The Bible


Psalms 23 : The 23rd Psalm

Study the Inner Meaning


1 The LORD is my shepherd; I shall not want.

2 He maketh me to lie down in green pastures: he leadeth me beside the still waters.

3 He restoreth my soul: he leadeth me in the paths of righteousness for his name's sake.

4 Yea, though I walk through the valley of the shadow of death, I will fear no evil: for thou art with me; thy rod and thy staff they comfort me.

5 Thou preparest a table before me in the presence of mine enemies: thou anointest my head with oil; my cup runneth over.

6 Surely goodness and mercy shall follow me all the days of my life: and I will dwell in the house of the LORD for ever.

   Study the Inner Meaning

The Inner Meanings of the 23rd Psalm      

By Rev. Julian Duckworth

Psalm 23 is undoubtedly the most well-known and well-loved of all the psalms, with its illustration of the Lord as our shepherd. The shepherd's care for his sheep is, internally, describing the things that the Lord does for us in our spiritual journey.

As the psalm unfolds we hear about the Lord’s work for us, during states in our lives when we could be unsure and afraid, and of the Lord’s provision for us. Gradually the psalmist confirms his trust in the Lord’s guidance and declares the many blessings the Lord brings.

This psalm of six verses would surely have been known and loved by the Lord during his life in the world. It would have, for him, been a statement of faith in his purpose to overcome evil and glorify his humanity. Jesus, in states where his human heredity was strong in his mind, would have regarded his own divinity as his shepherd, and seen it as his anchor and provider. For us, spiritually, the same parallel applies -- that our faith in the Lord is to be our trust and guide at all times.

The shepherding care in verses 2 and 3 speaks about how the Lord leads us into acquiring new truths that bring heavenly peace and rest for us. Our state is lifted up and we live in goodness because we understand that this is the divine quality that God wishes for us to live by. (See Apocalypse Explained 375 and Arcana Caelestia 3696)

The valley of the shadow of death describes our states of being afraid, and of not seeing the Lord with us, during which our mind can be filled with disturbing and mocking thoughts. But we know that the Lord is there with us nonetheless. The “rod” and “staff” represent the power of the Lord’s truths for us to use; a rod - used actively to guard the sheep - stands for spiritual truths, and a staff is leaned on, representing natural truths or truths to do with life.”
(Apocalypse Explained 727)

With the provision of truth from the Lord, the psalm shifts to the picture of the bounteous table which truth brings to us as our spiritual nourishment and satisfaction. Our head anointed with oil has many associations of being the Lord’s chosen, of being loved and blessed by the Lord, and of how our mind with its understanding receives love and good to make it full of heavenly joy. “My cup runs over” means the unknown extent of the truths of the Word and the blessings of the Lord. (Apocalypse Explained 727)

The final verse is put in terms of our full conviction of being in the Lord for ever and in all the days of our lives. What we experience and say in terms of time and duration spiritually means what is certain, perpetual and to all eternity. The ‘house of the Lord’ is heaven. (Arcana Caelestia 650)

From Swedenborg's Works

Main explanations:

The Inner Meaning of the Prophets and Psalms 273

Other references to this chapter:

Arcana Coelestia 57, 650, 3384, 3696, 4715, 4876, 5120, ...

Apocalypse Revealed 50, 383, 485, 672

References from Swedenborg's drafts, indexes & diaries:

Apocalypse Explained 71, 220, 375, 482, 662, 727, 960

Related New Christian Commentary

  Stories and their meanings:

  Spiritual Topics:

Hop to Similar Bible Verses

Exodus 15:27

Psalms 27:4, 31:4, 34:10, 11, 92:11, 106:8, 109:21

Proverbs 4:11

Isaiah 40:11, 43:2

Jeremiah 31:25

Ezekiel 34:14

John 10:11, 14

Revelation 7:17

Bible Word Meanings

the Lord
The Bible refers to the Lord in many different ways, which from the text seem indistinguishable and interchangeable. Understood in the internal sense, though, there...

The Lord, in the simplest terms, is love itself expressed as wisdom itself. In philosophic terms, love is the Lord's substance and wisdom is His...

The Writings tell us that shepherds represent those who lead and teach others, using knowledge and true ideas to help people reach the goodness of...

'Want of spiritual nourishment,' denotes a lack of knowledge, intelligence, and wisdom.

