The Bible


Psalms 23 : The 23rd Psalm

Study the Inner Meaning


1 The LORD is my shepherd; I shall not want.

2 He maketh me to lie down in green pastures: he leadeth me beside the still waters.

3 He restoreth my soul: he leadeth me in the paths of righteousness for his name's sake.

4 Yea, though I walk through the valley of the shadow of death, I will fear no evil: for thou art with me; thy rod and thy staff they comfort me.

5 Thou preparest a table before me in the presence of mine enemies: thou anointest my head with oil; my cup runneth over.

6 Surely goodness and mercy shall follow me all the days of my life: and I will dwell in the house of the LORD for ever.

   Study the Inner Meaning

The Inner Meanings of the 23rd Psalm      

By Rev. Julian Duckworth

Psalm 23 is undoubtedly the most well-known and well-loved of all the psalms, with its illustration of the Lord as our shepherd. The shepherd's care for his sheep is, internally, describing the things that the Lord does for us in our spiritual journey.

As the psalm unfolds we hear about the Lord’s work for us, during states in our lives when we could be unsure and afraid, and of the Lord’s provision for us. Gradually the psalmist confirms his trust in the Lord’s guidance and declares the many blessings the Lord brings.

This psalm of six verses would surely have been known and loved by the Lord during his life in the world. It would have, for him, been a statement of faith in his purpose to overcome evil and glorify his humanity. Jesus, in states where his human heredity was strong in his mind, would have regarded his own divinity as his shepherd, and seen it as his anchor and provider. For us, spiritually, the same parallel applies -- that our faith in the Lord is to be our trust and guide at all times.

The shepherding care in verses 2 and 3 speaks about how the Lord leads us into acquiring new truths that bring heavenly peace and rest for us. Our state is lifted up and we live in goodness because we understand that this is the divine quality that God wishes for us to live by. (See Apocalypse Explained 375 and Arcana Caelestia 3696)

The valley of the shadow of death describes our states of being afraid, and of not seeing the Lord with us, during which our mind can be filled with disturbing and mocking thoughts. But we know that the Lord is there with us nonetheless. The “rod” and “staff” represent the power of the Lord’s truths for us to use; a rod - used actively to guard the sheep - stands for spiritual truths, and a staff is leaned on, representing natural truths or truths to do with life.”
(Apocalypse Explained 727)

With the provision of truth from the Lord, the psalm shifts to the picture of the bounteous table which truth brings to us as our spiritual nourishment and satisfaction. Our head anointed with oil has many associations of being the Lord’s chosen, of being loved and blessed by the Lord, and of how our mind with its understanding receives love and good to make it full of heavenly joy. “My cup runs over” means the unknown extent of the truths of the Word and the blessings of the Lord. (Apocalypse Explained 727)

The final verse is put in terms of our full conviction of being in the Lord for ever and in all the days of our lives. What we experience and say in terms of time and duration spiritually means what is certain, perpetual and to all eternity. The ‘house of the Lord’ is heaven. (Arcana Caelestia 650)

From Swedenborg's Works

Main explanations:

The Inner Meaning of the Prophets and Psalms 273

Other references to this chapter:

Arcana Coelestia 57, 650, 3384, 3696, 4715, 4876, 5120, ...

Apocalypse Revealed 50, 383, 485, 672

References from Swedenborg's drafts, indexes & diaries:

Apocalypse Explained 71, 220, 375, 482, 662, 727, 960

Related New Christian Commentary

  Stories and their meanings:

  Spiritual Topics:

Hop to Similar Bible Verses

Exodus 15:27

Psalms 27:4, 31:4, 34:10, 11, 92:11, 106:8, 109:21

Proverbs 4:11

Isaiah 40:11, 43:2

Jeremiah 31:25

Ezekiel 34:14

John 10:11, 14

Revelation 7:17

Bible Word Meanings

the Lord
The Bible refers to the Lord in many different ways, which from the text seem indistinguishable and interchangeable. Understood in the internal sense, though, there...

