638. Verse 4. These are the two olive trees and the two lampstands, signifies the good of love to the Lord and of charity towards the neighbor, and the truth of doctrine and of faith from which are heaven and the church. This is evident from the signification of an "olive yard," "olive tree," and "olive," as being, in a broad sense, the Lord's celestial kingdom and thus the celestial church; which is distinguished from other churches in this, that those from whom that church exists are in love to the Lord and in love towards the neighbor. This is why "olive tree" and "olive" signify each of these loves, that is, the good of each love. (That "olive tree" and "olive" signify that church, or those goods of the church, will be seen in what follows.) This is evident also from the signification of a "lampstand," as being in a broad sense the Lord's spiritual kingdom, and thus the spiritual church, and as the chief thing of that church is truth of doctrine and truth of faith, so these also are signified by the "lampstands." (That this is the meaning of a "lamp stand" in the spiritual sense, see above, n. 62
 It is said that "the two witnesses are the two olive trees and the two lamp stands" (which yet are four), because "two" signifies conjunction and thence a one. For there are two things that make a one, namely, good and truth; good is not good except it be from truth, and truth is not truth except it be from good; consequently it is only when these two make a one that they have being and existence. This conjunction into one is called the heavenly marriage, and heaven and the church are from that marriage. It is similar with the celestial good, which is signified by "the two olive trees," and with the spiritual good, which is signified by "the two lampstands." For the good in the Lord's celestial kingdom is the good of love to the Lord, and the truth of that good is called the good of love towards a brother and companion; while the good in the Lord's spiritual kingdom is the good of charity towards the neighbor, and the truth of that good is called the good of faith. But a just idea of these things can scarcely be had unless it is known what celestial good is, and what spiritual good is, and what the difference between them is. This makes clear why it is that "the two witnesses" are called "two olive trees and two lampstands." (That "two" signifies conjunction into one, or the heavenly marriage, see above, n. 532, at the end .)
 An "olive tree" signifies the celestial church, because "trees" in general signify perceptions and knowledges, and every church is a church from the knowledges of truth and good, and according to their perception; and "oil" signifies the good of love (see above, n. 375; so an "olive yard" and "olive tree" signify the church in which that good reigns. There are three trees that especially signify the church, namely, the "olive tree," the "vine," and the "fig tree," the "olive tree" signifying the celestial church, "the vine" the spiritual church, and the "fig tree" the external, celestial and spiritual church.
 That such is the signification of "the two olive trees and the two lampstands" anyone can see and conclude from this, that they are called "witnesses," and thus are what bear witness of the Lord, that is, acknowledge and confess Him; also from what is said of them in what follows, that "the beast killed them," and afterwards that "the spirit of life from God entered into them," which could not be said of olive trees and lampstands, unless these signified such things as are from the Lord with the angels of heaven and with the men of the church, and bear witness of the Lord, that is, cause angels and men to bear witness of Him. For angels and men cannot from themselves bear witness of the Lord, but the good and truth that are with them from the Lord do this, that is, the Lord Himself from His good and truth with them.
 In many passages in the Word gardens and forests, also olive yards and vineyards and also trees of many kinds, as the olive tree, the vine, the fig tree, the cedar, the poplar, and the oak are mentioned; but no one has known heretofore that each of these signifies something spiritual belonging to heaven and the church, except that a "vineyard" signifies the church; but not only does a "vineyard" signify the church but also an "olive yard," and a "forest of cedar" or "Lebanon," and even trees, such as the "olive tree," the "vine," the "fig tree," the "cedar;" and it is because these signify the church and the spiritual things belonging thereto that they are so often mentioned in the Word.
 In respect to gardens and forests: "gardens or paradises" signify in particular the intelligence and wisdom which the men of the church have; and "forests or groves" signify the intelligence of the natural man, which regarded in itself is knowledge serviceable to the intelligence of the spiritual man; but an "olive yard" and "vineyard" signify the church, "olive yard" the celestial church, or the church that is in the good of love to the Lord, and "vineyard" the spiritual church, or the church that is in the good of charity towards the neighbor, and thence in the truths of faith. The "olive" and "vine" have a like signification; and this because "oil" signifies the good of love to the Lord, and "wine" the good of charity towards the neighbor and the good of faith; while a "fig tree" signifies the church both celestial and spiritual, but external. These things have these significations from representatives in the spiritual world, and thus from correspondence; for in the inmost heaven, where the Lord's celestial kingdom is, and where love to the Lord reigns, the paradises and forests consist of olive yards and fig trees; but in the second heaven they consist of vineyards and many kinds of fruit bearing trees; in like manner in the lowest heaven, but with the difference that in this heaven the trees are not so noble. Such things exist in the heavens, because they correspond to the wisdom, intelligence, love, charity, and faith of the angels who are in those heavens. From this it can now be seen why "the witnesses" are called "olive trees," namely, because "olive trees" mean all who constitute the Lord's celestial church, that is, who are in the good of love to the Lord, and in the good of love towards a brother and companion.
