365. And it was given to him that sat thereon to take peace from the earth. That this signifies the Word thence not understood, whence arise dissensions in the church, is manifest from the signification of him that sat upon the red horse, as denoting the Word not understood as to good; for by him that sat upon the horse, is signified the Word, as was shown above (n. 355, 356). By the horse is signified the understanding thereof (n. 355), and by the red horse the understanding destroyed as to good (n. 364); therefore, by him that sat upon the red horse is signified the Word thence not understood. From the signification of taking away peace, as denoting that thence arise dissensions, concerning which we shall speak presently; and from the signification of the earth, as denoting the church. That the earth signifies the church may be seen above, n. 29, 304.
Revelation 6:4; The Apocalypse Explained 29, The Apocalypse Explained 301, The Apocalypse Explained 355, 356, 364)
 Before it is explained what peace signifies, something shall be said concerning this fact, that when the understanding of the Word is destroyed, dissensions arise in the church. By good is meant the good of love to the Lord, and the good of love towards the neighbour, because all good is of love; when these goods do not exist with the man of the church, then the Word is not understood; for the conjunction of the Lord and the conjunction of heaven with the man of the church is by good; therefore, if there is no good with him, no enlightenment can be given; for all enlightenment, when the Word is read, is out of heaven from the Lord; and when there is no enlightenment, then the truths that are in the Word are in obscurity, [and] hence dissensions arise. That the Word is not understood if man is not in good, is evident from this fact, that in every particular of the Word there is the heavenly marriage, that is, the conjunction of good and truth; therefore, if good is not present to a man reading the Word, neither does truth appear, for truth appears from good, and good by means of truths. (That in the particulars of the Word there is a conjunction of good and truth, see above, n. 238 at the end, 288.)
The Apocalypse Explained 238, 288)
 The state of the case is this: in proportion as man is in good, in the same proportion the Lord flows in, and gives the affection of truth, and understanding thence; for the interior human mind is altogether formed as an image of heaven, and all heaven is formed according to the affections of good, and of truth from good; therefore, unless good is with man, that mind cannot be opened, still less can it be formed for heaven; it is formed by the conjunction of good and truth. Hence also it is evident, that unless man is in good, truths have not any ground in which they may be received, nor heat from which they may grow: for truths with the man who is in good, are like seeds in the ground in the time of spring; whereas truths with the man who is not in good, are like seeds in ground bound by frost in the time of winter, when there is neither grass, nor flower, nor tree, still less fruit.
 In the Word are all the truths of heaven and the church, indeed, all the mysteries of the wisdom of the angels of heaven; but no one sees those things except him who is in the good of love to the Lord, and in the good of love towards the neighbour. Those who are not, see truths here and there, but they do not understand them, having an entirely different perception and idea concerning them from that which pertains to the truths considered in themselves; hence although they see or know truths, still the truths are not truths with them, but falsities; for truths are not truths from their sound and utterance, but from the idea held and perception concerning them. It is otherwise when truths are implanted in good; then truths appear in their own form, for truth is the form of good. Hence it may be concluded, what kind of the understanding of the Word those have who make faith alone the sole means of salvation, and put in the background the good of life, or the good of charity. It has been found that those who have confirmed themselves in this manner, as well in doctrine as in life, have not so much as a right idea of truth. This also is the reason why they do not know what good is, what charity and love are, what the neighbour is, what heaven and hell are, that they will live after death as men, nor indeed what regeneration is, what baptism is, and several other things; indeed so blind are they concerning God Himself, that they worship three in thought, and one with the mouth only, not knowing that the Father of the Lord is the Divine in Him, and that the Holy Spirit is the Divine from Him.
These things are mentioned that it may be known that there is no understanding of the Word where good is not. The reason why it is here said that it was given to him that sat upon the red horse to take peace from the earth, is, because peace signifies the peacefulness of the higher mind (mens) and the tranquillity of the lower mind (animi) from the conjunction of good and truth. Hence to take away peace signifies an unpeacefulness and intranquillity from the separation of these, whence arise internal dissensions; for when good is separated from truth, then evil succeeds in its place, and it loves not the truth but falsity, because all falsity is of evil, as all truth is of good; therefore, when such a person sees a truth in the Word, or hears it from another, the evil of his love, and thence of his will, strives against it, and then he either rejects it, or perverts it, or by ideas from evil so obscures it, that at length he sees nothing of truth in the truth, however true it may sound when he utters it; hence is the origin of all dissensions, controversies, and heresies in the church. From these considerations it is evident what is here signified by taking peace from the earth.
 But what peace is in its primary origin is amply shown in the work concerning Heaven and Hell, where the state of peace in heaven is treated of (n. 284-290), namely, that in its primary origin it is from the Lord; that it is in Him from the union of the Divine itself and the Divine Human, and from Him by virtue of His conjunction with heaven and the church, and in particular from the conjunction of good and truth with every one; hence it is, that by peace, in the highest sense, is signified the Lord, in a relative sense, heaven and the church in general, and also heaven and the church in particular with every one.
Heaven and Hell 284-290)
 That these things are signified by peace in the Word, is evident from many passages therein, of which I will adduce the following in confirmation. In John:
Jesus said, "Peace I leave with you, my peace I give unto you; not as the world giveth, give I unto you. Let not your heart be troubled, neither let it be afraid" (xiv. 27).
The Lord's union with the Father is here treated of; that is, the union of His Divine Human with the Divine itself which was in Him from conception, and thence concerning the Lord's conjunction with those who are in truths from good. Hence by peace is meant tranquillity of mind from that conjunction; and because thereby they are protected from the evils and falsities from hell - for the Lord protects those who are conjoined with Him - therefore, he says, "Let not your heart be troubled, neither let it be afraid." This Divine peace is in man, and because heaven is associated with it, by peace is also here meant heaven, and, in the highest sense, the Lord; but the peace of the world is from successes there, thus from conjunction with the world, which, because it is only external, and the Lord is not in it, nor, consequently, heaven, perishes with a man's life in the world, and is turned into what is not peace. Therefore, the Lord says, "My peace I give unto you, not as the world giveth, give I unto you."
