but essential part of our spiritual development; temporary because we must eventually return to the land of Canaan where the truth will be applied to our lives; and essential, because these basic, natural truths are the only means by which we can be prepared to receive the higher insights that will eventually flow in from above. 1

For most of us, the period of our instruction in basic truths can last for many years, well into adolescence and beyond. In fact, it never really ends. Throughout our lives we will continue to acquire knowledge, both worldly and spiritual. We will, as it were, “go down into Egypt.” And, as we do so, learning truth and putting it into our lives, we will begin to see how the literal teachings of scripture “open up” like parting clouds, revealing more and more of the interior truths they contain.

In Jesus’ own case, this process of acquiring basic truth was much more rapid. Although Matthew does not tell us how long Jesus remained in Egypt, we can safely assume He was still quite young when He left, for an angel of the Lord came to Joseph in a dream, saying, “Arise, take the young Child and His mother, and go to the land of Israel, for those who sought the soul of the young Child’s are dead” (2:20; emphasis added).

Growing up in Nazareth

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21. And he arose, [and] took the little Child and His mother, and came into the land of Israel.

22. And hearing that Archelaus reigned in Judea instead of his father Herod, he feared to go thither; but being warned in a dream, he departed into the parts of Galilee.

23. And coming, He dwelt in a city called Nazareth, so that it might be fulfilled which was declared by the prophets, that He should be called a Nazarene.
---

Eventually, Joseph, Mary, and the young Child decide to return to Judea. This represents the next step in our spiritual journey. Once we have learned the simple, basic, most literal truths of the Word (sojourning in Egypt), it is time to return to Judea. It is time to be further instructed, and to see what is more interiorly concealed within the letter of the Word. This is a necessary step in every person’s spiritual development. The letter of the Word serves as a literal history of people and places; it is an introduction to basic truth. It does not, however, reveal the full details of our spiritual journey, or provide the kind of discernment we need for the refinement of our souls. Not yet, but that will surely come when we are ready to receive further instruction.

Meanwhile, as the divine narrative continues, Joseph is “warned by God in a dream” that it is not yet time to return to their home. Though Herod is dead, his son is still in power. And so Mary, Joseph, and the young Child turn aside into the region of Galilee, into a city called Nazareth. This is yet another step on the journey of spiritual development. In the language of sacred scripture, it could be called, “growing up in Nazareth.

But what does it mean to “grow up in Nazareth”?

Nazareth of Galilee was a primitive region populated mostly by farmers, fishermen and uneducated tradespeople who knew very little about theology or the laws of the temple.

Unlike the well-educated (but misguided) religious leaders in Judea, the people of Galilee were not part of the religious establishment of the time. Although they had a strong belief in God, they were not familiar with the main doctrines taught by the religious leaders or the traditions of the temple authorities. And yet, a simple belief in God is often better than a more complicated belief system based on human reason rather than divine revelation. In this regard, the “learned world” often looks down upon people who believe in simplicity that there is a God, and that God is good. 2

The simple, hard-working, good people of Nazareth, therefore, symbolize the humility and simplicity we need to believe in God and live according to His teachings. It is remarkable that almost all the early disciples came from Galilee. It was not their theological training that made them receptive to the teachings of Jesus — for they had very little. In fact, it might be said that it was the absence of theological training — or to be more precise, the absence of false and misleading theology — that made them receptive to Jesus’ words. 3

Galilee, then, and the city of Nazareth which was in the region of Galilee, represent the simplicity of heart and the goodness of life that can receive God openly without skepticism or negativity. Because their religious principles are simple and uncomplicated — love God, love your neighbor — these people can receive Jesus’ teachings readily and with joy. All this is contained in the scriptural statement that Jesus grew up in Nazareth of Galilee, in the “land of the Gentiles.” 4 These words speak about a state in us “where Jesus grows up” — a state in which we are willing to receive basic truths simply, uncritically, and with joy.

As we shall see later in the narrative, the fact that Jesus grows up in Nazareth, in the land of the Gentiles, will be held against Him. The religious leaders will regard Him as poor and uneducated, untrained in their religious tenets, and therefore incapable of understanding or conveying spiritual truth to anyone. And yet, as this episode closes, we learn that His growing up in Nazareth is the fulfillment of prophecy, for we read, “And He came and dwelt in a city called Nazareth, that it might be fulfilled which was spoken by the prophets, ‘He shall be called a Nazarene’” (2:23).

As we reflect on this miraculous moment in the early life of Jesus, it becomes evident that those simple, most basic truths we learn (Egypt) must be protected in a place of simple trust and unalloyed faith (Nazareth of Galilee). This is a necessary stage in which early truths from the letter of the Word can deepen and develop. It is why we feel a natural desire to protect the innocence of children from corrupting influences — Herod, and the son of Herod. And it is the same with each of us as we learn new truth from the letter of the Word, and allow it to grow up within us in a state of simple faith.

Footnotes:

1. Arcana Coelestia 1462:6: “That the Lord when an infant was brought into Egypt, signified the same that is here signified by Abram [instruction in truths from the letter of the Word]; and it took place for the additional reason that He might fulfill all the things that had been represented concerning Him. In the inmost sense the migration of Jacob and his sons into Egypt represented the first instruction of the Lord in knowledges from the Word.” See also Apocalypse Explained 654.

2. Apocalypse Explained 447:5: “Galilee signifies the establishment of the church with the Gentiles who are in the good of life and who receive truths.”

3. Arcana Coelestia 4760:4: “It is well-known that the learned have less belief than the simple in a life after death, and that in general they see Divine truths less clearly than the simple do. The reason is that they consult facts, of which they possess a greater abundance than others, with a negative attitude, and by this destroy in themselves any insight gained from a higher or more interior position. Once this has been destroyed they no longer see anything in the light of heaven but in the light of the world; for facts exist in the light of the world, and if they are not lit up by the light of heaven they bring darkness, however different it may seem to be to them. This was why the simple believed in the Lord but not the scribes and Pharisees, who were the learned in that nation.”

4. Apocalypse Explained 730: “Gentiles signify those who are in ignorance of truth, and yet are in the good of life according to their religious principle, from which they have a desire for truths.”

From Swedenborg's Works

Explanations or references:

Arcana Coelestia 113, 117, 1171, 1462, 1502, 1540, 2135, ...

Apocalypse Revealed 277, 503, 526, 913

Doctrine of the Sacred Scripture 23

True Christian Religion 205


References from Swedenborg's drafts, indexes & diaries:

Apocalypse Explained 72, 242, 324, 422, 433, 448, 449, ...

Coronis (An Appendix to True Christian Religion) 2, 41

Scriptural Confirmations 2, 4, 6, 9, 12, 14, 31, ...

Hop to Similar Bible Verses

Exodus 4:19, 22

Numbers 23:22, 24:17

Joshua 5:14

2 Samuel 2

1 Kings 11:40

1 Chronicles 2

Psalms 72:10, 78:71

Isaiah 11:1, 40:11, 60:6

Jeremiah 26:21, 31:15

Hosea 11:1

Jonah 4:6

Micah 5:1, 2

Bible Word Meanings

bethlehem
There is a strong relationship between Ephrath and Bethlehem in the Bible; they might be two different names for the same town, or it’s possible...

wise
At its heart, wisdom is love's imperative desire to take form. That's a tricky statement, but think of it this way: If you love someone,...

jews
It would be simple to think that when the Bible mentions "Jews" it is simply talking about the descendants of the tribe of Judah, the...

seen
The symbolic meaning of "seeing" is "understanding," which is obvious enough that it has become part of common language (think about it; you might see...

star
'Stars' signify the knowledge of truth and good. 'Stars' are frequently mentioned in the Word, and always signify goods and truths, but in an opposite...

come
Coming (Gen. 41:14) denotes communication by influx.

worship
'Worship,' as in Revelation 13:12, signifies acknowledging something to be sacred in the church.

heard
Thanks to modern science, we now understand that hearing actually happens in the brain, not the ears. The ears collect vibrations in the air and...

troubled
The Bible often talks of people being "troubled." The internal meaning is pretty straightforward; it indicates a state of spiritual turmoil, usually due to the...

chief priests
'The chief priests and scribes,' as in Matthew 20:18, signify the adulterations of good and the falsifications of truth.

scribes
'The chief priests and scribes,' as in Matthew 20:18, signify the adulterations of good and the falsifications of truth.

christ
Christ is one of the names of the Lord. It derives from Greek, and means "the anointed one," a King or Messiah. Christ as King...