The Lord, in the simplest terms, is love itself expressed as wisdom itself. In philosophic terms, love is the Lord's substance and wisdom is His...

The Writings tell us that shepherds represent those who lead and teach others, using knowledge and true ideas to help people reach the goodness of...

'Want of spiritual nourishment,' denotes a lack of knowledge, intelligence, and wisdom.

Everyone knows the phrase "the natural order of things." It means that everything is in its proper place, occupying the niche it is meant to...

The nature of the soul is a deep and complicated topic, but it can be summarized as "spiritual life," who we are in terms of...

"Leading" people in the Bible is, in the inner meaning, about leading people in spiritual things, not natural ones. When it talks about the Lord...

These days we tend to think of "roads" as smooth swaths of pavement, and judge them by how fast we can drive cars on them....

The word "righteous" has taken on a bit of negative shading in modern language. That may be because we hear it most often as part...

It's easy to see that names are important in the Bible. Jehovah changed Abram and Sarai to Abraham and Sarah, changed Jacob to Israel and...

To walk in the Bible represents living, and usually means living according to the true things taught to us by the Lord -- to "walk...

Shadow of death
'The shadow of death' has respect to the states of people in hell, who are in the falsities of evil.

Fear of the unknown and fear of change are both common ideas, and together cover a broad spectrum of the fears we tend to have...

'Wickedness' signifies evil, and 'iniquity' signifies falsities.

When the Bible talks about someone being comforted or consoled, it generally means that they are being offered ideas that will help bring them to...

Food and drink in the Bible represent the desire to be loving and the understanding of how to be loving, gifts that flow from the...

In most cases, the meaning of "before" is pretty straightforward, both as a way of assessing relative time, and in its use meaning "in someone's...

The head is the part of us that is highest, which means in a representative sense that it is what is closest to the Lord....

Oil – typically olive oil – was an extremely important product in Biblical times, for food preparation, medicinal ointment and for burning in lamps. As...

In regular language, "mercy" means being caring and compassionate toward those who are in poor states. That's a position we are all in relative to...

The basic meaning of "follow" in the Bible is pretty obvious if we consider what it means to "follow the Lord." That obviously doesn't mean...

The expression 'even to this day' or 'today' sometimes appears in the Word, as in Genesis 19:37-38, 22:14, 26:33, 32:32, 35:20, and 47:26. In a...

'Lives' is used in the plural, because of the will and understanding, and because these two lives make one.

Many people were nomadic in Biblical times, especially the times of the Old Testament, and lived in tents that could be struck, moved and re-raised...

house of the
'The house of the prison' denotes the vastation of falsity, and also falsity itself.

A "house" is essentially a container - for a person, for a family, for several families or even for a large group with shared interests...

Videos from the Swedenborg Foundation

The videos shown here are provided courtesy of our friends at the Swedenborg Foundation. You can find out more about them here:

The Meaning of the 23rd Psalm

We explore the comfort, protection, and safety which God promises us on our spiritual journey, especially when we're undergoing spiritual struggles.

Can You Dwell in the House of the Lord?

The Bible talks about dwelling in “the house of the Lord.” But what does that really mean?

How to Get a Home in Heaven - Swedenborg & Life

What are the houses like in heaven? And how do we get one? We explore the spiritual living conditions of the afterlife and how we can work on our heaven house right now.

Resources for parents and teachers

The items listed here are provided courtesy of our friends at the General Church of the New Jerusalem. You can search/browse their whole library at the New Church Vineyard website.