 In the same:
Jesus said, "These things I have spoken unto you, that in me ye might have peace. In the world ye shall have tribulation; but trust confidently, I have overcome the world" (xvi. 33).
Here also by peace is meant internal delight from conjunction with the Lord, whence [come] heaven and internal joy. Peace is here opposed to tribulation, because by tribulation is signified infestation by evils and falsities, which those experience who are in Divine peace, so long as they live in the world; for the flesh with which they are then clothed lusts after the things of the world, whence comes tribulation; therefore, the Lord says, "That in me ye might have peace, in the world ye shall have tribulation," and because the Lord as to His Human acquired to Himself power over the hells, thus over the evils and the falsities, which thence rise up into the flesh with every one, and infest, therefore, He says, "Trust confidently, I have overcome the world."
 In Luke:
Jesus said to the seventy whom he sent forth, "Into whatsoever house ye enter, first say, Peace be to this house. And if the Son of peace be there, your peace shall rest upon it; but if not, it shall return to you again" (x. 5, 6).
And in Matthew:
"Entering into a house, salute it. And if the house be worthy, let your peace come upon it; but if it be not worthy, let your peace return to you. And whosoever shall not receive you, nor hear your words, departing out of that house or city, shake off the dust of your feet" (x. 12-14).
That they should say, Peace be to this house, signifies that they should acquaint themselves whether those who were therein received the Lord, preached the gospel concerning the Lord, and thence concerning heaven, celestial joy, and eternal life; for all these things are signified by peace. And those who received them are meant by the sons of peace, upon whom the peace should rest; but that it should be taken away from those who would not acknowledge the Lord, and thence would not receive the things concerning Him, or which belong to peace, is signified by their peace returning to them again if the house or city was not worthy. Lest then they should suffer hurt from the evils and falsities in that house or in that city, it was commanded that, when departing, they should shake off the dust of their feet, by which is signified lest what was cursed should thence adhere; for by the dust of the feet is signified what is cursed; for the ultimate in man, which is the sensual Natural, corresponds to the soles of the feet; and because evil adheres to it, therefore with those who were in the representatives of the church, as most were at that time, they shook off the dust of the feet when the truths of doctrine were not received. For in the spiritual world, when any good person comes to evil ones, evil flows in from the latter, and disturbs somewhat, but this is the case only with the ultimates, which correspond to the soles of the feet; hence when they turn and go away it appears as if they shook the dust off their feet behind them, which is a sign that they are liberated, and that the evil adheres to those who are in evil. (That the soles of the feet correspond to the lowest natural things, and that hence in the Word they signify them, may be seen, n. 2162, 3147, 3761, 3986, 4280, 4938-4952; and that the dust which they should shake off, signifies what is cursed, n. 249, 7418, 7522.)
Arcana Coelestia 249, Arcana Coelestia 2162, Arcana Coelestia 3147, Arcana Coelestia 3761, Arcana Coelestia 3986, Arcana Coelestia 4280, Arcana Coelestia 4938-4952, Arcana Coelestia 7418, 7522; Luke 10:5-6; Matthew 10:12-14)
 In Luke:
Jesus wept over the city, saying, "If thou hadst known, and indeed in this day, the things that belong to thy peace! but now it is hid from thine eyes" (xix. 41, 42).
Those who think of these words and of those which immediately follow from the sense of the letter only, because they see no other, believe that they were spoken by the Lord concerning the destruction of Jerusalem; but all things which the Lord spoke, because from the Divine, regarded not worldly and temporal things, but heavenly and eternal. Therefore by Jerusalem over which the Lord wept, here as elsewhere, is signified the church, which was then entirely vastated, so that truth and consequently good were no longer, and thus that they would perish for ever. On this account He says, "If thou hadst known, and indeed in this day, the things which belong to thy peace," that is which belong to eternal life and happiness, which are from the Lord alone; for by peace, as was said above, heaven and heavenly joy through conjunction with the Lord are meant.
 In the same:
"Zacharias prophesying said, The day-spring from on high appeareth to us that sit in darkness and in the shadow of death, to guide our feet into the way of peace" (i. 78, 79).
These things were spoken concerning the Lord about to come into the world, and the enlightenment of those at that time who were outside the church, and ignorant of Divine truth, because they had not the Word. The Lord is meant by the day-spring from on high which appeareth; and those who are outside the church, are meant by them that sit in darkness and in the shadow of death; and their enlightenment in Divine truths through the reception of the Lord, and conjunction with Him, whence are heaven and eternal happiness, is meant by the way of peace; by guiding our feet into it, is signified instruction.
Luke 1:67, 1:78-79)
 In the same:
The disciples praised God, saying, "Blessed be the king that cometh in the name of the Lord; peace in heaven, and glory in the highest" (xix. 37, 38).
These things were said by the disciples when the Lord went to Jerusalem, that there, by the passion of the cross, which was His last temptation, He might fully unite His Human with His Divine, and also entirely subjugate the hells; and because all Divine good and truth would then proceed from Him, they say, "Blessed be the king that cometh in the name of the Lord," by which was signified acknowledgment, glorification, and thanksgiving, that those things were from Him (see above, n. 340). By peace in heaven and by glory in the highest, is signified that those things signified by peace are from the union of the Divine itself and the Divine Human, and thence angels and men from their conjunction with the Lord possess them; for when the hells were subjugated by the Lord, then peace was brought about in heaven, and then those who were there had Divine truth from the Lord, which is glory in the highest. That glory signifies Divine truth proceeding from the Lord, may be seen above (n. 33, 288, 345). Since peace, in the internal sense of the Word, signifies the Lord, and thence heaven and life eternal, specifically the delight of heaven arising from conjunction with the Lord, therefore, the Lord, after the resurrection, when He appeared to the disciples, said to them,
"Peace be unto you" (Luke xxiv. 36; John xx. 19, 21, 26).