said
As with many common verbs, the meaning of “to say” in the Bible is highly dependent on context. Who is speaking? Who is hearing? What...

written
If knowing what’s right were the same as doing what’s right, we would all be thin, healthy, hard-working, law-abiding, faithful to our spouses and free...

the least
'Tittle' or 'the least' in the Word represents heavenly things.

least
The idea of "least" is not addressed directly in Swedenborg, but a central idea is relatively clear from several references to Matthew 25:40: And the...

governor
"Rulers" or "governors" in the Bible represent the most basic, most essential true ideas that guide us in life, ideas that spring directly from the...

go
In the physical world, the places we inhabit and the distances between them are physical realities, and we have to get our physical bodies through...

saw
The symbolic meaning of "seeing" is "understanding," which is obvious enough that it has become part of common language (think about it; you might see...

went before
To "go before" in the Bible means either to lead or to prepare, depending on context. When it is said of the Lord or things...

rejoiced
Feelings of joy and rejoicing flow from our affections, not from our thoughts. Some people might argue that that's not true, that you can rejoice...

joy
Feelings of joy and rejoicing flow from our affections, not from our thoughts. Some people might argue that that's not true, that you can rejoice...

worshipped
'Worship,' as in Revelation 13:12, signifies acknowledging something to be sacred in the church.

opened
To open,' as in Revelation 9, signifies communication and conjunction.

treasures
'Treasure,' as in Matthew 13:44, signifies divine truth in the Word.

gifts
The gift which Abraham gave to the sons of the concubines which he had, as in Genesis 25:6, signifies lots in the Lord's spiritual kingdom....

and frankincense
'Perfumes, ointment, and frankincense,' as in Revelation 18:13, signify spiritual aspects of worship.

frankincense
Frankincense was one of the three gifts presented by the wise men, sometimes called the magi, to Jesus. The three gifts - gold, frankincense, and...

and myrrh
In Genesis 37:25, 'spices, resin, and myrrh' signify interior natural truths joined to good in the natural level. Among the ancients, they used things with...

myrrh
Myrrh is a perfume and medicine made from the resin from a genus of thorn trees. In the Word, is represents our early knowledges about...

own
In many cases, the spiritual meaning of "own," both as a verb and as an adjective, is relatively literal. When people are described as the...

way
These days we tend to think of "roads" as smooth swaths of pavement, and judge them by how fast we can drive cars on them....

angel
"Angels" in the Bible represent qualities of the Lord himself, or a variety of things that come directly from the Lord. On a lower level...

arise
It is common in the Bible for people to "rise up," and it would be easy to pass over the phrase as simply describing a...

seek
The meaning of "to seek" in the Bible is pretty straightforward, but there is a bit of nuance: Swedenborg tells us that in most cases...

might
'Might' denotes the forces or power of truth.

fulfilled
When the Lord said that all things which were written concerning him were fulfilled, he meant that all things were fulfilled in their inmost sense.

spoken
Like "say," the word "speak" refers to thoughts and feelings moving from our more internal spiritual levels to our more external ones – and ultimately...

under
In the Bible, things that are lower down, or under, physically, generally represent things that are lower or more external spiritually. In some cases, the...

mourning
'Weeping and wailing,' as in Revelation 18:15, signifies grief of the soul and heart, and so it has reference to the understanding and the will.

galilee
when Galilee is mentioned in the Bible, it's referring to the "gentiles", to the spiritual states of people who were not in the Jewish church....

city
Cities of the mountain and cities of the plain (Jeremiah 33:13) signify doctrines of charity and faith.

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Resources for parents and teachers

The items listed here are provided courtesy of our friends at the General Church of the New Jerusalem. You can search/browse their whole library at the New Church Vineyard website.


 Adoration of the Wise Men
Lesson outline provides teaching ideas with questions for discussion, projects, and activities.
Sunday School Lesson | Ages 7 - 10

 Adoration of the Wise Men
A lesson for younger children with discussion ideas and a project.
Sunday School Lesson | Ages 4 - 6

 Angels in the Christmas Story
Worship Talk | Ages 7 - 14

 Behold, the Star
Article | Ages 15 - 17

 Birth of the Lord
Sunday School Lesson | Ages 9 - 12

 Childhood of Jesus
Coloring Page | Ages 7 - 14

 Christmas Star
Gives directions for assembling four large triangles into a beautiful star. 
Project | Ages 7 - 14

 Correspondences of Gold
Illustrations of three stories in the Word that mention gold. (Quotations are the King James translation.)
Coloring Page | Ages 7 - 14

 Fall Down and Worship Him
Think about your day tomorrow, and prioritize your various activities by thinking about what the Lord wants you to do.
Activity | Ages over 15

 Five Christmas Scenes
Coloring Page | Ages 7 - 14

 Flee to Egypt
Coloring Page | Ages 7 - 14

 Flight into Egypt
Coloring Page | Ages 7 - 14

 Flight into Egypt Silhouette
"Cut out the pieces to show the silhouettes of Mary and Joseph taking the young Child to Egypt, then assemble on a large piece of blue paper and add stars by using glitter or small star stickers. "
Project | Ages 7 - 14

 Following the Star
Worship Talk | Ages 7 - 14

 Follow the Star Dramatization
This simple dramatization of the story of the wise men following the star to find the baby Lord includes a script and an illustration of Mary, Joseph, and the young Child.
Activity | Ages 3 - 7

 Gifts for the Lord
Spiritual tasks offer a reflection on a Biblical story and suggest a task for spiritual growth.
Activity | Ages over 18

 Gifts of Gold, Frankincense, and Myrrh
Coloring Page | Ages 7 - 14

 Gifts of the Wise Men
Coloring Page | Ages 7 - 14

 His Star Still Shines
Worship Talk | Ages over 18

 Jesus' Childhood
People are born without a set purpose and develop a purpose as they learn and choose a pathway. Jesus was born with an identity and a purpose; He had to discover His identity and become true to it.
Sunday School Lesson | Ages 11 - 17

 Joy in the Coming of Our Lord
Like the star that led the wise men, the truth will lead us to the Lord and make us happy. But the real joy in our lives will be when we come to the Lord offering gifts to Him, as the wise men did.
Worship Talk | Ages over 18

 Lacing Star
Print this star onto card stock, punch holes around the edge, then use yarn with sparkly (metallic) strands to “sew” around the edge of the star to make it sparkle.
Project | Ages 4 - 8

 Making Christmas Star Cookies
Ideas for decorating rolled cookies cut in the shape of stars. 
Project | Ages over 7

 Memory Verse: The Guiding Star
Activity | Ages 4 - 14

 Pop-up Crèche Card for Christmas
A lovely project to color and assemble. Designed by Eudora Sellner Walsh.
Project | Ages 7 - 17

 Quotes: Prophecies of the Advent
Teaching Support | Ages over 15

 Quotes: The Guiding Star
Teachings from the Lord's Word for Christmas about the guiding star.
Teaching Support | Ages over 15

 Quotes: Unto Us a Child Is Born
Teaching Support | Ages over 15

 Quotes: Using Our Talents
Teaching Support | Ages over 15

 Scroll of Angelic Appearances in Christmas Story
Project | Ages 7 - 14

 Show and Tell the Gifts of the Wise Men
Read about the three gifts in Matthew 2. Then show everyone some gold, frankincense and myrrh. Discuss ways we can give these symbolic gifts to the Lord.
Activity | All Ages

 Signs at Christmas
Worship Talk | Ages 7 - 14

 Star of Wonder
Four ways to picture the star in the dark of night.
Project | Ages 7 - 10

 Star Out of Jacob
Coloring Page | Ages 7 - 14

 Star Out of Jacob with Quote
Coloring Page | Ages 7 - 14

 Stars
Sunday School Lesson | Ages 9 - 12

 Story of the Wise Men Scene Boxes
Paint four sides of a box to show 4 different scenes from the story of the wise men.
Project | Ages 7 - 14

 Story of the Wisemen Stained Glass Windows
Make stained glass windows depicting the star of wonder, the three wise men following the star or the wise men presenting their gifts before the Lord.
Project | Ages 4 - 14

 Strange Gifts
Worship Talk | Ages 7 - 14

 The Christmas Star
As we think about stars at Christmas time, let us invite the Lord into our hearts and minds so that His Christmas star will light the way to heaven for us.
Worship Talk | Ages 7 - 14