 That such is the signification in the Word of "olive yards," "olive trees," and "olives," can be seen from the following passages. In Zechariah:
Two olive trees near the lampstand, one on the right side of the bowl and the other near its left side; and two olive berries; these are the two sons of the olive tree standing by the Lord of the whole earth (Zechariah 4:3, 11, 12, 14).
This treats of the foundation of the house or temple by Zerubbabel; and the "house" or "temple" signifies the church, therefore a "lampstand" was seen by the prophet, and "near it two olive trees," almost the same as what was seen by John here in Revelation; and the "two olive trees" and "olive berries" signify celestial goods, which are the goods of love to the Lord and of love towards a brother and companion; the former good is signified by "the olive tree seen at the right side of the bowl," and the latter by "the olive tree seen near the left side." The truths of this good are meant by "the sons of the olive tree standing by the Lord of the whole earth," "to stand by Him" signifying to be and to exist from Him.
 Because these goods are signified by "olive trees":
The cherubim in the midst of the house or temple were made of olive wood, likewise the doors to the adytum, and the door posts (1 Kings 6:23-33).
For the "cherubim," as well as the doors and posts to the adytum of the temple, signified the guard that there be no approach to the Lord except through the good of love; the "adytum" signified where the Lord is, and "olive wood" the good of love, because "the olive yard," "the olive tree," and "the olive" signify the celestial things that are of love.
 Because "the olive yard" and "the olive tree" signified a church that is in love to the Lord:
The oil of holiness with which all the holy things of the church were anointed was made of olive oil and spices mixed with it (Exodus 30:23, 24).
For all things of the church are holy Divine things just so far as they are derived from love to the Lord; therefore by means of that oil a representation of the Lord and of heaven and the church was established. (See an explanation of these things in Arcana Coelestia.)
Exodus 30:23-24, 30:23-25)
 For the same reason:
Pure olive oil was beaten for the light in the Tent of meeting, which was lighted up every evening (Exodus 27:20; Leviticus 24:2).
That "light" or the "lamp stand" there signified the Lord's spiritual church, and the "fire" kindled in the lamps signified spiritual love, which is love towards the neighbor; the "pure olive oil beaten" from which was the fire has a similar signification (respecting which see Arcana Coelestia on that passage).
 That "olive tree" and "olive" signify the good of love is evident also from the following passages. In Hosea:
I will be as the dew unto Israel; he shall blossom as the lily, and he shall infix his roots as Lebanon; his branches shall spread; and his honor shall be as that of the olive, and his odor as that of Lebanon (Hosea 14:5, 6).
This is said of the spiritual church, which is signified by "Israel;" "to be to him as the dew" signifies the existence and spiritual new birth of that church; the first state of its new birth or regeneration is signified by "he shall blossom as the lily," "lily" signifying the blossoming that precedes the fruit; the second state of regeneration is signified by "he shall infix his roots," which state is its existence in the natural, for there the roots are fixed; the third state is signified by "his branches shall spread," which signifies the multiplication of knowledges and of cognitions; the fifth 1
state, which is the state of fruit bearing, is signified by "his honor shall be as that of the olive," the "olive" signifying the good of love, of which "honor" is predicated (that "honor" is predicated of the good of love, see above, n. 288, 345); and the sixth 2
state, which is the state of intelligence and wisdom, is signified by "his odor as that of Lebanon," "odor" signifying perception, and "Lebanon" rationality, from which are intelligence and wisdom.
 In David:
I am like a green olive tree in the house of God; I trust in the mercy of God for an age and forever (Psalms 52:8).
It is said "like a green olive tree in the house of God," because a "green olive tree" signifies the good of love springing up by means of the truth of the Word; and the "house of God" signifies the church.
 In the same:
Thy wife shall be as the fruitful vine on the sides of thy house; thy sons like olive plants around thy tables; thus shall the man be blessed that feareth Jehovah (Psalms 128:3, 4).
In the natural sense, which is the sense of the letter, this refers to a wife and sons, and the enjoyments arising from marriage and prolification, but in the internal sense, which is the sense of the spirit of the Word, "wife" signifies the affection of truth, and "sons" the truths themselves springing therefrom; for every truth in which there is life is born from the affection of truth; and because a "wife" signifies that affection she is compared to a fruitful vine, since a "vine" signifies the church, and a "fruitful vine" the church in respect to the affection of truth. A "house" signifies the spiritual mind, and its "sides" signify all things in the natural man; "sons" signify the truths that are born from that spiritual affection, and these are compared to "olive plants," because through truths the goods of love and charity, which are olive trees, are brought forth; "around the tables" signifies the enjoyments arising from spiritual appropriation and nourishment.