 A Shepherd and His Sheep
Use oil pastels or wax crayons to make a picture of shepherd, then use a sponge (cut into the shape of a lamb) to make little lambs around him.
Project | Ages 7 - 10

 Blessings: Good Tidings of Great Joy
Blessings to say at mealtime.
Activity | Ages over 7

 Blessings: Unto Us a Child Is Born
Blessings to say at mealtime.
Activity | Ages over 7

 Experiencing the Twenty-third Psalm
Explore the meaning of each phrase in Psalm 23, then help children experience it using their five senses.
Activity | Ages up to 10

 Following the Lord Our Shepherd
Use magnets to picture members of a family following the Lord as the shepherd.
Project | Ages up to 10

 Lord Is My Shepherd Diorama
Make a simple diorama to help remember the Lord's unceasing care.
Project | Ages 4 - 10

 Memory Verse: God Meant It for Good
Activity | Ages 4 - 14

 Out of the Forest
A story showing how the Lord leads as described in the 23rd Psalm.
Worship Talk | Ages 7 - 14

 Quotes: The Lord Is My Shepherd
Teaching Support | Ages over 15

 Rainbow Method of Learning the 23rd Psalm
Use the colors of the rainbow to help you learn the sequence of this psalm. 
Activity | Ages 4 - 10

 Ribbon Bookmark to Embroider
Embroider a satin ribbon with the words: "The Lord is my Shepherd" and pictures of a shepherd's staff and a little lamb.
Project | Ages over 7

 Shepherd and His Sheep Diorama
Project | Ages 7 - 17

 Talking with Your Child About the Twenty-Third Psalm
Article | Ages over 18

 The Good Shepherd
Worship Talk | Ages 4 - 7

 The Good Shepherd
Spiritual tasks offer a reflection on a Biblical story and suggest a task for spiritual growth.
Activity | Ages over 18

 The Lord Is My Shepherd
The Lord with His flock all around Him.
Coloring Page | All Ages

 The Lord Is My Shepherd
Print and display this lovely poster of the Twenty-third Psalm with an illustrative color border.
Picture | Ages over 7

 The Lord Is My Shepherd
"The teaching that the Lord is our Shepherd is a powerful and comforting one. The relationship between the sheep and their shepherd involves a sense of trust and security.
Worship Talk | Ages over 18

 The Lord Is Our Shepherd
Color picture of the Lord our Shepherd.
Picture | Ages up to 14

 The Lord’s Rod and Staff
This family talk explains what the Lord's rod and staff are in our lives, and how He uses them to comfort us. 
Worship Talk | Ages 7 - 14

 The Shepherd Rescuing His Sheep
Project | Ages 11 - 17

 The Stream of Providence Game
This game is about the Lord leading us toward His heavenly sheepfold. 
Activity | Ages 11 - 14

 The Twenty-third Psalm
Worship Talk | Ages 7 - 14

 The Twenty-third Psalm Book
Illustrate the literal meaning of the psalm or its application to life. 
Project | Ages 7 - 14

 The Twenty-third Psalm Calligraphy with Illustrations
Project | Ages 7 - 14

 Twenty Third Psalm
Sunday School Lesson | Ages 9 - 12

 Two Roads
Spiritual tasks offer a reflection on a Biblical story and suggest a task for spiritual growth.
Activity | Ages over 18

 Understanding the Twenty-third Psalm
An outline showing parts of the Psalm 23 with suggestions for explaining them to children.
Activity | Ages 4 - 10



The 23rd Psalm


By Mr. Brian P. David

The Lord as Shepherd, by Nana Schnarr

The 23rd Psalm is one of the best-known and most-loved literary works in the world, and it may well be the best poem ever written. It is also a fine example of the power of figurative language: We read deep things into the vision of ourselves as sheep, led to green pastures and good water by a kind shepherd. It’s empowering to feel the confidence to go fearlessly into the valley of the shadow of death, and to feel the love and caring of a table prepared by the Lord and a cup so full it overflows.

What people don’t know, however, is that this language actually has precise internal meanings, and that when we see them there is an even deeper beauty in the poem. That’s because what it actually describes is the path to heaven, and the fierce desire the Lord has to lead us there.

The first step is to let the Lord be our shepherd – to accept His teaching and His leadership. The green pastures and the still waters represent the things He will teach us for the journey. Then He begins working inside is, setting our spiritual lives in order, so that we desire to do what’s good and to love one another. That’s represented by restoring our souls and leading us in the paths of righteousness.