 The Flight into Egypt
Angels came to Joseph in a dream to help protect the baby Lord. Angels can help protect us too. Sample from the Jacob's Ladder Program, Level 1, for ages 6-7.
Religion Lesson | Ages 6 - 7

 The Gold of the Wisemen
Gold stands for loving the Lord. This was the first gift that the wise men gave the Lord because it is essential for worshiping the Lord. You can give the Lord the gift of spiritual gold - the gift of love. 
Worship Talk | Ages 7 - 14

 The Guiding Star [salt crystal star]
Paint a beautiful guiding star and then use salt crystals on wet paint to make a starry sky for the background.
Project | Ages over 7

 The Innocence of Love
Worship Talk | Ages 7 - 14

 The Lord Come into the World
A New Church Bible story explanation for teaching Sunday school. Includes lesson materials for Primary (3-8 years), Junior (9-11 years), Intermediate (12-14 years), Senior (15-17 years) and Adults.
Teaching Support | Ages over 3

 The Lord Comes into the World (3-5 years)
Project | Ages 4 - 6

 The Lord Comes into the World (6-8 years)
Project | Ages 7 - 10

 The Lord Comes into the World (9-11 years)
Project | Ages 11 - 14

 The Murder of the Innocents and the Flight into Egypt
Within each one of us the Lord’s wonderful Providence keeps what is most important safe from harm. In time, this protection makes it possible for us to prepare ourselves to become angels in heaven.
Worship Talk | Ages 15 - 17

 The Slaughter of the Innocents
Worship Talk | Ages over 18

 The Star of Bethlehem
Worship Talk | Ages 7 - 14

 The Three Gifts of the Wise Men
Worship Talk | Ages 7 - 14

 The Visit of the Wise Men
A New Church Bible story explanation for teaching Sunday school. Includes lesson materials for Primary (3-8 years), Junior (9-11 years), Intermediate (12-14 years), Senior (15-17 years) and Adults.
Teaching Support | Ages over 3

 The Visit of the Wise Men (3-5 years)
Project | Ages 4 - 6

 The Visit of the Wise Men (6-8 years)
Project | Ages 7 - 10

 The Visit of the Wise Men (9-11 years)
Project | Ages 11 - 14

 The Wise Men
Worship Talk | Ages 7 - 14

 The Wise Men
Two project ideas for picturing the wise men.  
Project | Ages 4 - 14

 The Wise Men
Spiritual tasks offer a reflection on a Biblical story and suggest a task for spiritual growth.
Activity | Ages over 18

 The Wise Men
The wise men brought gifts to the baby Lord. How are we to search for the Lord? What gifts should we bring Him?
Sunday School Lesson | Ages 11 - 17

 The Wise Men
This lesson discusses a story from the Word and suggests projects and activities for young children.
Sunday School Lesson | Ages 4 - 6

 The Wise Men
A story for young children with color illustrations.
Story | Ages 4 - 10

 The Wisemen Diorama
Print this project onto thick paper (such as cover stock). Then color the wise men, the camels, and the background scene of Bethlehem and assemble a diorama with the wise men looking at the star. 
Project | Ages 7 - 14

 The Wisemen Present Gifts
Coloring Page | Ages 7 - 14

 The Wisemen Rejoice to See the Star
Coloring Page | Ages 7 - 14

 The Wise Men Worship the Lord
Coloring Page | Ages 7 - 14

 Three Christmas Initial Letters
Coloring Page | Ages 7 - 14

 Three Christmas Scenes
Coloring Page | Ages 7 - 14

 Three Kings from the East
Coloring Page | Ages 7 - 14

 Three Wise Men
Coloring Page | Ages 7 - 14

 Why Does God Let Bad Things Happen?
Lesson and activities comparing what the Lord wills to what He permits so that people can be free to make heavenly or hellish choices in their lives.
Religion Lesson | Ages over 15

 Why the Lord Was Taken into Egypt
Worship Talk | Ages 7 - 14

 Wise Men Follow the Star
At the time of the Lord’s birth a beautiful star appeared in the night sky. It was a star of heavenly light and only people whose spiritual eyes had been opened could see it. Far away from Bethlehem, in the land to the east, this special star was seen by some wise men. Sample from the Jacob’s Ladder Program, Level 2, for ages 7-8.
Religion Lesson | Ages 7 - 8

 Wise Men from the East
Presents a dramatic word-picture of the wise men's journey and a message for us all: If you wish to be wise, and to be made happy with an exceeding great joy, follow the Lord's star.
Worship Talk | Ages 7 - 14

 Wisemen See Star
Coloring Page | Ages 7 - 14

 Wisemen's Gift Ornaments
Make ornaments for your tree by printing pictures of wise men's gifts on stiff paper (such as cover stock). Then color the gifts, cut them out, and display on your tree.
Project | Ages up to 10

Commentary

 

Exploring the Meaning of Matthew 2

     

By Rev. Dr. Ray Silverman

Chapter 2.

After Jesus is Born

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1. And when Jesus was born in Bethlehem of Judea, in the days of Herod the king, behold, there came Magi from the east into Jerusalem,

2. Saying, “Where is He that is born King of the Jews? For we have seen His star in the east, and are come to worship Him.”

3. But having heard, Herod the king was disturbed, and all Jerusalem with him.

4. And when he had gathered all the chief priests and scribes of the people, he inquired of them where Christ should be born.

5. And they said unto him, “In Bethlehem of Judea; for thus it is written by the prophet:

6. ‘And thou Bethlehem, [of] the land of Judah, art by no means the least among the governors of Judah, for out of thee shall come a Governor, who shall shepherd My people Israel.’”

7. Then Herod, privately calling the Magi, precisely inquired of them at what time the star appeared.

8. And sending them to Bethlehem, he said, “Go and search earnestly for the little Child; and when you have found [Him], report to me, so that I also may come and worship Him.”

9. And when they had heard the king they went [out]; and behold, the star which they saw in the east went before them, till it came [and] stood over where the little Child was.

10. And having seen the star, they rejoiced with exceedingly great joy.

11. And coming into the house, they found the little Child with Mary His mother, and falling [down] they worshiped Him; and opening their treasures, they offered to Him gifts: gold, and frankincense, and myrrh.

12. And being warned in a dream not to return to Herod, they departed into their own country by another way.

13. And when they had departed, behold, the angel of the Lord appears in a dream to Joseph, saying, “Arise and take the little Child and His mother, and flee into Egypt, and be there until I tell thee; for Herod is about to seek the little Child to destroy Him.”

14. And when he arose, he took the little Child and His mother by night, and departed into Egypt,

15. And was there until the death of Herod, that it might be fulfilled which was declared by the Lord through the prophet, saying, “Out of Egypt have I called My Son.”

16. Then Herod, when he saw that he was mocked by the Magi, was exceedingly wrathful, and sent out and slew all the boys that were in Bethlehem, and in all her borders , from two years and under, according to the time which he had precisely inquired of the Magi.

17. Then was fulfilled what was declared by Jeremiah the prophet, saying,

18. “A voice was heard in Rama, lamentation, and weeping, and much howling, Rachel weeping [for] her children; and she was not willing to be comforted, because they are not.”

19. And when Herod was dead, behold, the angel of the Lord, in a dream appears to Joseph in Egypt,

20. Saying, “Arise, take the little Child and His mother, and go to the land of Israel; for they are dead who sought the soul of the little Child.”
---

Joseph’s struggle within himself — as to whether or not to accept Mary and the child — represents the spiritual battle which each of us must undergo in the course of our regeneration. It is one thing to receive the Lord in the understanding (represented by Joseph), but quite another to allow Him to order the things of our will — represented by the angel telling Joseph to take Mary as his wife. This is the fiercer battle which now begins “after Jesus is born.”

The antagonist is Herod, the king of Judea at the time of Jesus’ birth. Comfortable and secure in his role as the supreme ruler of the land, Herod is deeply troubled by the report of the Wise Men who say, “Where is He who is born King of the Jews?” Spiritually seen, Herod, as king of Israel, represents total self-absorption, our corrupt hereditary will, setting itself up as the ruler of our lives. This is our state after fourteen generations of captivity in Babylon — a state in which we are governed by our basest emotions: greed, control, anger, fear, hatred and jealousy. We can be sure that whenever we find ourselves in a state like this, Herod is sitting comfortably and securely on his throne. He is a tyrannical ruler, easily threatened, but not easily dethroned. His motivating force is to destroy the Lord in us — even at His birth — rather than relinquish his control over us.