John 20:19, 20:21, 20:26; Luke 19:37, 19:37-38, 19:38, Luke 24:36-37; The Apocalypse Explained 33, The Apocalypse Explained 288, The Apocalypse Explained 340, 345)
 Moreover, in Moses:
"Jehovah bless thee, and keep thee; Jehovah make his faces shine upon thee, and be merciful unto thee; and Jehovah lift up his faces upon thee, and give thee peace" (Num. vi. 24-26).
The Divine truth from which are all intelligence and wisdom, and with which the Lord flows in, is meant by, "Jehovah make his faces shine upon thee," and the protection thereby from falsities is meant by, "be merciful unto thee"; and the Divine good, from which are all love and charity, and with which the Lord flows in, is meant by, "Jehovah lift up his faces upon thee "; and the protection thereby from evils, and thence heaven and eternal happiness, are meant by, "give thee peace"; for when evils and falsities are removed, and no longer infest, then the Lord flows in with peace, in which and from which is heaven, also the delight which fills with blessedness the interiors of the mind, consequently, heavenly joy. This benediction may also be seen explained above (n. 340). The same is signified by peace in David:
"Jehovah will bless his people with peace" (Ps. xxix. 11).
Numbers 6:24-26; Psalms 29:11; The Apocalypse Explained 340)
 And in the same:
"Who will show us good? Jehovah, lift thou up the light of thy faces upon us. Thou givest joy in my heart, before the time [when] their corn and new wine are multiplied. In peace I lie down and sleep together; for thou, Jehovah, alone makest me to dwell securely" (Ps. iv. 6-8).
Here is described the peace which those possess who are in conjunction with the Lord by the reception of Divine good and Divine truth from Him, and that it is peace in which and from which is heavenly joy; Divine good is meant by, "who will show us good?" and Divine truth by, "lift thou up the light of thy faces upon us"; the light of the Lord's faces is the Divine Light proceeding from Him as the sun in the angelic heaven, which in its essence is Divine truth, as may be seen in the work concerning Heaven and Hell (n. 126-140). The heavenly joy thence is meant by, "Thou givest joy in the heart"; the multiplication of good and truth is meant by, "their corn and new wine are multiplied," corn signifying good, and new wine truth. Because peace is in them and from them, therefore, it is said, "In peace I lie down and sleep together; for thou, Jehovah, alone makest me to dwell securely." By peace is signified the internal delight of heaven; by security, the external delight; and by lying down and sleeping, and also by dwelling, is signified to live.
Heaven and Hell 126-140; Psalms 4:6-8)
 In Moses:
"If ye walk in my statutes, and observe my precepts, and do them, I will give peace in the land, so that ye shall lie down securely, and none shall make you afraid; and I will cause the evil wild beast to cease out of the land, and the sword shall not go through the land" (Lev. xxvi. 3, 4, 6).
Whence peace is, that is, heaven and heavenly joy, is here described: peace, viewed in itself, is not heaven and heavenly joy, but these are in peace and from peace; for peace is as the dawn, or as the spring-time in the world, which disposes human minds to receive in the heart delights and pleasures from the objects which then appear before the eyes, for it is this which delights and pleases; and since all things of heaven and also of its joy, are from the Divine peace, hence these are also meant by peace. Because man possesses heaven from living according to the precepts, for hence he has conjunction with the Lord, therefore it is said, "If ye walk in my statutes, and observe my precepts, and do them, I will give peace in the land"; that then they should not be infested by evils and falsities, is meant by their lying down securely, and none making afraid, and by Jehovah will make the evil wild beast to cease out of the land, and the sword shall not go through it. By the evil wild beast are signified evil lusts, and by the sword are meant the falsities thence; both the latter and the former destroy good and truth from which is peace; and by the land is signified the church. (That evil wild beasts signify evil lusts, and the destruction of good by them, may be seen, n. 4729, 7102, 9335. That sword signifies falsities, and the destruction of truth by them, may be seen above, n. 131; and that land signifies the church, see also above, n. 29, 304.) He who is not raised above the sense of the letter of the Word, sees nothing more than that he who lives according to the statutes and precepts shall live in peace, that is, that he shall have no adversaries or enemies, and that thus he shall lie down in safety; also that no evil wild beasts shall hurt him, and that he shall not perish with the sword; but this is not the Spiritual of the Word, yet the Word is in every particular spiritual, and this lies concealed in the sense of its letter which is natural; its Spiritual is what has now been explained above.
Arcana Coelestia 4729, Arcana Coelestia 7102, Arcana Coelestia 9335; Leviticus 26:3, 26:6; The Apocalypse Explained 29, The Apocalypse Explained 131, The Apocalypse Explained 304)
 In David:
"The afflicted shall possess the earth; and shall be delighted with the abundance of peace. Mark the perfect man, and behold the upright, for the end of that man is peace" (Ps. xxxvii. 11, 37).
By the afflicted are here meant those who are in temptations in the world; by the abundance of peace with which they shall be delighted, are signified the delights that follow temptations; for after temptations delights are given by the Lord, from the conjunction of good and truth then, and hence from conjunction with the Lord. That man has the delight of peace from the conjunction of good and truth, is meant by, "Mark the perfect man, and behold the upright, for the end of that man is peace." The perfectness to be marked, is said of good in the Word, and the uprightness to be beheld, is said of truth; the end denotes the termination when peace comes.
Psalms 37:11, 37:37)
 In the same:
"The mountains shall bring peace to the people, and the hills, in justice. In his days shall the just man flourish; and abundance of peace until the moon shall be no more" (Ps. lxxii. 3, 7).