Everyone knows the phrase "the natural order of things." It means that everything is in its proper place, occupying the niche it is meant to...

The nature of the soul is a deep and complicated topic, but it can be summarized as "spiritual life," who we are in terms of...

"Leading" people in the Bible is, in the inner meaning, about leading people in spiritual things, not natural ones. When it talks about the Lord...

These days we tend to think of "roads" as smooth swaths of pavement, and judge them by how fast we can drive cars on them....

The word "righteous" has taken on a bit of negative shading in modern language. That may be because we hear it most often as part...

It's easy to see that names are important in the Bible. Jehovah changed Abram and Sarai to Abraham and Sarah, changed Jacob to Israel and...

To walk in the Bible represents living, and usually means living according to the true things taught to us by the Lord -- to "walk...

Shadow of death
'The shadow of death' has respect to the states of people in hell, who are in the falsities of evil.

Fear of the unknown and fear of change are both common ideas, and together cover a broad spectrum of the fears we tend to have...

'Wickedness' signifies evil, and 'iniquity' signifies falsities.

When the Bible talks about someone being comforted or consoled, it generally means that they are being offered ideas that will help bring them to...

Food and drink in the Bible represent the desire to be loving and the understanding of how to be loving, gifts that flow from the...

In most cases, the meaning of "before" is pretty straightforward, both as a way of assessing relative time, and in its use meaning "in someone's...

The head is the part of us that is highest, which means in a representative sense that it is what is closest to the Lord....

Oil – typically olive oil – was an extremely important product in Biblical times, for food preparation, medicinal ointment and for burning in lamps. As...

In regular language, "mercy" means being caring and compassionate toward those who are in poor states. That's a position we are all in relative to...

The basic meaning of "follow" in the Bible is pretty obvious if we consider what it means to "follow the Lord." That obviously doesn't mean...

The expression 'even to this day' or 'today' sometimes appears in the Word, as in Genesis 19:37-38, 22:14, 26:33, 32:32, 35:20, and 47:26. In a...

'Lives' is used in the plural, because of the will and understanding, and because these two lives make one.

Many people were nomadic in Biblical times, especially the times of the Old Testament, and lived in tents that could be struck, moved and re-raised...

house of the
'The house of the prison' denotes the vastation of falsity, and also falsity itself.

A "house" is essentially a container - for a person, for a family, for several families or even for a large group with shared interests...

Videos from the Swedenborg Foundation

The videos shown here are provided courtesy of our friends at the Swedenborg Foundation. You can find out more about them here:

The Meaning of the 23rd Psalm

We explore the comfort, protection, and safety which God promises us on our spiritual journey, especially when we're undergoing spiritual struggles.

Can You Dwell in the House of the Lord?

The Bible talks about dwelling in “the house of the Lord.” But what does that really mean?

How to Get a Home in Heaven - Swedenborg & Life

What are the houses like in heaven? And how do we get one? We explore the spiritual living conditions of the afterlife and how we can work on our heaven house right now.

Resources for parents and teachers

The items listed here are provided courtesy of our friends at the General Church of the New Jerusalem. You can search/browse their whole library at the New Church Vineyard website.

 A Shepherd and His Sheep
Use oil pastels or wax crayons to make a picture of shepherd, then use a sponge (cut into the shape of a lamb) to make little lambs around him.
Project | Ages 7 - 10

 Blessings: Good Tidings of Great Joy
Blessings to say at mealtime.
Activity | Ages over 7

 Blessings: Unto Us a Child Is Born
Blessings to say at mealtime.
Activity | Ages over 7

 Experiencing the Twenty-third Psalm
Explore the meaning of each phrase in Psalm 23, then help children experience it using their five senses.
Activity | Ages up to 10

 Following the Lord Our Shepherd
Use magnets to picture members of a family following the Lord as the shepherd.
Project | Ages up to 10

 Lord Is My Shepherd Diorama
Make a simple diorama to help remember the Lord's unceasing care.
Project | Ages 4 - 10

 Memory Verse: God Meant It for Good
Activity | Ages 4 - 14

 Out of the Forest
A story showing how the Lord leads as described in the 23rd Psalm.
Worship Talk | Ages 7 - 14

 Quotes: The Lord Is My Shepherd
Teaching Support | Ages over 15

 Rainbow Method of Learning the 23rd Psalm
Use the colors of the rainbow to help you learn the sequence of this psalm. 
Activity | Ages 4 - 10