God knows that we need divine protection from the wrath of Herod who represents our selfish desire to control. God therefore speaks to Joseph (as He does to us) in a dream, saying “Arise, take the young Child and His mother, flee to Egypt, and remain there until I bring you word; for Herod is about to seek the young Child to destroy Him” (2:13).

Egypt, at that time, was a world center for education and learning. Medicine, mathematics, poetry and many other fields of study were flourishing. So Jesus’ flight into Egypt represents the need that all of us have for basic education, not just the standard three “R’s,” (reading, ‘riting, and ‘rithmetic) but the fourth “R” as well — the basics of religion.

Religious truth, especially the most basic, can help defend us against the onslaughts of Herod — the despot of our lower nature, a fierce tyrant who strives to murder everything that is true in us, even in its most innocent beginning. This is represented by Herod’s massacre of the male children in and around Bethlehem: “Then Herod, when he saw that he was mocked by the wise men, was exceedingly angry; and he sent forth and put to death all the male children who were in Bethlehem, and in all its districts, from two years old and under” (2:16; emphasis added).

The name “Bethlehem,” comes from two Hebrew words: “Beth” meaning “house” and “lechem” meaning “bread.” Therefore, Bethlehem means “House of Bread” — a place of spiritual nourishment. In the context of this episode, Herod’s destruction of all the male children of Bethlehem, two years old and under, represents how evil inclinations can destroy our earliest impulses to learn truth. These earliest desires to acquire knowledge of truth are symbolized by the male babies of Bethlehem. Whenever we fall into states of cynicism and skepticism, refusing to learn or trust the simple teachings of the Word, whenever we find ourselves without desire to seek the truth, and whenever the distractions of the world lure us away from the quest for wisdom, we can know that “Herod” has risen up in our hearts. A massacre has begun. “Herod in us” is striving to murder the innocent and tender qualities that have been born in our heavenly Bethlehem.

But if we flee to and remain in Egypt (as Jesus does), we will be protected. It is the place where our instruction begins. This is a temporary, but essential part of our spiritual development; temporary because we must eventually return to the land of Canaan where the truth will be applied to our lives; and essential, because these basic, natural truths are the only means by which we can be prepared to receive the higher insights that will eventually flow in from above. 1

For most of us, the period of our instruction in basic truths can last for many years, well into adolescence and beyond. In fact, it never really ends. Throughout our lives we will continue to acquire knowledge, both worldly and spiritual. We will, as it were, “go down into Egypt.” And, as we do so, learning truth and putting it into our lives, we will begin to see how the literal teachings of scripture “open up” like parting clouds, revealing more and more of the interior truths they contain.

In Jesus’ own case, this process of acquiring basic truth was much more rapid. Although Matthew does not tell us how long Jesus remained in Egypt, we can safely assume He was still quite young when He left, for an angel of the Lord came to Joseph in a dream, saying, “Arise, take the young Child and His mother, and go to the land of Israel, for those who sought the soul of the young Child’s are dead” (2:20; emphasis added).

Growing up in Nazareth

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21. And he arose, [and] took the little Child and His mother, and came into the land of Israel.

22. And hearing that Archelaus reigned in Judea instead of his father Herod, he feared to go thither; but being warned in a dream, he departed into the parts of Galilee.

23. And coming, He dwelt in a city called Nazareth, so that it might be fulfilled which was declared by the prophets, that He should be called a Nazarene.
---

Eventually, Joseph, Mary, and the young Child decide to return to Judea. This represents the next step in our spiritual journey. Once we have learned the simple, basic, most literal truths of the Word (sojourning in Egypt), it is time to return to Judea. It is time to be further instructed, and to see what is more interiorly concealed within the letter of the Word. This is a necessary step in every person’s spiritual development. The letter of the Word serves as a literal history of people and places; it is an introduction to basic truth. It does not, however, reveal the full details of our spiritual journey, or provide the kind of discernment we need for the refinement of our souls. Not yet, but that will surely come when we are ready to receive further instruction.

Meanwhile, as the divine narrative continues, Joseph is “warned by God in a dream” that it is not yet time to return to their home. Though Herod is dead, his son is still in power. And so Mary, Joseph, and the young Child turn aside into the region of Galilee, into a city called Nazareth. This is yet another step on the journey of spiritual development. In the language of sacred scripture, it could be called, “growing up in Nazareth.

But what does it mean to “grow up in Nazareth”?

Nazareth of Galilee was a primitive region populated mostly by farmers, fishermen and uneducated tradespeople who knew very little about theology or the laws of the temple.

Unlike the well-educated (but misguided) religious leaders in Judea, the people of Galilee were not part of the religious establishment of the time. Although they had a strong belief in God, they were not familiar with the main doctrines taught by the religious leaders or the traditions of the temple authorities. And yet, a simple belief in God is often better than a more complicated belief system based on human reason rather than divine revelation. In this regard, the “learned world” often looks down upon people who believe in simplicity that there is a God, and that God is good. 2

The simple, hard-working, good people of Nazareth, therefore, symbolize the humility and simplicity we need to believe in God and live according to His teachings. It is remarkable that almost all the early disciples came from Galilee. It was not their theological training that made them receptive to the teachings of Jesus — for they had very little. In fact, it might be said that it was the absence of theological training — or to be more precise, the absence of false and misleading theology — that made them receptive to Jesus’ words. 3

Galilee, then, and the city of Nazareth which was in the region of Galilee, represent the simplicity of heart and the goodness of life that can receive God openly without skepticism or negativity. Because their religious principles are simple and uncomplicated — love God, love your neighbor — these people can receive Jesus’ teachings readily and with joy. All this is contained in the scriptural statement that Jesus grew up in Nazareth of Galilee, in the “land of the Gentiles.” 4 These words speak about a state in us “where Jesus grows up” — a state in which we are willing to receive basic truths simply, uncritically, and with joy.

As we shall see later in the narrative, the fact that Jesus grows up in Nazareth, in the land of the Gentiles, will be held against Him. The religious leaders will regard Him as poor and uneducated, untrained in their religious tenets, and therefore incapable of understanding or conveying spiritual truth to anyone. And yet, as this episode closes, we learn that His growing up in Nazareth is the fulfillment of prophecy, for we read, “And He came and dwelt in a city called Nazareth, that it might be fulfilled which was spoken by the prophets, ‘He shall be called a Nazarene’” (2:23).

As we reflect on this miraculous moment in the early life of Jesus, it becomes evident that those simple, most basic truths we learn (Egypt) must be protected in a place of simple trust and unalloyed faith (Nazareth of Galilee). This is a necessary stage in which early truths from the letter of the Word can deepen and develop. It is why we feel a natural desire to protect the innocence of children from corrupting influences — Herod, and the son of Herod. And it is the same with each of us as we learn new truth from the letter of the Word, and allow it to grow up within us in a state of simple faith.

Footnotes:

1Arcana Coelestia 1462:6: “That the Lord when an infant was brought into Egypt, signified the same that is here signified by Abram [instruction in truths from the letter of the Word]; and it took place for the additional reason that He might fulfill all the things that had been represented concerning Him. In the inmost sense the migration of Jacob and his sons into Egypt represented the first instruction of the Lord in knowledges from the Word.” See also Apocalypse Explained 654.

2Apocalypse Explained 447:5: “Galilee signifies the establishment of the church with the Gentiles who are in the good of life and who receive truths.”

3Arcana Coelestia 4760:4: “It is well-known that the learned have less belief than the simple in a life after death, and that in general they see Divine truths less clearly than the simple do. The reason is that they consult facts, of which they possess a greater abundance than others, with a negative attitude, and by this destroy in themselves any insight gained from a higher or more interior position. Once this has been destroyed they no longer see anything in the light of heaven but in the light of the world; for facts exist in the light of the world, and if they are not lit up by the light of heaven they bring darkness, however different it may seem to be to them. This was why the simple believed in the Lord but not the scribes and Pharisees, who were the learned in that nation.”

4Apocalypse Explained 730: “Gentiles signify those who are in ignorance of truth, and yet are in the good of life according to their religious principle, from which they have a desire for truths.”