The Lord's advent and His kingdom are here treated of; by the mountains which shall bring peace to the people, is signified love to the Lord; and by the hills which are in justice, is signified charity towards the neighbour. (That these things are signified by mountains in the Word, may be seen, n. 795, 6435, 10,438; the reason why those who are in love to the Lord, dwell in heaven upon mountains, and those who are in charity towards the neighbour, upon hills there, n. 10,438, and in the work concerning Heaven and Hell, n. 188.) Hence it is evident, that by peace is meant heavenly joy which is from conjunction with the Lord by love; by, "in his days shall the just man flourish," is signified he who is in the good of love, hence it is also said, "and abundance of peace"; for peace is from no other source than the Lord, and His conjunction with those who are in the good of love, as said above. It is said, "until the moon shall be no more"; by which is signified that truth will not be separated from good, but that they will be conjoined so as to be one, that is that truth will be also good; for all truth is of good, because it is from good, and hence in its essence is good; such is the nature of truth with those who are in the good of love to the Lord from the Lord, who are here meant by the just man. (That the sun signifies the good of love, and the moon the truth thence, may be seen, n. 1521-1531, 2495, 4060, 4696, 7683.)
Arcana Coelestia 795, Arcana Coelestia 1521, 1531, Arcana Coelestia 2495, Arcana Coelestia 4060, Arcana Coelestia 4696, Arcana Coelestia 6435, Arcana Coelestia 7083, Arcana Coelestia 10438; Heaven and Hell 188; Psalms 72:3, 72:7)
 In Isaiah:
"Unto us a boy is born, unto us a son is given; the government shall be upon his shoulder; his name shall be called Wonderful, Counsellor, God, Hero, The Father of Eternity, The Prince of Peace. Of the increase of his government and peace there shall be no end" (ix. 6, 7).
These things are spoken of the Lord's coming, of whom it is said, "Unto us a boy is born, unto us a son is given," because by a boy in the Word is signified good, here the Divine good, and by son truth, here the Divine truth. Thus it is said on account of the marriage of good and truth, which is in every particular of the Word; and because the Divine good and Divine truth are from Him, therefore, He is called the Prince of Peace, and it is said "of the increase of His government and peace there shall be no end"; government is mentioned from the Divine truth, and peace from the Divine good conjoined to the Divine truth, whence He is called the Prince of Peace. (That prince is said of truths, and that it signifies the principal truth, may be seen in the Arcana Coelestia, n. 1482, 2089, 5044, and above, n. 29; and that peace is predicated of the conjunction of good and truth, may be seen above in this article.)
Arcana Coelestia 1482, Arcana Coelestia 2089, Arcana Coelestia 5044; Isaiah 9:6-7; The Apocalypse Explained 29)
 But because peace is mentioned in many passages of the Word, and the explanation should be applied to the thing treated of, or to the subject of which it is predicated, and, consequently, its signification appears different, therefore, I will summarily declare what peace signifies, that the mind may not be led in different directions concerning it: - "Peace is a blessing of the heart and soul arising from the conjunction of the Lord with heaven and with the church, and this from the conjunction of good and truth with those who are therein, whence there is no longer combat of evil and falsity against good and truth, or no dissension or war, in the spiritual sense; hence arises peace, in which result the fructification of good, and all the multiplication of truth, consequently, all wisdom and intelligence; and because that peace is from the Lord alone, and from Him with the angels in heaven, and with men in the church, therefore, by peace, in the highest sense, is meant the Lord, and in a relative sense, heaven and the church, consequently, good conjoined to truth with those who are there."
 From these statements an idea may be formed of the signification of peace, in the following passages. In David:
"Depart from evil and do good; seek peace, and pursue it" (Ps. xxxiv. 15).
Peace [is used] for all things which belong to heaven and the church, whence the happiness of life eternal; which because it is given only to those who are in good, therefore, it is said, "Depart from evil and do good; seek peace, and pursue it."
 In the same:
"Much peace have they who love thy law; and nothing shall offend them. Jehovah, I have hoped for thy salvation, and done thy commandments" (Ps. cxix. 165, 166).
Peace [is used] for heavenly blessedness, happiness, and delight, which, because they are granted only to those who love to do the Lord's commandments, therefore, it is said, "Much peace have they who love thy law. Jehovah, I have hoped for thy salvation, and done thy commandments." Salvation [is used] for life eternal. That such have no infestation from evils and falsities, is signified by, "nothing shall offend them."
 In Isaiah:
"Jehovah, ordain peace for us, for thou hast wrought all our works for us" (xxvi. 12).
Because peace is from Jehovah alone, that is, from the Lord, and in doing good from Him, therefore, it is said, "Jehovah, ordain peace for us, for thou hast wrought all our works for us."
 In the same:
"The angels of peace weep bitterly. The highways are wasted, the wayfaring man hath ceased" (xxxiii. 7, 8).
Because peace is from the Lord, and in heaven from Him, therefore, the angels there are called the angels of peace; and because there is no peace to those upon earth, who are in evils and the falsities thence, therefore, it is said that they weep bitterly, because the highways are wasted, the wayfaring man hath ceased; highways and a way signify the goods of life and the truths of faith; wherefore, their highways being wasted signifies that there are no longer goods of life, and the wayfaring man having ceased, signifies that there are no longer truths of faith.
 In the same:
"O that thou hadst hearkened to my precepts! and thy peace would have been as a river, and thy justice as the waves of the sea. There is no peace, saith Jehovah, unto the wicked" (xlviii. 18, 22).
Because there is peace to those who live according to the Lord's precepts, and not to those who do not so live, therefore, it is said, "O that thou hadst hearkened to my precepts! and thy peace would have been as a river; there is no peace unto the wicked." Peace as a river, signifies in abundance; justice as the waves of the sea, signifies the fructification of good by truths; justice in the Word being said of good, and the sea of truths.
Isaiah 48:18, 48:22)
 In the same:
"The mountains shall depart, and the hills be removed; but my mercy shall not depart from with thee, the covenant of my peace shall not be removed. All thy sons shall be taught of Jehovah; and great shall be the peace of thy sons" (liv. 10, 13).