 In Moses:
It shall be when Jehovah thy God hath brought thee into the land, He shall give thee great and good cities which thou buildedst not, and houses full of every good thing which thou filledst not, and cisterns hewn out which thou hewedst not, vineyards and olive yards which thou plantedst not (Deuteronomy 6:10, 11).
The meaning of these words in the spiritual sense is altogether different from their meaning in the historical sense; for in the spiritual sense "the land of Canaan," into which they were to be brought, signifies the church; therefore "cities," "houses," "cisterns," "vineyards," and "olive yards" signify such things as belong to the church; "great and good cities" signify the doctrinals, which teach the goods of love and charity; "houses full of every good thing" signify all things of wisdom; "cisterns hewn out" signify all things of intelligence in the natural man, which are cognitions and knowledges; "vineyards and olive yards" signify all things of the church in respect to truths and goods.
 It is related of Noah:
That he sent forth a dove out of the ark, which returned to him about the time of evening, bearing in its mouth the leaf of an olive plucked off, so that he knew that the waters were abated (Genesis 8:10, 11).
This describes in the spiritual sense the regeneration of the man of the church, signified by "Noah and his sons;" here the "dove" sent out a second time signifies the second successive state, which is the state when, falsities having been removed, spiritual good begins to spring forth through truths; for a "leaf" signifies truth, and "olive" the good springing forth therefrom, and "waters" signify falsities. (This may be seen more fully explained in Arcana Coelestia 870-892.)
 In Zechariah:
His feet shall stand in that day upon the Mount of Olives, which is before the faces of Jerusalem on the east; and the Mount of Olives shall be cloven asunder, a part thereof toward the east and toward the sea with a valley exceeding great, and a part of the mountain shall withdraw toward the north, and a part of it toward the south (Zechariah 14:4).
What this signifies has been explained above n. 405, where it was shown that "the Mount of Olives" signifies the Divine love. For the Mount of Olives was on the east of Jerusalem, and "Jerusalem" signifies the church in respect to doctrine; and every church and every truth of doctrine is illuminated and receives light from the Lord in the east; and the east in heaven is where the Lord appears as a sun; and as the "sun" signifies the Divine love, so the "east" and "the Mount of Olives," which was on the east of Jerusalem, have the same signification. Because that mountain, as has been said, signified the Lord's Divine love, the Lord was accustomed to stay on it, as in the Gospels:
That Jesus every day was teaching in the temple, and every night He went out and lodged in the mount that is called the Mount of Olives (Luke 21:37; 22:39; John 8:1);
That upon that mountain He spoke with His disciples about the Last Judgment (Matthew 24:3, et seq.; Mark 13:3, et seq.);
And that He went therefrom to Jerusalem and suffered; besides many other things (Matthew 21:1; 26:30; Mark 11:1; 14:26; Luke 19:29, 37; 21:37; 22:39; John 8:1).
All these things took place because "the Mount of Olives" signified the Divine love; and things significative, because they were representative of heaven and the church, were what at that time conjoined the Lord with heaven and the world. Moreover, the angels of the inmost or third heaven dwell in the east upon mountains, where olive trees abound more than all other trees.
 In Jeremiah:
Jehovah called thy name a green olive tree, beautiful with fruit of form; at the voice of a great tumult He hath kindled a fire upon it, and they have broken its branches; for Jehovah of Hosts, who planted thee, hath spoken evil against thee, because of the wickedness of the house of Israel and of the house of Judah (Jeremiah 11:16, 17).
Here the house of Judah and Israel is called "a green olive tree, beautiful with fruit of form," because "the olive tree" and its "fruit" signify the good of love, and "green" and "beautiful in form" signify the truth of that good, from which comes intelligence; for "the house of Judah" signifies the church in respect to the good of love, and "the house of Israel" the church in respect to the truth of that good; "to call its name" signifies its quality; the destruction and vastation of that church by the love of evil is described by "Jehovah hath kindled a fire upon it, and hath broken its branches," "fire" signifying the love of evil, and "branches" truths, which are said "to be broken" when they perish by reason of that love. This is attributed to Jehovah because of the appearance that all evil of punishment 3
seems to be from God, because He is omnipotent and does not avert it; for it is not known that to avert the evil of punishment would be contrary to order, for if it were averted evil would increase until there would be no good remaining.