The Bible

 

Isaiah 11:1

Study the Inner Meaning

              

1 And there shall come forth a rod out of the stem of Jesse, and a Branch shall grow out of his roots:

   Study the Inner Meaning

Explanation of Isaiah 11      

By Rev. John H. Smithson

THE EXPLANATION of Isaiah Chapter 11

(Note: Rev. Smithson's translation of the Isaiah text is appended below the explanation)

1. AND there shall come forth a Shoot from the trunk of Jesse; and a Sprout from his roots shall become fruitful:

VERSE 1. The Lord, as to His Humanity born of the virgin and glorified in the world, is here called "a Shoot from the trunk of Jesse", also "a Sprout from his roots"; and in other passages He is called:

"a Germ of justice"; (Jeremiah 23:5)

"The Seed of the woman"; (Genesis 3:15)

"The only-Begotten"; (John 1:18)

"A Priest for ever, and the Lord." (Psalm 110:4-5)

Here no Son from eternity is meant, but a Son that was to be born in the world; for these passages contain prophecies concerning the coming of the Lord. Doctrine of the Lord 19. See also True Christian Religion 101.

2. And the Spirit of Jehovah shall rest upon Him; the spirit of wisdom and understanding; the spirit of counsel and might; the spirit of knowledge and the fear of Jehovah;

Verse 2. In many passages in the Word mention is made of "spirit", and, when predicated of man, by "spirit" is signified divine Truth received in the life, thus his spiritual life, but when predicated of the Lord, by "Spirit" is understood the Divine Principle which proceeds from Him, which, with a general expression, is called Divine Truth. But inasmuch as few at this day know what is understood by "spirit", in the Word, it may be expedient, first, to show from passages thence adduced, that "spirit", when predicated of man, signifies divine Truth received in the life, thus his spiritual life.

Now as there are two things which constitute the spiritual life of man, namely, the Good of love and the Truth of faith, therefore in many passages of the Word mention is made of "the heart and spirit", as likewise "the heart and soul"; and by the "heart" is signified the Good of love, and by the "spirit", the Truth of faith; the latter is likewise signified by "soul", for thereby in the Word is understood man's spirit. That by "spirit", when predicated of man, is signified Truth received in the life, appears from the following passages.

Thus in Ezekiel -

"Make you a new heart and a new spirit: wherefore will you die, O house of Israel?" (Ezekiel 18:31)

Again,

"I will give unto you a new heart, and a new spirit will I give in the midst of you." (Ezekiel 36:26)

And in David,

"Create in me a clean heart, O God; and renew a right spirit in the midst of me. The sacrifices of God are a broken spirit; a broken and contrite heart, God doth not despise." (Psalm 51:10, 17)

In these passages heart signifies the Good of love, and "spirit" the Truth of faith, from whence man has spiritual life; for there are two things which constitute all the, spiritual life of man, namely, Good and Truth, from these two united in man, constitute his spiritual life. When it is known what is signified by the "spirit" appertaining to man, it may be known what " Spirit " signifies when it is predicated of Jehovah, or the Lord; to whom are attributed all things appertaining to man, as a face, eyes, ears, arms, hands, as also a heart and a soul thus, also a spirit, which in the Word is called the "Spirit of God", the Spirit of Jehovah, the "spirit of His nostrils", the "spirit of His mouth, the "Spirit of Truth, the "Spirit of Holiness", and the Holy Spirit, whereby is understood Divine Truth proceeding from the Lord, as may appear from many passages in the Word.

The reason that Divine Truth proceeding from the Lord is the "Spirit" of God, is, because all the life which men have is derived from thence as also the heavenly life appertaining to those who receive that Divine Truth in faith and life, that this is the "Spirit of God", the Lord Himself teaches in John,

"The words which I speak unto you are spirit and are life; (John 6:63) and in Isaiah 11:1, 2. Apocalypse Explained 183. See also Arcana Coelestia 2826, 9818.

"Verses 2. 3. The Spirit of Jehovah shall rest upon Him, etc. - These words also relate to the Lord, and thereby is described the Divine Truth, in which and from which is all wisdom and intelligence. The Divine Truth which was in the Lord, when He was in the world, and which, after the glorification of His Human, proceeds from Him, is understood by "the Spirit of Jehovah which shall rest upon Him."

That thence He had Divine Wisdom and Divine Power is understood by "the spirit of wisdom and intelligence" and by the spirit of counsel and might"; that thence He had Omniscience and essential sanctity in worship, is understood by "the spirit of knowledge and of the fear of Jehovah"; and whereas "fear" signifies the holy principle of worship from divine Truth, it is therefore added, whence "this offering of incense was in the fear of Jehovah"; for to "offer incense" signifies worship from the Divine-Spiritual [principle], which is Divine Truth, concerning which (see above, Apocalypse Explained 324, 491) it is said, "the spirit of wisdom and intelligence, of knowledge and of fear"; and by "spirit" is understood the Divine Proceeding; by the "spirit of wisdom", the Divine-Celestial, which is the Divine Proceeding received by the angels of the inmost or third heaven; by the "spirit of intelligence" is meant the Divine-Spiritual, which is the Divine Proceeding received by the angels of the middle or second heaven; by the "spirit of science" [or knowledgeJ is meant the Divine-Natural, which is the Divine Proceeding received by the angels of the ultimate or first heaven; and by the "spirit of the fear of Jehovah" is understood all the holiness of worship from those divine principles. Apocalypse Explained 696.

3. And His offering of incense shall be in the fear of Jehovah: He shall not judge according to the sight of His eyes; nor shall He reprove according to the hearing of His ears:

Verse 3. "Incense" signifies those things appertaining to worship, which are performed from spiritual good, or from the good of charity, and thence are gratefully perceived. Apocalypse Explained 324, 325, 492.

The reason why "incense" signifies worship from spiritual Good, is, because the principal worship in the Jewish church consisted in the offering of sacrifices and incense; wherefore there were two altars, one for sacrifices and the other for incense. The latter altar was within the tabernacle, and was called the "golden altar", but the former was without the tabernacle, and was called the "altar of burnt-offerings." The reason was, because there are two kinds of goods from which all "worship is performed, celestial Good and spiritual Good. Celestial Good is the Good of love to the Lord, and spiritual Good is the Good of love to our neighbour. Worship by sacrifices was worship from celestial Good, and worship by incense was worship from spiritual Good. Apocalypse Revealed 277.

In the fear of Jehovah. - What is signified in the Word by "fearing God", may be manifest from very many passages therein, understood according to the internal sense. the "fear of God", according to that sense, signifies worship, and indeed worship either grounded in fear, or in the good of faith, or in the good of love. The "fear of God" signifies worship grounded in fear or dread, when the subject treated of is concerning the non-regenerate, as in Exodus 20:19, 20; Deuteronomy 5:22, 24, 20; where the "fear of God" signifies worship grounded in fear, in respect to them as being of such a nature. For they who are principled in external worship without internal, are led by fear to the observance of the law, and to compliance with its precepts, but still they, do not come into internal worship, or into holy fear, unless they are in the good of life, and know and believe what internal worship is. So in Deuteronomy 28:58-60; where to "fear the honourable and terrible name of JEHOVAH GOD", is to worship from a principle of fear or dread, to inspire which into a people of such a nature and quality as the Jews were, all evils, even to curses, were attributed to Jehovah. So in Jeremiah 2:19; Matthew 10:28; Luke 12:2-5. In these passages also to "fear God" implies worship from fear or dread, because it is fear which drives them to compliance. Arcana Coelestia 2826.

But spiritual fear is holy fear, which is in all spiritual love, variously, according to the quality of the love, and its quantity. In this fear the spiritual man is principled; he likewise knows that the Lord does not do evil to anyone, still less does He destroy anyone as to "body and soul in hell", (Luke 12:5) but that He does good to all, and that He is willing to lift up everyone as to body and soul to Himself into heaven. Hence the fear of the spiritual man, lest by evils of life and by false principles of doctrine he should avert the Divine in himself, and thereby injure it. But natural fear, or the fear of the unregenerate natural man, is dread, alarm, and terror on account of dangers, punishments, and thus on account of hell; which fear is in every corporeal love, variously also, according to the quality of the love and according to its quantity. The natural man who is subject to that fear, knows no other than that the Lord does evil to the wicked, that He condemns them, casts them into hell, and punishes them; hence it is that they fear, and are afraid of the Lord. In this fear were the generality of the Jewish and Israelitish nation, by reason that they were natural men. Apocalypse Explained 696.

4. But with justice shall He judge the poor, and with equity shall He plead for the miserable of the earth: and He shall smite the earth with the rod of His mouth, and with the breath of His lips shall He slay the wicked.