The new heaven and the new church are here treated of. The former heaven and the former church which were to perish, are meant by the mountains which shall depart, and the hills which shall be removed; that those who are in the new heaven and in the new church will be in good from the Lord, and possess heavenly joy to eternity by conjunction with the Lord, is signified by, "My mercy shall not depart from thee, and the covenant of my peace shall not be removed"; mercy signifies good from the Lord, and the covenant of peace signifies heavenly joy from conjunction with the Lord, a covenant denoting conjunction. By the sons who shall be taught of Jehovah, and who shall have great peace, are meant those who, in the new heaven and in the new church, will be in truths from good from the Lord, that they shall have eternal blessedness and happiness; sons in the Word signifying those who are in truths from good; and their being taught of Jehovah, signifying that they are in truths from good from the Lord, and great peace signifying eternal blessedness and happiness.
Isaiah 54:10, 54:13)
 In Ezekiel:
"David shall be their prince for ever, and I will make a covenant of peace with them; it shall be a covenant of eternity with them; and I will give them, and multiply them, and will set my sanctuary in the midst of them to eternity" (xxxvii. 25, 26).
The Lord, and the creation of a new heaven and a new church from Him, are here treated of. By David, who shall be their prince for ever, is meant the Lord. By making a covenant of peace with them, is signified heavenly joy and eternal life for those who are conjoined to the Lord; a covenant of peace here, as above, denoting heavenly joy, and eternal life from conjunction with the Lord. The fructification of good and the multiplication of truth thence, are signified by, "I will give them, and multiply them"; and because heaven and the church are thence, it is added, "and will set my sanctuary in the midst of them to eternity," the sanctuary denoting heaven and the church.
 In Malachi:
"That my covenant may be with Levi. My covenant was with him of life and peace. The law of truth was in his mouth, and perversity was not found in his lips; he walked with me in peace and uprightness" (ii. 4-6).
By Levi are signified all who were in the good of charity towards the neighbour, and, in the highest sense, the Lord Himself is meant, since that good is from Him; here the Lord Himself is signified. The covenant of life and peace signifies the union of His Divine with His Divine Human, from which union come all life and peace. That Divine truth is from Him is signified by, "The law of truth was in his mouth, and perversity was not found in his lips"; the very unition, which was accomplished in the world, is meant by, "he walked with me in peace and uprightness." (That by Levi in the Word is signified spiritual love or charity, may be seen, n. 4497, 4502, 4503; and that by him, in the highest sense, the Lord is meant, n. 3875, 3877.)
Arcana Coelestia 3875, 3877, Arcana Coelestia 4497, 4502-4503; Malachi 2:4-6)
 In Ezekiel:
"Then I will make with them a covenant of peace, and will cause the evil wild beast to cease out of the land, that they may dwell safely in the wilderness, and sleep in the woods. Then the tree of the field shall yield its fruit, and the earth shall yield its produce, when I have broken the bonds of their yoke, and delivered them out of the hand of those who make them to serve" (xxxiv. 25, 27).
Here also the Lord's advent is treated of, and the establishment of a new church by Him. The conjunction of those who belong to the church with the Lord, is signified by the covenant of peace which He will then make with them; protection and security thence from evils and falsities, is signified by, I will cause the evil wild beast to cease out of the land, that they may dwell safely in the wilderness, and sleep in the woods. The evil wild beast signifies evils of every kind; the wilderness where they shall dwell safely, signifies that the lusts of evil shall not infest; the woods in which they shall sleep, signify the falsities thence which shall not infest. The fructification of good by truths, and the multiplication of truth from good, are signified by, "Then the tree of the field shall yield its fruit, and the earth shall yield its produce"; the tree of the field signifying the knowledges (cognitions) of truth, fruit signifying good thence, the earth signifying the church as to good, thus also the good of the church, and its produce signifying the multiplication of truth thence. That these things shall come to pass with them after the Lord has removed the evils and falsities pertaining to them, is signified by, "when I have broken the bonds of their yoke, and delivered them out of the hand of those who make them to serve"; the bonds of the yoke denoting the delights of evil from the love of self and of the world, which keep them bound; and those who make them to serve, denoting falsities, because these cause them to serve those evils.
Ezekiel 34:25, 34:27)
 In Zechariah:
"A seed of peace shall they be; the vine shall give its fruit, and the ground shall give its produce, and the heavens shall give their dew. Speak ye the truth a man with his companion; judge the truth and the judgment of peace in your gates; but love the truth and peace" (viii. 12, 16, 17, 19).
They are called a seed of peace with whom there is the conjunction of good and truth; and because they are meant by the seed of peace, therefore, it is said the vine shall give its fruit, and the ground its produce. By the vine giving its fruit, is signified that truth shall produce good, and by the earth giving its produce, is signified that good shall produce truths; for a vine signifies the church as to truths, or the truths of the church, and the ground signifies the church as to good, or the good of the church, and produce signifies the production of truth. By the heavens which shall give their dew is signified the fructification of good, and the multiplication of truth. The conjunction of truth and good is further described by, "speak ye the truth a man with his companion; judge the truth and the judgment of peace in your gates; but love the truth and peace." By the truth is signified truth; by the judgment of peace, and by peace, is signified its conjunction with good.
Zechariah 8:12, 8:16, 8:19)
 In David:
"Jehovah will speak peace to his people, and to his saints, that they may not turn again to folly. Mercy and truth shall meet; justice and peace shall kiss each other" (Ps. lxxxv. 8, 10).
That Jehovah shall speak peace to His people and to His saints, signifies that He will teach them, and give them conjunction with Himself by the conjunction of good and truth in them; by peace is signified both these conjunctions; by people are signified those who are in truths from good; and by saints those who are in good by means of truths; that such have not, after that, evil from falsity, and falsity from evil, is signified by their not turning again to folly. Both those conjunctions are further described by, "mercy and truth shall meet; justice and peace shall kiss each other"; mercy there signifying the removal of falsities, in consequence of which truths are received by them; and justice the removal of evils, in consequence of which goods are received by them. Hence it is evident what justice and peace shall kiss each other signifies.