 Ribbon Bookmark to Embroider
Embroider a satin ribbon with the words: "The Lord is my Shepherd" and pictures of a shepherd's staff and a little lamb.
Project | Ages over 7

 Shepherd and His Sheep Diorama
Project | Ages 7 - 17

 Talking with Your Child About the Twenty-Third Psalm
Article | Ages over 18

 The Good Shepherd
Worship Talk | Ages 4 - 7

 The Good Shepherd
Spiritual tasks offer a reflection on a Biblical story and suggest a task for spiritual growth.
Activity | Ages over 18

 The Lord Is My Shepherd
The Lord with His flock all around Him.
Coloring Page | All Ages

 The Lord Is My Shepherd
Print and display this lovely poster of the Twenty-third Psalm with an illustrative color border.
Picture | Ages over 7

 The Lord Is My Shepherd
"The teaching that the Lord is our Shepherd is a powerful and comforting one. The relationship between the sheep and their shepherd involves a sense of trust and security.
Worship Talk | Ages over 18

 The Lord Is Our Shepherd
Color picture of the Lord our Shepherd.
Picture | Ages up to 14

 The Lord’s Rod and Staff
This family talk explains what the Lord's rod and staff are in our lives, and how He uses them to comfort us. 
Worship Talk | Ages 7 - 14

 The Shepherd Rescuing His Sheep
Project | Ages 11 - 17

 The Stream of Providence Game
This game is about the Lord leading us toward His heavenly sheepfold. 
Activity | Ages 11 - 14

 The Twenty-third Psalm
Worship Talk | Ages 7 - 14

 The Twenty-third Psalm Book
Illustrate the literal meaning of the psalm or its application to life. 
Project | Ages 7 - 14

 The Twenty-third Psalm Calligraphy with Illustrations
Project | Ages 7 - 14

 Twenty Third Psalm
Sunday School Lesson | Ages 9 - 12

 Two Roads
Spiritual tasks offer a reflection on a Biblical story and suggest a task for spiritual growth.
Activity | Ages over 18

 Understanding the Twenty-third Psalm
An outline showing parts of the Psalm 23 with suggestions for explaining them to children.
Activity | Ages 4 - 10



The 23rd Psalm


By Mr. Brian P. David

The Lord as Shepherd, by Nana Schnarr

The 23rd Psalm is one of the best-known and most-loved literary works in the world, and it may well be the best poem ever written. It is also a fine example of the power of figurative language: We read deep things into the vision of ourselves as sheep, led to green pastures and good water by a kind shepherd. It’s empowering to feel the confidence to go fearlessly into the valley of the shadow of death, and to feel the love and caring of a table prepared by the Lord and a cup so full it overflows.

What people don’t know, however, is that this language actually has precise internal meanings, and that when we see them there is an even deeper beauty in the poem. That’s because what it actually describes is the path to heaven, and the fierce desire the Lord has to lead us there.

The first step is to let the Lord be our shepherd – to accept His teaching and His leadership. The green pastures and the still waters represent the things He will teach us for the journey. Then He begins working inside is, setting our spiritual lives in order, so that we desire to do what’s good and to love one another. That’s represented by restoring our souls and leading us in the paths of righteousness.

But we will still face challenges. We still live external lives, out in the world, and we are subject to desires that arise in those externals, in our bodily lives. That’s the valley of the shadow of death. But the rod and staff represent truth from the Lord on both external and internal levels, ideas that can defend us against those desires.

And if we keep following, the Lord will prepare a table for us – a place inside us that he can fill with love (the anointing oil) and wisdom (the overflowing cup). Thus transformed, we can enter heaven, with love for others (“goodness”) and love from the Lord (“mercy”) and can love and be loved to eternity.

One of many beautiful things about this is the fact that it is the Lord who really does all the work. In the whole text, the only action taken by the sheep is walking through the valley of the shadow of death. Other than that, they follow the Lord, trust the Lord, accept the blessings of the Lord. And that is really true! In external states (in the valley) we might seem to be doing the work ourselves, but internally, spiritually, we simply need to give ourselves to the Lord and let Him bless us.

The underlying idea here is that the Lord created us so that He could love us, in loving us wants us to be happy, knows that our greatest happiness will come from being conjoined to Him in heaven, and Himself wants nothing more than to be conjoined to us. So everything He does, in every moment of every day for every person on the face of the planet, is centered on the goal of getting that person to heaven. He wants each and every one of us in heaven more than we are capable of imagining. We just need to cooperate.