 In Isaiah:
So shall it be in the midst of the land, in the midst of the peoples, as the beating of an olive tree, as the gleanings when the vintage is done (Isaiah 24:13).
This, too, is said of the vastation of the church in respect to celestial good, and in respect to spiritual good; celestial good is the good of love to the Lord, and spiritual good is in its essence truth from that good; celestial good is signified by the "olive tree," and spiritual good which is the truth from celestial good is signified by the "vintage;" vastation is signified by the "beating" and "gleanings" after the consummation.
 In Moses:
Thou shalt plant vineyards and cultivate them, but the wine thou shalt not drink, for the worm shall devour it; thou shalt have olive trees in all thy border, but thou shalt not anoint thee with the oil, because thy olive shall be shaken off (Deuteronomy 28:39, 40).
A "vineyard" signifies the spiritual church, and an "olive tree" the celestial church, so a "vineyard" signifies also the truth of the church, and an "olive tree" its good; therefore "to plant a vineyard and cultivate it and not drink the wine" signifies that although the church is established and truths of doctrine are taught, still truths will neither affect nor perfect, "wine" signifying the truth of doctrine; "for the worm shall devour it" signifies that falsities will destroy; "thou shalt have olive trees in all thy border" signifies that there will be the goods of love from the Lord through the Word and preachings from the Word throughout the church; "not to anoint with oil" signifies no enjoyment, nevertheless, of any good, or any joy therefrom; "thy olive shall be shaken off" signifies that that good will perish. This has reference to the curse if they should worship other gods, and should not keep the statutes and judgments.
 In Micah:
Thou shalt tread the olive but shalt not anoint thee with oil, and the new wine but thou shalt not drink wine (Mic. Micah 6:15).
I have smitten with blasting and mildew your many gardens and your vineyards; and the palmerworm hath devoured your fig trees and your olive trees; yet have ye not returned unto Me (Amos 4:9).
"Gardens" signify such things as belong to spiritual intelligence; "blasting and mildew" signify evil and falsity in what is most external, or from the corporeal-sensual; "vineyards" signify the spiritual or interior truths of the church; "fig trees" exterior goods and truths, which are also called moral; but "olive trees" the goods of the church; and the "palmerworm" signifies falsity destroying good.
 In Habakkuk:
The fig tree shall not blossom, neither shall there be produce on the vines, the labor of the olive yard shall dissemble, and the field shall yield no food (Habakkuk 3:17).
Here, too, the "fig tree" signifies the externals of the church, "vines" its internals; the "olive yard" its goods; and the "field" the church itself with man.
 In the first book of Samuel:
The king shall take your fields and your vineyards and your olive yards, and shall give them to his servants (1 Samuel 8:14).
Here, too, "fields," "vineyards," and "olive yards" have the same signification. The right of the king is here treated of, by which is meant and described the dominion of the natural man over the spiritual, namely, that it will destroy all the truths and goods of the church, and make them serve the natural man, and thus evils and falsities.
 In the book of Judges:
Jotham said unto the citizens of Shechem, who had made Abimelech king, The trees went forth to anoint a king over them, and they said unto the olive tree, Reign thou over us. But the olive tree said unto them, Shall I make my fatness to cease, which God and men honor in me, and go to move myself over the trees? And the trees said to the fig tree, Come thou, reign over us. But the fig tree said unto them, Shall I make my sweetness to cease, and my good produce; and go to move myself over the trees? And the trees said unto the vine, Come thou, reign over us. But the vine said unto them, Shall I cause my new wine to cease, that maketh glad God and men, and go to move myself over the trees? And all the trees said unto the thorn bush, Come thou, reign over us. And the thorn bush said unto the trees, If in truth ye anoint me for a king over you, come and put your trust in my shadow, but if not, let anger 4
go out from the thorn bush and devour the cedars of Lebanon (Judges 9:7-15).
These words of Jotham signify that the citizens of Shechem were not willing to have celestial good, which is the "olive tree," nor the truth of that good, which is the "vine," nor moral good, that is, external celestial and spiritual good, which is the "fig tree," to reign over them, but the evil of falsity, which appeared to them as good, which is the "thorn bush;" the fire from this is the evil of lust; the "cedars of Lebanon" are things rational which are from truths. From the passages quoted above it can be seen that in most places the olive tree and the vineyard are mentioned together, which is done because of the marriage of good and truth in every particular of the Word; for "olive tree" and "oil" signify the good of the church, and "vineyard" and "wine" the truth of that good. (That "oil" signifies the good of love, and the delight of heaven therefrom, may be seen above, n. 375; and that "wine" signifies the good of charity and truth of faith, n. 376)