Verse 4. He shall smite the earth with the rod of His mouth, etc. - By the "rod of the mouth of Jehovah" is signified Divine Truth, or the Word, in the natural sense; and by the "spirit of His lips" is signified Divine Truth, or the Word, in the spiritual sense, - both destroying the false of evil in the church, which is signified by "smiting the earth, and slaying the wicked." Apocalypse Explained 727. See also Arcana Coelestia 1286.

5. And justice shall be the girdle of His loins, and truth the girdle of His reins.

Verse 5. Justice shall be the girdle of His loins, etc. - A "girdle", in the Word, signifies a common bond whereby all things are kept in their order and connection, as in Isaiah 11:5. As a "girdle" signifies a bond conjoining the goods and truths of the church, therefore when the church among the children of Israel was destroyed, Jeremiah the prophet was commanded to "buy himself a girdle, and put it upon his loins, and then to hide it in a hole of a rock beside the Euphrates; and at the end of days, when he took it, behold, it was rotten and profitable for nothing"; (Jeremiah 13:1-7) by which was represented that at that time there was no good in the church, and thence truths were dissipated. The same is signified by a "girdle" in other passages, as in Isaiah:

"Instead of a girdle there shall be a rent." (Isaiah 3:24) Apocalypse Revealed 46.

Verses 5, 6. Justice shall be the girdle of His loins, and truth the girdle of His reins; - the wolf shall dwell with the lamb, etc. - These things are said concerning the Lord, and concerning His kingdom and the state of innocence and peace therein. That they are said concerning the Lord, is evident from the first verse of the chapter, where it is said that "a Shoot shall come forth from the trunk of Jesse, and a Sprout shall grow from his roots." That "justice shall be the girdle of His loins, and truth the girdle of His reins", signifies that the Divine Good, proceeding from the Divine Love of the Lord, shall conjoin those in heaven and in the church who are principled in love to Him, and that Divine Truth proceeding from Him shall conjoin those in heaven and in the church who are principled in love towards their neighbour; by "justice", when predicated of the Lord, is understood the Divine Good, and by His" loins" are understood those who are principled in love to Him: by "truth" is understood the Divine Truth, and by His "reins" are understood those who are principled in love towards their neighbour; and by "girdle" is signified conjunction with them in heaven and in the church. Wherefore "he shall dwell " signifies a state of peace, which takes place when nothing of evil from hell is feared, because it cannot do hurt; "the wolf with the lamb, and the leopard with the kid", signifies that no evil and false shall hurt those who are in innocence and in charity from the Lord; by the "wolf" is signified the evil which is opposite to innocence, and attempts to destroy it; and by the "leopard" is understood the false which is opposed to charity, and, which, by reasonings in favour of faith alone, attempts to destroy charity; by the "lamb is signified innocence, and by the the "kid" charity; "the calf also, and the young lion, and the fatling together", signify that the infernal false shall not hurt the innocence of the natural man, nor any good affection thereof; the "calf" signifying the innocence of the natural man , the "fatling or ox", the affection of the natural man, and the "lion", the infernal false, as to the potency and cupidity of destroying divine Truth; and a "little child shall lead them", signifies the state of innocence and love to the Lord in which they will be; a "little child" or boy signifying innocence, and, at the same time, love to the Lord; for love to the Lord makes one with innocence, inasmuch as they who are in that love are also in innocence, as is the case with those who are in the third heaven, who thence also appear before the eyes of others as infants and children. Apocalypse Explained 780. See also Arcana Coelestia 3021, 9828.

6. And the wolf shall dwell with the lamb; and the leopard shall lie down with the kid; and the calf, and the young lion, and the fatling together; and a little child shall lead them.

Verses 6, 8, 9, 10. - In this passage is described the state of peace and happiness in the heavens. and in the church, after the Lord had come into the world: and since a state of peace and Innocence is described, mention is made of "a lamb, a kid, a calf, and also of a little child, a suckling, and a weaned child", and by them all is signified the good of innocence; - the inmost good of innocence by a "lamb"; the interior good of innocence by a "kid"; and the exterior good of innocence by a "calf."

In like manner by "a child, a suckling, and a weaned child."

The "mountain of holiness" denotes heaven and the church, where the good of innocence prevails.

The "nations" are they who are in that good.

The "Root of Jesse" is the Lord, from whom that good is derived. The good of love from Him to them, which is called celestial good, is the good of innocence.

That a "lamb" denotes the good of innocence in general, and specifically the inmost good of innocence, is manifest from this consideration, that it is named in the first place; also from this, that the Lord Himself is called a "Lamb."

That a "kid" denotes the interior good of innocence, see Arcana Coelestia 3519, 4871;

that a "calf" is the exterior good of innocence, n. 9391;

that a "child" is innocence, n. 5236; in like manner "a suckling or infant, and a weaned child", Arcana Coelestia 3494, 5608;

that the "mountain of holiness" denotes whence the good of love to the Lord is, Arcana Coelestia 6135, 8758;

that "nations" signify [in a good sense] those "who are in that good, Arcana Coelestia 1416, 6005.

That the good of love to the Lord 'which is called celestial good, is the good of innocence, is manifest from those who are in the inmost heaven, who because they are in that good appear naked, and as infants by reason that nakedness, in a good sense, corresponds to innocence, see Arcana Coelestia 9277. Arcana Coelestia 10132.

7. And the cow and the bear shall feed; together shall their young ones lie down: and the lion shall eat straw like the ox.

Verse 7. By the "cow and the bear feeding, and their young lying down together", is signified that the power and lust of the natural man of falsifying the truths of the Word, shall not hurt the good of the natural man and the affection thereof; the "cow" denoting the affection of good and truth appertaining to the natural man, and the "bear", the power and lust of the natural man to falsify the truths of the literal sense of the Word; "the lion shall eat straw like the ox, "signifies that the infernal false, which is ardent to destroy the truths of the church, shall not hurt the affection of good appertaining to the natural man, either with man in himself or with men amongst each other, and that neither shall it hurt the Word:

"straw" signifying the Word in the letter, which is perverted by the infernal also, but caunot be perverted by those who are in truths from good. Apocalypse Explained 781.

8. And the suckling shall play upon the hole of the viper; and upon the den of the basilisk shall the weaned child lay his hand.

Verse 8. This passage cannot be understood unless it be known from the things which appear in the spiritual world what is understood by the "hole of the viper", and the "den of the basilisk."

It was observed above, (Chapter 2:19, the Exposition.) that the entrances to the hills appear as holes in rocks, and as gaps opening to dens such as belong to "wild beasts in the forests; and it is further to be observed, that they who inhabit" those places, when they are viewed in the light of heaven, appear as monsters of various kinds, and also as wild beasts. They who are in the hells inhabited by such as act craftily against innocence appear as "vipers", and they who do the same against the good of love appear as "basilisks", and as a "suckling" or infant signifies the good of innocence, therefore it is said "the suckling shall play upon the hole of the viper", and as a "weaned child", or an infant ceasing to suck, signifies the good of love, therefore it is said that he shall "lay his hand upon the den of the basilisk."

Hence the signification of this passage is, that they who are in the good of innocence and in the good of love to the Lord, shall not be in any fear on account of evils and falsities, which are from hell, because they are protected by the Lord. That by the "suckling and infant", in the Word, is signified the good of innocence, may be seen in Arcana Coelestia 430, 3183; what is signified by "vipers", and other poisonous serpents" may be seen in 9013. Apocalypse Explained 410.

9. They shall not hurt, nor destroy, in all the mountain of My holiness: for the earth shall be full of the knowledge of Jehovah, as the waters cover the sea.