Psalms 85:8, 85:10)
 In Isaiah:
"How delightful upon the mountains are the feet of him that publisheth good tidings, that causeth to hear peace; that publisheth good tidings of good, that causeth to hear salvation; that saith unto Zion, Thy King reigneth" (lii. 7).
These things are said concerning the Lord, and by the peace here is signified the Lord Himself, and thence heaven to those who are conjoined with Him. To publish good tidings, signifies to preach those things; and as that conjunction is effected by love, mention is made of publishing good tidings upon the mountains, and of saying unto Zion; mountains signifying here, as above, the good of love to the Lord; and Zion signifying the church which is in that good; and the Lord is meant by thy King who reigneth. Because the conjunction of truth and good from conjunction with the Lord is signified by peace, therefore, it is said that "He causeth to hear peace, publisheth good tidings of good, and causeth to hear salvation." To publish good tidings of good signifies conjunction with Him by good, and to cause to hear salvation signifies conjunction with Him by truths and by a life according to them, for hereby there is salvation.
 In the same:
"But he was pierced for our transgressions, bruised for our iniquities; the chastisement of our peace was upon him, and by his wound is healing given to us" (liii. 5).
These things are said of the Lord, of whom this chapter manifestly treats, and by these words are described the temptations which He underwent in the world that He might subjugate the hells, and reduce all things there and in the heavens into order. Those grievous temptations are meant by His being pierced for our transgressions, and bruised for our iniquities, and the chastisement of our peace being upon Him; salvation thereby is signified by, "His wound is healing given to us." By peace, therefore, is here signified, heaven and life eternal for those who are conjoined with Him; for the human race could by no means have been saved, unless the Lord had brought back all things in the heavens and in the hells into order, and at the same time glorified His Human, which were accomplished by the temptations admitted into His Human.
 In Jeremiah:
"Behold I will cause to ascend unto him health and cure, and I will heal them, and will reveal unto them abundance of peace and truth. All the nations of the earth, which shall hear all the good that I am about to do unto them; that they may fear and tremble over all the goodness and over all the peace that I am about to do unto them" (xxxiii. 6, 9).
These things also are said concerning the Lord, that He would deliver from evils and falsities those who are in conjunction with Him. Freeing from evils and falsities is signified by, "I will cause to ascend unto him health and cure, and I will heal them"; for to be healed spiritually is to be delivered from evils and falsities, and because this is effected by the Lord by means of truths, it is said, "and I will reveal unto them abundance of peace and truth." By the nations of the earth are signified those who are in evils and falsities, concerning whom it is said, "that they shall fear and tremble over all the goodness and over all the peace that I am about to do unto them."
Jeremiah 33:6, 33:9)
 In David:
"He will redeem my soul in peace, lest they come near to me" (lv. 18).
By redeeming my soul in peace is signified salvation by conjunction with the Lord, and by, "lest they come near to me," is signified the consequent removal of evils and falsities.
 In Haggai:
"The glory of this latter house shall be greater than of the former, for in this place will I give peace" (ii. 9).
By the house of God is signified the church; by the former house, the church which was before the Lord's coming; and by the latter house, the church which was after His coming; by glory is signified the Divine truth which was in the former and the latter; and by the peace which He shall give in this place, or in the church, are meant all those things that are signified by peace, of which we have treated above, and which see.
 In David:
"Seek the peace of Jerusalem: let them rest that love thee; peace be in thy bulwark, rest in thy palaces; for the sake of my brethren and companions I will say, peace be in thee, for the sake of the house of Jehovah our God, I will seek good for thee" (Ps. cxxii. 6-9).
By Jerusalem is not meant Jerusalem, but the church as to doctrine and worship; by peace is meant everything of doctrine and worship, for when these are from a heavenly origin, that is, out of heaven from the Lord, then they are from peace and in peace, whence it is manifest what is meant by, "seek the peace of Jerusalem," and because those who are in that peace are called the people of rest, it is also said, "let them rest that love thee," namely, that love the doctrine and worship of the church. By, "peace be in thy bulwark, and rest in thy palaces," is signified, in the exterior and interior man; for the exterior man, with the things therein, which are natural scientifics and delights, is like a bulwark or fortification to the interior man, because it is without, or before it, and protects it; and the interior man, with the things therein, which are truths and spiritual goods, is like a palace or house, because it is within the exterior; hence the exterior things of man are signified by a bulwark, and his interior things by palaces. It is the same also elsewhere in the Word. "For the sake of my brethren and companions, signifies, for the sake of those who are in goods and the truths thence, and, abstractedly from persons, it signifies goods and truths. (That these are meant by brethren and companions in the Word, may be seen, n. 10,490, and above, n. 47. By the house of Jehovah our God is signified the church in which those things are.)
Arcana Coelestia 10490; Psalms 122:6-9; The Apocalypse Explained 47)
 In the same:
"Praise, Jehovah, O Jerusalem, celebrate thy name, O Zion! Who maketh thy border peace, and filleth thee with the fat of wheat" (Ps. cxlvii. 12, 14).
By Jerusalem and by Zion is meant the church, - by Jerusalem the church as to truths of doctrine, and by Zion the church as to goods of love; by the name of Jehovah which Zion shall celebrate, is signified the all of worship from the good of love; who maketh thy border peace, signifies all things of heaven and the church, for border signifies all things thereof, since in the border or ultimate are all things in the aggregate (see n. 634, 5897, 6239, 6451, 6465, 8603, 9215, 9216, 9824, 9828, 9836, 9905, 10,044, 10,099, 10,329, 10,335, 10,548). "He filleth thee with the fat of wheat," signifies with every good of love and with wisdom, for fat signifies the good of love (see n. 5943, 6409, 10,033); and wheat signifies all things that are from the good of love, specifically the truths of heaven, and wisdom thence (n. 3941, 7605).