(References: The Apocalypse Explained 375 [34], 727 [2]; The Inner Meaning of the Prophets and Psalms 273)

From Swedenborg's Works


Apocalypse Explained #960

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960. Go pour out the vials of the anger of God into the earth, signifies the state of the devastated church. This is evident from the signification of "the vials of the anger of God," as being the evils and falsities that have devastated the church; for "the vials of the anger of God" have the like signification as "the plagues" in the preceding chapter (Revelation 15:6), where it is said that "seven angels went out from the temple having seven plagues," "plagues" there signifying the evils and falsities therefrom and the falsities and evils therefrom that have devastated the church (see above, n. 949. "The anger of God" has a similar signification, for "the anger of God" is predicated of the evils and falsities that devastate the goods and truths of the church. It is evident also from the signification of "the earth," as being the church (see above, n. 29, 304, 417, 697, 741, 741, 752, 876). "To pour out these vials into the earth" signifies the state of the church so produced, because the vastations of the church are attributed in the Word to God, consequently they are represented as flowing forth from heaven; and yet nothing of them comes from God, but they are solely from man. Nevertheless, it is so said in the sense of the letter of the Word because it so appears to men, and that sense being the ultimate sense consists of appearances.

(References: Revelation 16:1; The Apocalypse Explained 29, 304, The Apocalypse Explained 417, The Apocalypse Explained 697, The Apocalypse Explained 741, The Apocalypse Explained 752, 876, The Apocalypse Explained 949)

[2] These are called "vials" because vials are vessels, and vessels have a similar signification as their contents, as goblets, beakers, cups, with wine or other liquor in them; and as the incense vessels and censers for the incense, and many other vessels. The reason of this is that the sense of the letter of the Word is the ultimate sense of the Divine truth, and therefore consists of the ultimate things that are in nature; for upon ultimates interior or higher things are built and founded. That vials, goblets, cups, beakers, and platters are mentioned in place of their contents, and therefore have a similar signification, is evident from the Word, where they signify falsities from hell, and drunkenness or insanity therefrom. They also signify temptations; also truths from the Lord and wisdom therefrom. That they signify falsities from hell and insanity therefrom is evident from the following passages. In Jeremiah:

Jehovah said, Take this cup of the wine of the anger of Jehovah out of My hand, and make all nations to whom I send thee to drink of it, that they may drink and stagger, and be mad because of the sword. When they refuse to take the cup out of thine hand to drink, thou shalt say unto them, Thus saith Jehovah of Hosts, Drinking ye shall drink (Jeremiah 25:15, 16, 28).

"Cup of wine" here signifies the falsity that is from hell; "to drink" signifies to appropriate to oneself; "to be mad" signifies to be spiritually insane, which takes place when falsity is called truth and truth falsity. The "nations" that shall drink signify the evil, and in an abstract sense evils; for many nations that were to drink are there enumerated, and yet nations are not meant, but the evils signified by them, and evils are what drink, that is, appropriate to themselves, falsities. That "cup of wine" signifies falsity is evident also from the words, "that they may be mad because of the sword," for "sword" signifies falsity destroying truth.

(References: Jeremiah 25:15-16)

[3] In the same:

Babylon is a cup of gold in the hand of Jehovah, making the whole earth drunken; the nations have drunk of her wine, therefore the nations are mad (Jeremiah 51:7).

"Cup of gold" signifies falsity destroying good; "Babylon" signifies dominion over heaven and over the souls of men by means of the holy things of the church, from which dominion profane falsities flow forth; "to make the earth drunk" signifies to so infatuate the church that truth is not seen any more. "Wine" signifies that falsity.

[4] In Ezekiel:

Thou hast walked in the way of thy sister, therefore will I give her cup into thine hand. Thus saith the Lord Jehovih, Thou shalt drink of thy sister's cup, which is deep and broad; thou shalt be for a laughing and derision; ample to contain, thou shalt be filled with drunkenness and sadness, with the cup of devastation and desolation, with the cup of thy sister Samaria, which thou shalt drink and press out; and thou shalt break in pieces the shards thereof (Ezekiel 23:31-34).