Verse 9. The earth shall be full of the knowledge of Jehovah, as the waters cover the sea. - Inasmuch as it is not yet known that "waters" in the Word signify the truths of faith and the knowledges of Truth, perhaps by reason of its appearing so remote, I am desirous here briefly to show that such things are understood by "waters" in the Word, which also is necessary, because without the knowledge of the signification of "waters", it cannot be known what is signified by baptism, nor what by the washing in the Israelitish church, of which mention is so frequently made. "Waters" signify the truths of faith, because "bread" signifies the good of love. The reason why "waters" and "bread" have such a signification, is, because the things which appertain to spiritual nourishment are expressed, in the sense of the letter, by such things as appertain to natural nourishment; for "waters" and "bread", by which are meant all drink and all food in general, nourish the body and the truths of faith and the good of love, nourish the soul, This is also from correspondence, for when "bread" and "water" are read in the Word, the angels, as being spiritual, understand those things which nourish them, which are the goods of love, and the truths of faith. But some passages shall be here adduced, from whence it may be known that "waters" signify the truths of faith, likewise the knowledges of truth; as in Isaiah:

"Then shall you draw waters with gladness from the fountains of salvation." (Isaiah 12:3)

Again,

"He who walks in justice, and speaks uprightly, bread shall be given him, and faithful waters." (Isaiah 33:15, 16)

Again,

"The poor and the needy seek water, but there is none: their tongue faints for thirst; I will open rivers upon hills, and will place fountains in the midst of valleys, the desert into a lake of waters, and the dry land into springs of waters; that they may see, and know, and attend, and understand." (Isaiah 41:17, 18, 20)

Again,

"I will pour out waters upon the thirsty, and floods upon the dry; I will pour out My spirit upon your seed, and My blessing upon thine offspring." (Isaiah 44:3)

I know that some will wonder why "waters" are mentioned in the Word, and not the truths of faith, when nevertheless the Word is to teach man concerning his spiritual life, and if the truths of faith had been mentioned instead of "waters", man would have known that the "waters" of baptism and of washings do not contribute anything to his purification from evils and falsities, but it is to be observed that the Word, to be divine and at the same time profitable to heaven and the church, must be altogether natural in the letter, for unless it were natural in the letter, it would not be the medium to effect conjunction of heaven with the church; for it would be as a house without a foundation, and as a soul without a body, for the ultimates include all the interiors, and are their foundations, as may be seen above, n. 41; man also is in ultimates, and heaven has its foundation upon the church in him. Hence then it is that such is the style of the Word; wherefore when man thinks spiritually from natural things, "which are in the sense of the letter of the Word, he is conjoined with heaven, with which he would not otherwise be conjoined." Apocalypse Explained 71.

10. And it shall be in that day, that the Root of Jesse shall stand for a standard to the peoples; unto Him shall the nations seek: and His resting-place shall be glorious.

11. And it shall be in that day, that the Lord shall again the second time put forth His hand to recover the remnant of His people that remains, from Assyria, and from Egypt; and from Pathros, and from Cush, and from Eiam; and from Shinar, and from Hamath, and from the islands of the sea.

Verse 10. The Lord, as to the Human, is called the "Root of David" on this account, because all divine Truth is from Him, as all things also exist and subsist from their root; hence also it is, that He is called the "Root of Jesse", where Jesse is put for David, because he was his father. Apocalypse Explained 310.

What a "standard" specifically signifies, see below, Chapter 13:2, the Exposition.

The verses from 1 to 10 describe the state of the regenerate man, who acknowledges the Lord and worships Him alone, showing that he has power over everything evil and false from hell, and that he is in the enjoyment of heavenly peace and happiness. True Christian Religion 354.

Verse 11. The Lord shall recover the remnant of His people from Assyria, Egypt, etc. - The "remnant of Assyria" are those who are not destroyed by reasoning from falsities against the truths of the church. (Arcana Coelestia 5897)

The "remnant from Egypt" are those who, at the period of judgment, are not destroyed by the misapplication for selfish ends of the scientifics of the Word and the Church. (Arcana Coelestia 3322, 4749)

The "remnants from Pathros and from Cush" are such as have not employed the knowledges of what is Good and True to confirm what is evil and false. (Arcana Coelestia 1163)

The "remnant from Elam" are those who have somewhat of faith grounded in charity still remaining. (Arcana Coelestia 1228, 1685)

The "remnant of Shinar " are such as have an external worship in which there is not a profane principle. (Arcana Coelestia 1183, 1292)

The "remnant from Hamath" are those who, although in external idolatries, have nevertheless somewhat of sincerity in their internals. (1205)

The "remnant from the islands of the sea" signify distinct kinds of worship, and such as are comparatively remote from internal worship, or such as pertain to the nations out of the church. Arcana Coelestia 1158.

The "outcasts of Israel whom the Lord shall gather" are those who have remains of spiritual love, or charity to the neighbour; and the "dispersed of Judah" are those who have remains of celestial love, or of love to the Lord. Apocalypse Explained 483.

[These" remnants", at the time of judgment in the world of spirits, can be saved, and after instruction in the truths of the Word, can be raised up into heaven; and of those upon earth who are in similar states to these "remnants" the Lord can form a New Church.]

12. And He shall lift up a standard to the nations; and He shall gather the outcasts of Israel, and the dispersed of Judah shall He collect from the four wings of the earth.

Verses 12, 13, 15, 16. The subject here treated of in the sense of the letter is concerning the bringing back of the Israelites and Jews out of captivity; but in the internal sense it has relation to the New Church in general, and to every individual in particular who is regenerated or becomes a church.

The "outcasts of Israel" denote their truths; the "dispersed of Judah" denote their goods; "Ephraim" denotes their intellectual principle, in that it will no longer be repugnant; "Egypt" denotes scientifics, and "Ashur" reasoning grounded therein, which they have perverted; the "expelled", the "dispersed", the "remains", and the "left" [or residue] denote the truths and goods which survive; that "Ephraim" is the intellectual principle, was shown above; (Chapter vii. Exposition.)

That "Egypt" is the scientific, may be seen in Arcana Coelestia 1164, 1165; that "Ashur" is reasoning, may be seen, Arcana Coelestia 119, 1180, also above, (Chapter 7:18, 19) and that "remains" are goods and truths from the Lord stored up in the interior man, see Arcana Coelestia 468, 530. Arcana Coelestia 3564. See also above, Chapter 1:9, the Exposition.

Verses 12, 14. He shall gather the outcasts of Israel and the dispersed of Judah; - they shall fly upon the shoulder of the Philistines towards the sea, etc. - By "Israel" and by "Judah " are not meant Israel and Judah, but by "Israel" those who are in the good of faith, and by "Judah" those who are in the good of love. To "fly upon the shoulder of the Philistines" signifies to receive and to take into possession the interior truths of faith. To "spoil the soils of the east", is to receive and to take into possession the interior goods of faith: for the "sons of the east" are those who are the goods of faith and in the knowledges of good. (See Arcana Coelestia 3249, 3762)

That to "spoil" denotes to receive and to take into possession, see what was shown concerning" the spoiling of the Egyptians by the sons of Israel", in Arcana Coelestia 6914, 0917. Inasmuch as by the "land of Philistia" was signified [in a good sense] the science of the interior truths of faith, and by "Abraham " and "Isaac" was represented the Lord, and by their "sojourning", the instruction of the Lord in the truths and goods of faith and love, which are of divine Wisdom, therefore for the sake of that figure Abraham was ordered to "sojourn in Philistia"; (see Genesis 20:1, to the end.) and also Isaac; (Genesis 24:26, to the end.) on which subject see the explanations of those chapters. Arcana Coelestia 9340.

13. And the envy of Ephraim shall depart, and the adversaries of Judah shall be cut off: Ephraim shall not envy Judah, and Judah shall not distress Ephraim.

Verses 13-16. The envy of Ephraim shall depart, and the adversaries of Judah shall be cut off: Ephraim shall not envy Judah, and Judah shall not distress Ephraim, etc. And there shall be a highway for the remnant of His people, which shall be left, from Assyria; as it was unto Israel, in the day of his coming up from the land of Egypt. In this passage it is impossible to see anything divine, unless it be known what is signified by each particular name, notwithstanding that the subject here treated of is concerning the coming of the Lord, and what shall come to pass at that time, as plainly appears from verses 1 to 10; without the help, therefore, of the spiritual sense, how is it possible for anyone to discern the genuine signification of these words in their order, as denoting that they who through ignorance are principled in falsities and do not suffer themselves to be seduced by evils, will come to the Lord, and that the Word will then be understood by the church, and that falsities will then be no longer hurtful to them. Sacred Scripture 15.

These things are said concerning the salvation of the nations, which are also signified by the "outcasts of Israel and the dispersed of Judah"; for it is said that the Lord "will set up a standard to the nations." By the "outcasts of Israel" are understood those who are not in truths, but in the desire of learning them: by the "dispersed of Judah", those who are in the good of life, find therefore in love to the Lord. For they who love to do good, love the Lord, for the Lord is in that good, because it is from Him.

By "Ephraim" is here understood the intellectual principle, or the understanding in concord with the good of love. That the one is not discordant with the other is understood by the "envy of Ephraim. shall depart", and by "Ephraim not envying Judah", and by "Judah not distressing Ephraim." That they will be separated from those who separate faith from charity is signified by their "flying upon the shoulder of the Philistines [who dwell] towards the sea." The "Philistines towards the sea" are those who separate faith from charity, or from the good of life. The sea is the ultimate where heaven terminates, and to "fly on the shoulder" is to reject, and thus to separate them from themselves. Apocalypse Explained 433.