Arcana Coelestia 634, Arcana Coelestia 3941, Arcana Coelestia 5897, 5943, 6239, 6409, Arcana Coelestia 6451, 6465, Arcana Coelestia 7605, 8603, 9215-9216, Arcana Coelestia 9824, 9828, 9836, 9905, 10033, 10044, 10099, 10329, 10335, Arcana Coelestia 10548; Psalms 147:12, 147:14)
 In the same:
"Jehovah bless thee out of Zion; that thou mayest see the good of Jerusalem all the days of thy life; that thou mayest see the sons of thy sons, peace upon Israel" (cxxviii. 5, 6).
By Zion and by Jerusalem is signified here, as above, the church as to the goods of love and as to the truths of doctrine; its being said, "Jehovah bless thee out of Zion," denotes [blessing] as from the good of love, for Zion signifies the church as to the good of love; and because from that good exist and proceed every good and truth of doctrine, it is therefore said, "that thou mayest see the good of Jerusalem, and the sons of thy sons"; the sons of sons signifying truths of doctrine, and their multiplication to eternity. Because all these things are from the Lord, and by the peace which is from Him, therefore it concludes with, "that thou mayest see peace upon Israel," Israel denoting those with whom the church is.
 In the same:
"In Salem is God's tabernacle, and his dwelling-place in Zion. There brake he the flashes of the bow, the shield, and the sword, and the battle" (Ps. lxxvi. 2, 3).
Jerusalem is here called Salem, because by Salem is signified peace, from which also Jerusalem is named. The reason that it is so named is, because peace signifies all those things that have been briefly mentioned above, which may be referred to. By the tabernacle of God which is therein, is signified the church from those things; by His dwelling-place in Zion, is signified the good of love, because the Lord dwells in it, and thence gives truths, and makes them bear fruit and multiply; and because peace also signifies that there are no longer combats of evil and falsity against good and truth, or no dissension or war in a spiritual sense, therefore, it is said, "there brake he the flashes of the bow, the shield, and the sword, and the battle," by which is signified the dispersion of all combat of falsities of doctrine against good and truth, and, in general, the dispersion of all dissension. From peace also Jerusalem was called Schelomim (Jer. xiii. 19), and on that account Melchizedek, who was the priest of God Most High, was king of Salem (Gen. xiv. 18); and thereby the Lord was represented; as is evident in David, where it is written,
"Thou art a priest for ever after the order of Melchizedek" (Ps. cx. 4).
Genesis 14:18; Jeremiah 13:19; Psalms 76:2-3, Psalms 110:4)
 In Isaiah:
"Rejoice ye with Jerusalem, and exult in her, all ye that love her; that ye may suck, and be satisfied from the breast of her consolations; and that ye may press out, and be delighted with, the splendour of her glory. Behold, I spread peace abroad over her like a river, and like an overflowing stream, the glory of the nations, that ye may suck; ye shall be taken up to her side, and upon her knees ye shall be delighted" (lxvi. 10-12).
By Jerusalem here as above is meant the church as to doctrine, or, what is the same, the doctrine of the church; concerning the latter it is said, "Rejoice ye with Jerusalem, and exult in her, all ye that love her," and concerning doctrine it is also said, "that ye may suck, and be satisfied from the breast of her consolations; and that ye may press out, and be delighted with, the splendour of her glory"; by the breast of consolations is signified the Divine good, and by the splendour of glory, the Divine truth from which doctrine is. That all those things shall be in abundance from conjunction with the Lord, is signified by, "behold, I spread peace abroad over her like a river, and like an overflowing stream, the glory of the nations, that ye may suck"; peace signifying conjunction with the Lord; the glory of the nations, the conjunction of good and truth thence; to suck, influx from the Lord; and like a river and an overflowing stream, abundance. That hence are spiritual love, and celestial love, by which conjunction with the Lord is effected, is signified by, "ye shall be taken up to her side, and be delighted upon her knees"; the side signifying spiritual love, and the knees celestial love, and to be taken up and be delighted signifying eternal happiness from conjunction. (That the breast signifies spiritual love, and also the side or bosom, may be seen above, n. 65; that the knees signify conjugal love, and hence celestial love, may be seen in the Arcana Coelestia, n. 3021, 4280, 5050-5062. That glory signifies Divine truth, and intelligence and wisdom thence, may be seen above, n. 33, 288, 345; and that the nations signify those who are in the good of love, and, abstractedly from persons, the goods of love, may also be seen above, n. 175, 331; hence the glory of the nations, signifies genuine truth which is from the good of love, thus their conjunction.)
Arcana Coelestia 3021, Arcana Coelestia 4280, Arcana Coelestia 5050-5062; Isaiah 66:10-12; The Apocalypse Explained 33, The Apocalypse Explained 65, The Apocalypse Explained 175, The Apocalypse Explained 288, The Apocalypse Explained 331, The Apocalypse Explained 345)
 In the same:
"The work of Jehovah is peace; and the labour of justice quietness and security even for ever; that my people may dwell in a habitation of peace, and in tents of securities, and in quiet resting-places" (xxxii. 17, 18).
Peace is called the work of Jehovah, because it is solely from the Lord, and everything that exists by virtue of peace from the Lord, with those who are in conjunction with the Lord, is called the work of Jehovah; hence it is said, the work of Jehovah is peace. The labour of justice signifies good conjoined with truth, in which peace consists; for labour in the Word is predicated of truth, justice of good, and quietness of the peace therein. Security for ever signifies that thus there will be no infestation and fear from evils and falsities. Hence it is evident what is signified by, "that my people may dwell in a habitation of peace, and in tents of securities, and in quiet resting-places," namely, that they are in heaven where the Lord is, and thence in the good of love and of worship without infestation from the hells, and thus in the delights of good and the pleasantnesses of truth. The habitation of peace denotes heaven where the Lord is; tents of securities denote the goods of love and of worship thence without infestation by evils and falsities from hell; and quiet resting-places denote the delight of good, and the pleasantnesses of truth. (That tents signify the goods of love and worship, may be seen, n. 414, 1102, 2145, 2152, 3321, 3391, 4391, 10,545.)