This is said of Jerusalem, which signifies the celestial church as to doctrine; and Samaria, which is the "sister," signifies here the spiritual church, also as to doctrine. For the Jewish nation represented the Lord's celestial kingdom, and the Israelitish nation His spiritual kingdom. But here "Jerusalem and Samaria" signify the church devastated as to all good and truth. The full devastation of the church with the Jewish nation is described by "the sister's cup, which is deep and broad," and "they shall be filled with drunkenness and sadness," and "they shall drink the cup and press it out, and break in pieces the shards thereof. "It is called "a cup of devastation and desolation," because "devastation" is predicated of good, and "desolation" of truth.

[5] In Zechariah:

Behold I make Jerusalem a cup of trembling unto all the peoples round about (Zechariah 12:2).

In Habakkuk:

Thou shalt be satiated with shame more than with glory; drink thou also, and let thy foreskin be uncovered. The cup of Jehovah shall go about unto thee, and shameful vomiting shall be upon thy glory (Habakkuk 2:16).

"Cup" stands for falsified truth, which in itself is falsity, and of this "shameful vomiting" is predicated; therefore it is said "upon thy glory," "glory" signifying the Divine truth in the Word. In Lamentations:

Rejoice and be glad, O daughter of Edom; the cup shall pass through unto thee also; thou shalt be made drunken and shalt be uncovered (Lamentations 4:21).

Here "cup" has the same signification.

[6] In David:

Jehovah shall rain upon the wicked snares, fire, and brimstone, and a wind of tempests shall be the portion of their cup (Psalms 11:6).

In the same:

There is a cup in the hand of Jehovah, and He hath mixed it with wine. He hath filled it with mixture, and hath poured it out thence; but the dregs of it all the wicked of the earth shall suck out and drink (Psalms 75:8).

"Snares, fire, and brimstone," signify falsities and evils leading astray, and "a wind of tempests" signifies vigorous assault upon truth. These are called "the portion of a cup," because a "cup," as a containant signifies these. "To mix" and "to fill with mixture" signify to falsify truth and to profane it.

[7] In all these passages the devastation of truth and good by falsities and evils is attributed to Jehovah, for it is said that "they were to take the cup of the anger of Jehovah out of His hand," that "Jehovah hath mixed it with wine and filled it with mixture," also it is called "a cup in the hand of Jehovah;" and yet it must be understood that nothing of devastation is from Jehovah, but everything of it is from man. It is so said because the natural man sees no otherwise than that God is angry with, punishes, condemns, and casts into hell, those who despise and blaspheme Him, in a word, who do not give glory to Him; and because to so think is natural, it is so said in the sense of the letter of the Word, which is natural.

[8] So in other passages in Revelation:

He that adored the beast shall drink of the wine of the anger of God, mixed with unmixed wine in the cup of His wrath (Revelation 14:9, 10).

Great Babylon came in remembrance before God, to give unto her the cup of the wine of the fury of His wrath (Revelation 16:19).

A woman having in her hand a golden cup full of abominations and of the uncleanness of her whoredom (Revelation 17:4).

Double unto her double according to her works; in the cup that she mingled mingle to her double (Revelation 18:6).

This makes clear the signification of the seven "vials" of the angels, which they poured out into the earth, the sea, the rivers, the fountains of waters, upon the sun, the throne of the beast, the river Euphrates, and into the air, namely, that they mean states of devastation, which are described by these.

(References: Revelation 14:9-10)

[9] That a "goblet" or "cup" signifies temptations can be seen from the following passages. In the Gospels:

Jesus said to the sons of Zebedee, Ye know not what ye ask. Are ye able to drink the cup that I am about to drink, and to be baptized with the baptism that I am baptized with? They said, We are able. Then He said unto them, My cup indeed shall ye drink, and be baptized with the baptism that I am baptized with (Matthew 20:22, 23; Mark 10:38, 39).

But these passages may be seen explained above n. 893. In the same:

Jesus said to Peter, The cup which the Father hath given Me, shall I not drink it? (John 18:11).

Jesus said in Gethsemane, If it be possible let this cup pass away from Me (Matthew 26:39, 42, 44; Mark 14:36; Luke 22:42).

In these passages a "cup" or "goblet" plainly signifies temptations. So in Isaiah (Isaiah 51:17, 22), where it is also called "the cup of the anger of God" and "the cup of trembling."