14. But they shall fly upon the shoulder of the Philistines towards the sea; together shall they spoil he sons of the east: on Edom and Moab they shall lay their hand; and the sons of Ammon shall obey them.

Verse 14. On Edom and Moab they shall lay their hand; and the sons of Ammon shall obey them. - "Edom" and also "Esau" signify, in a bad sense, those who from the evil of self-love despise and reject truths. Arcana Coelestia 3322. "Moab" denotes those who adulterate goods; "the sons of Ammon "those who falsify truths. Arcana Coelestia 2468.

[By these nations obeying those gathered as remnants by the Lord (in verses 11 and 12), is meant that the evils and falsities signified, in a bad sense, by "Edom, Moab, and Ammon", will be subject to them, and thus subdued. For the enemies of the church, and, consequently, of the regenerate states of its members, are chiefly those 1, who despise and reject its truths (Edom); 2, those who adulterate its goods (Moab); and 3, those who falsify its truths (Ammon). Because the evils and falsities which principally devastate a church may be brought under these three general heads.]

15. And Jehovah shall utterly destroy the tongue of the Egyptian sea; and He shall shake His hand over the river with His mighty wind: and He shall strike it into seven streams, and make them pass over it in shoes.

16. And there shall be a highway for the remnant of His people, which shall be left, from Assyria; as it was unto Israel, in the day of his coming up from the land of Egypt.

Verses 15, 16. Jehovah shall utterly destroy the tongue of the Egyptian· sea, etc. - By these words is signified that all falsities and false reasonings will be dissipated before those who are, from the Lord, in truths from good, and that they will pass, as it were, through the midst of such falsities in safety. Thus it happens in the spiritual world to those who are protected by the Lord. A similar thing is here understood as by the drying up of the Red Sea [SuphJ before the sons of Israel. They who, under the Lord's protection, will thus pass over are understood by the "remnant of the people that shall be left from Assyria"; for by the "left from Assyria", those are understood who have not perished by reasonings from falsities. Apocalypse Explained 509.

[That by "tongue", in a bad sense, and especially by " the tongue of the Egyptian sea", when opposed to those who are in truths from the Lord, is signified false doctrine, and, in general, falsities of every kind arising from the perverse application by reasonings of scientifics and knowledges signified by "Egypt"; see above, Chapter 3:8, 11, the Exposition.] .

[To "strike the river into seven streams", denotes utter dissipation of the falsities thereby signified; for "seven" signifies what is full and entire, (Arcana Coelestia 10127) "With a mighty wind", signifies a medium of destruction; see Arcana Coelestia 7679.]

And make them pass over it in shoes. - "Shoes" denote the ultimate or the last sensual and corporeal principle of man; in respect to the regenerate [as in this case], that principle renewed and regenerated. The internal of the natural principle or degree, is signified by the "feet", the middle by the "soles", and the lowest or ultimate by the "shoes." Hence it "was a custom to take the shoes from off the feet. when the Lord in holy worship was approached, (Exodus 3:5; Joshua 5:15) to signify that the Lord and the things of His Word and kingdom should not be thought of from merely sensual and corporeal ideas, but that the mind in acts of worship and in meditation on heavenly subjects, should rise above what is sensual and corporeal, By the "shoes" which were put on the feet of the prodigal son, after his return to his father's house, is signified the conjunction of Truth and Good in the external or natural man, thus a renewed or regenerated natural principle, by which a man is enabled, from the Lord, to "trample upon serpents and scorpions", (Luke 10:19) or to pass over evils and falsities unhurt. Arcana Coelestia 1748, 6844, 7864. See also Apocalypse Explained 219.

---
Isaiah Chapter 11

1. AND there shall come forth a Shoot from the trunk of Jesse; and a Sprout from his roots shall become fruitful:

2. And the Spirit of Jehovah shall rest upon Him; the spirit of wisdom and understanding; the spirit of counsel and might; the spirit of knowledge and the fear of Jehovah;

3. And His offering of incense shall be in the fear of Jehovah: He shall not judge according to the sight of His eyes; nor shall He reprove according to the hearing of His ears:

4. But with justice shall He judge the poor, and with equity shall He plead for the miserable of the earth: and He shall smite the earth with the rod of His mouth, and with the breath of His lips shall He slay the wicked.

5. And justice shall be the girdle of His loins, and truth the girdle of His reins.

6. And the wolf shall dwell with the lamb; and the leopard shall lie down with the kid; and the calf, and the young lion, and the fatling together; and a little child shall lead them.

7. And the cow and the bear shall feed; together shall their young ones lie down: and the lion shall eat straw like the ox.

8. And the suckling shall play upon the hole of the viper; and upon the den of the basilisk shall the weaned child lay his hand.

9. They shall not hurt, nor destroy, in all the mountain of My holiness: for the earth shall be full of the knowledge of Jehovah, as the waters cover the sea.

10. And it shall be in that day, that the Root of Jesse shall stand for a standard to the peoples; unto Him shall the nations seek: and His resting-place shall be glorious.

11. And it shall be in that day, that the Lord shall again the second time put forth His hand to recover the remnant of His people that remains, from Assyria, and from Egypt; and from Pathros, and from Cush, and from Eiam; and from Shinar, and from Hamath, and from the islands of the sea.

12. And He shall lift up a standard to the nations; and He shall gather the outcasts of Israel, and the dispersed of Judah shall He collect from the four wings of the earth.

13. And the envy of Ephraim shall depart, and the adversaries of Judah shall be cut off: Ephraim shall not envy Judah, and Judah shall not distress Ephraim.

14. But they shall fly upon the shoulder of the Philistines towards the sea; together shall they spoil he sons of the east: on Edom and Moab they shall lay their hand; and the sons of Ammon shall obey them.

15. And Jehovah shall utterly destroy the tongue of the Egyptian sea; and He shall shake His hand over the river with His mighty wind: and He shall strike it into seven streams, and make them pass over it in shoes.

16. And there shall be a highway for the remnant of His people, which shall be left, from Assyria; as it was unto Israel, in the day of his coming up from the land of Egypt.

From Swedenborg's Works

Main explanations:

The Inner Meaning of the Prophets and Psalms 11


Other references to this verse:

Arcana Coelestia 2826, 4594, 9818, 9828

Apocalypse Revealed 46, 954, 962

A Brief Exposition of New Church Doctrine 120

Doctrine of the Lord 6, 19, 38, 50, 51

Doctrine of the Sacred Scripture 15

True Christian Religion 139, 188, 354, 789


References from Swedenborg's drafts, indexes & diaries:

Apocalypse Explained 183

Coronis (An Appendix to True Christian Religion) 60

Related New Christian Commentary

  Stories and their meanings:


  Related Books  (see all)


Hop to Similar Bible Verses

Psalms 145:11

Isaiah 4:2, 53:2

Jeremiah 23:5

Ezekiel 17:22

Zechariah 6:12

Matthew 1:5, 2:23

Acts 13:23

Revelation 5:5

Bible Word Meanings

Stem of Jesse
The 'stem of Jesse' signifies the Lord in His divine humanity.

jesse
Jesse, a resident of Bethlehem, was the father of David, and thus was part of the lineage of Jesus. Swedenborg says little about him as...

Grow
‘To grow’ signifies to be perfected.

roots
'A root,' as in Malachi 4:1, signifies charity. The dried up root,' as in Hosea 9:16, 17, signifies charity which could not bear fruit.

Resources for parents and teachers

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 A Child Shall Lead Them
Coloring Page | Ages 7 - 14

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Spiritual tasks offer a reflection on a Biblical story and suggest a task for spiritual growth.
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Illustrations of three times children are mentioned in the Word. (Quotations are the King James translation.)
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Color pictures of animals mentioned in Isaiah 11 and use them to make Christmas ornaments, a lamp shade, a basket for Christmas cards, or a table decoration.
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Sunday School Lesson | Ages 9 - 12

 Prophecies of the Lord’s Coming
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 Prophecies of the Messiah
One of the most important events in the history of human beings is the birth of the Lord on earth as an infant. By the time the Lord was actually born, the truths of the Word had been lost or perverted. But there had been prophets who told people that the Lord was going to come on earth and gave them hope. Sample from the Jacob’s Ladder Program, Level 6, for ages 11-12.
Religion Lesson | Ages 11 - 12


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