Arcana Coelestia 414, Arcana Coelestia 1102, Arcana Coelestia 2145, 2152, Arcana Coelestia 3312, Arcana Coelestia 4391, Arcana Coelestia 10545; Isaiah 32:17-18)
 In the same:
"For brass I will bring gold, and for iron I will bring silver, and for stones iron; I will also make thy presidency peace, and thine exactors justice. Violence shall no more be heard in thy land, wasting and destruction within thy borders" (lx. 17, 18).
The subjects treated of in this chapter are the Lord's coming, and the new heaven and new church then; and by those words is meant that they shall be spiritual and not natural as before, namely, those who are conjoined with the Lord, by the good of love; and that there shall be no more division between the internal or spiritual man and the external or natural. That they shall be spiritual and not natural as before, is signified by, "for brass I will bring gold; for iron, silver; and for stones, iron brass, iron, and stones signifying things natural, and gold, silver, and iron in place thereof, signifying things spiritual; gold spiritual good, silver the truth of that good, and iron spiritual-natural truth. That the Lord will rule by the good of love, is signified by, "I will make thy presidency peace, and thine exactors justice," presidency signifying kingdom, peace the Lord, and justice good from Him. That there shall be no longer disagreement between the spiritual and the natural man, is signified by, "violence shall no more be heard in thy land, wasting, and destruction within thy borders"; by violence is signified dissension, by land the internal spiritual man, because there the church is, which in general is signified by land; by "wasting and destruction which shall be no more," is signified that there shall be no longer any evils and falsities; and by, "within thy borders," is signified in the natural man, for in the things that are there, spiritual things are terminated. The reason why wasting and destruction signify evils and falsities, is, because evils waste the natural man, and falsities destroy it.
 Because peace is with those who are in the conjunction of good and truth from the Lord, and because evil destroys good, and falsity truth, thus also peace, hence it follows that there is no peace with those who are in evils and falsities. It appears indeed as if peace were with them, when they succeed in the world, and they also seem to themselves at such times to be of a contented mind; but that peace is apparent only in their most external parts, while inwardly it is not peace, for they think of honour and gain without end, and cherish in their minds cunning, deceit, enmities, hatreds, revenge, and many similar things, which, unknown to themselves, rend and devour the interiors of their minds, and thence also the interiors of their bodies. That this is the case appears clearly with them after death, when they come into their interiors; those delights of their minds are then turned into their opposites, as is evident from what has been shown in the work concerning Heaven and Hell (n. 485-490).
Heaven and Hell 485-490)
 That those alone have peace who are in good and the truths thence, and that those have not peace who are in evils and the falsities thence, is evident from the following passages: In Isaiah:
"The wicked are like the troubled sea, when it cannot rest, but its waters cast up mire and dirt" (lvii. 20, 21).
In the same:
"Their feet run to evil, and they make haste to shed innocent blood; their thoughts are thoughts of iniquity; wasting and destruction are in their paths. The way of peace they know not; and there is no judgment in their courses; they have made them crooked paths; every one who treadeth therein knows not peace " (lix. 7, 8).
"Too much hath my soul dwelt with the hater of peace. I am for peace; but when I speak, they are for war" (Ps. cxx. 6, 7).
The prophets "seduce my people, saying, Peace, when there is no peace; and when he buildeth up a wall, lo, they daub it foolishly. The prophets of Israel see a vision of peace, when there is no peace" (xiii. 10, 16).
"From the least unto the greatest they all study usury; from the prophet even unto the priest every one maketh a lie. And they heal the hurt of the daughter of my people by a word of no weight, in saying, Peace, peace; when there is no peace" (viii. 10, 11).
In the same:
"A voice of the cry of the shepherds, and a wailing of the powerful of the flock, for Jehovah spoileth his pasture, whence the folds of peace are devastated because of the heat of Jehovah's anger" (xxv. 36, 37).
"There is no soundness in my flesh because of thine anger; there is no peace in my bones because of my sin" (Ps. xxxviii. 3).
Ezekiel 13:10, 13:16; Isaiah 57:20-21, 59:7-8; Jeremiah 8:10-11, Jeremiah 25:36-37; Lamentations 3:15, 3:17; Psalms 38:3, Psalms 120:6-7)
 In Lamentations:
"He hath filled me with bitterness, he hath made me drunk with wormwood; and my soul is removed from peace; I forgot good" (iii. 15, 17).
Besides in other passages. Because peace in its first origin is from the union of the Divine itself and the Divine Human in the Lord, and thence from the Lord in His conjunction with heaven and with the church, and in the conjunction of good and truth with every one therein, therefore, the Sabbath, which was the most holy representative of the church, was so called from rest or peace; and therefore also the Sacrifices called peace-offerings were commanded.
(Concerning which see Exod. xxiv. 5; xxxii. 6; Lev. iii. 3; iv. 20, 26, 31, 35; vi. 12; vii. 11; xiv. 20, 21, 33; xvii. 5; xix. 5; Num. vi. 17; Ezek. xlv. 15; Amos v. 22; and elsewhere.)
And therefore it is said concerning Jehovah that
From the burnt-offerings, he smelled an odour of rest (Ex. xxix. 18, 25, 41; Lev. i. 9, 13, 17; ii. 2, 9; vi. 15, 21; xxiii. 13, 18; Num. xv. 3, 7, 13; xxviii. 6, 8, 13; xxix. 2, 6, 8, 13, 36).
By an odour of rest is signified a perception of peace.
Amos 5:22; Exodus 24:5, 29:18, 29:25, 29:41, 32:6; Ezekiel 45:15; Leviticus 1:9, 1:13, 1:17, 2:2, 2:9, 3:3, 4:20, 4:26, 4:31, 4:35, 6:12, 6:15, 6:21, 7:11, 14:20-21, 14:23, 14:33, 17:5, 19:5, 23:12-13, 23:13, 23:18; Numbers 6:17, Numbers 15:3, 15:7, 15:13, 28:6, 28:8, 28:13, 29:2, 29:6, 29:8, 29:13, 29:36; Revelation 6:4)