(References: Mark 10:38-39; Matthew 20:22-23; The Apocalypse Explained 893)

[10] As "cup" has a similar signification as "wine," and "wine" in the good sense signifies the Divine truth, therefore also this is what "cup" signifies in the following passages. In the Gospels:

Jesus taking the cup and giving thanks, gave to the disciples, saying, All drink from it; for this is My blood, that of the new Testament (Matt. 26:27, 28; Mark 14:23, 24; Luke 22:17, 18).

As the Lord's "blood," and likewise "wine," signify the Divine truth that proceeds from Him, consequently the "cup" also, it is said therefore "this is My blood;" and as it is by means of the Divine truth that the Lord is conjoined with the church, it is called "that of the new Testament or the new Covenant." (That the Lord's "blood" signifies the Divine truth may be seen in 328, 329, 476, 748; and that "covenant" signifies conjunction, n. 701)

(References: Luke 22:17-18; Mark 14:23-24; Matthew 26:27-28; The Apocalypse Explained 328, 329, The Apocalypse Explained 476, The Apocalypse Explained 701, The Apocalypse Explained 748)

[11] In David:

Jehovah is the portion of your 1 part and of my cup; Thou sustainest my lot (Psalms 16:5).

In the same:

Thou wilt set a table before me in the presence of mine enemies; Thou wilt make fat my head with oil; my cup shall run over (Psalms 23:5). 2

In these passages "cup" stands for the Divine truth; and as this is the signification of "cup" it is also called:

The cup of salvation (Psalms 116:13);

And the cup of consolations (Jeremiah 16:7).

[12] In Mark:

Whosoever shall give you a cup of water to drink in My name, because ye are Christ's, he shall not lose his reward (Mark 9:41).

"To give a cup of water to drink in My name, because ye are Christ's," signifies to teach truth from the love of truth, thus from the Lord, likewise to do it. The love of truth for the sake of truth is meant by "giving a cup of water in the name of the Lord;" and "Christ" means the Lord as to the Divine truth.

[13] In the Gospels:

Woe unto you, Scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites; for ye cleanse the outside of the cup and the platter, but within they are full from rapine and intemperance. Cleanse first the inside of the cup and of the platter, that the outside may become clean also (Matthew 23:25, 26; Luke 11:39).

The Lord used the terms "cup" and "platter," because the containant has the same signification as the contents; thus the "cup" the same as "wine," and the "platter" the same as "food." "Wine" signifies the truth of the Word and of doctrine, and "food" the good of the Word and of doctrine. The natural man or the natural mind is inwardly purified when falsities and evils are removed, but it is not purified when they are not removed. For such as the interior is such does the exterior become, but the interior does not become such as the exterior is. For the interior flows into the exterior and disposes it to agreement with itself, but not the reverse.

(Continuation respecting the Second Commandment)

(References: Matthew 23:25-26)

[14] Since "the name of God" means that which is from God and which is God, and this is called the Divine truth, and with us the Word, this must not be profaned, because it is in itself Divine and most holy; and it is profaned when its holiness is denied, which is done when it is despised, rejected, and treated contemptuously. When this is done heaven is closed and man is left to hell. For the Word is the only medium of conjunction of heaven with the church; therefore when the Word is cast out of the heart that conjunction is dissolved; and because man is then left to hell he no longer acknowledges any truth of the church.

(References: Exodus 20:7)

[15] There are two things by which heaven is closed to the men of the church. One is the denial of the Lord's Divine, and the other is the denial of the holiness of the Word; and for this reason that the Lord's Divine is the all of heaven, and the Divine truth, which is the Word in the spiritual sense, is what makes heaven; which makes clear that he who denies the one or the other denies that which is the all of heaven, and from which heaven is and exists, and thus deprives himself of communication and thence of conjunction with heaven. To profane the Word is the same as "blaspheming the Holy Spirit," which is not forgiven to anyone, consequently it is said in this commandment that he who profanes the name of God shall not be left unpunished.


1. The Latin has "vestrae" "your." The Hebrew has "my."

2. [Marginal Note:] Skins of wine.


(References: Revelation 16:1)

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   Study this Passage
From Swedenborg's Works

References from Swedenborg's drafts, indexes & diaries:

Apocalypse Explained 958, 961, 965, 969, 1022, 1045

   Swedenborg Research Tools

Related New Christian Commentary

Thanks to the Swedenborg Foundation for their permission to use this translation.