But we will still face challenges. We still live external lives, out in the world, and we are subject to desires that arise in those externals, in our bodily lives. That’s the valley of the shadow of death. But the rod and staff represent truth from the Lord on both external and internal levels, ideas that can defend us against those desires.

And if we keep following, the Lord will prepare a table for us – a place inside us that he can fill with love (the anointing oil) and wisdom (the overflowing cup). Thus transformed, we can enter heaven, with love for others (“goodness”) and love from the Lord (“mercy”) and can love and be loved to eternity.

One of many beautiful things about this is the fact that it is the Lord who really does all the work. In the whole text, the only action taken by the sheep is walking through the valley of the shadow of death. Other than that, they follow the Lord, trust the Lord, accept the blessings of the Lord. And that is really true! In external states (in the valley) we might seem to be doing the work ourselves, but internally, spiritually, we simply need to give ourselves to the Lord and let Him bless us.

The underlying idea here is that the Lord created us so that He could love us, in loving us wants us to be happy, knows that our greatest happiness will come from being conjoined to Him in heaven, and Himself wants nothing more than to be conjoined to us. So everything He does, in every moment of every day for every person on the face of the planet, is centered on the goal of getting that person to heaven. He wants each and every one of us in heaven more than we are capable of imagining. We just need to cooperate.

(References: The Apocalypse Explained 375 [34], 727 [2]; The Inner Meaning of the Prophets and Psalms 273)

From Swedenborg's Works


Apocalypse Explained #220

Study this Passage

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220. But it shall be told also what "temple" signifies in the Word. In the highest sense, "temple" signifies the Lord's Divine Human, and in the relative sense, heaven; and as it signifies heaven, it also signifies the church, for the church is the Lord's heaven on earth; and as "temple" signifies heaven and the church it also signifies Divine truth proceeding from the Lord, for the reason that this makes heaven and the church; for those who receive Divine truth in soul and heart, that is, in faith and love, are they who constitute heaven and the church. As such is the signification of "temple," it is said, "the temple of My God;" "My God," when said by the Lord, meaning heaven and Divine truth there, which also is the Lord in heaven. The Lord is above the heavens, and to those who are in the heavens He appears as a sun. From the Lord as a sun light and heat go forth. Light in heaven is in its essence Divine truth, and heat in heaven is in its essence Divine good; these two make heaven in general and in particular. Divine truth is what is meant by "My God;" therefore in the Word of the Old Testament the Lord is called both "Jehovah" and "God;" "Jehovah" where Divine good is treated of, and "God" where Divine truth is treated of; for the same reason also angels are called "gods," and the word God in the Hebrew is used in the plural, Elohim. This shows why it is said, "the temple of My God." (That the Lord is called "Jehovah" where Divine good is treated of, but "God" where Divine truth is treated of, see Arcana Coelestia 709, 732, 2586, 2769, 2807, 2822, 3921, 4283, 4402, 7010, 9167; that He is called Jehovah" from Esse, thus from Essence, but "God" from Existere, thus from Existence, n. 300, 3910, 6905; that the Divine Esse moreover is Divine good, and the Divine Existere is Divine truth, n. 3061, 6280, 6880, 6905, 10579; and in general that good is the esse, and truth the existere therefrom, n. 5002; that the angels are called "gods" from their reception of Divine truth from the Lord, n. 4295, 4402, 7268, 7873, 8192, 8301, 8192. That the Divine of the Lord in the heavens is Divine truth united to Divine good, see in the work on Heaven and Hell (13, 133, 139-140. That light in the heavens is in its essence Divine truth, and heat there is Divine good, both from the Lord, see in the same work n. 126-140, 275.)

(References: Revelation 3:12; The New Jerusalem and its Heavenly Doctrine 126-140, 275)

[2] That "temple" in the Word signifies the Lord's Divine Human, and in the relative sense, heaven and the church, consequently also Divine truth, can be seen from the following passages.

In John:

The Jews asking, What sign showest Thou unto us, that Thou doest these things? Jesus answered and said unto them, Destroy this temple, and in three days I will raise it up. Then said the Jews, In forty and six years was this temple built, and wilt Thou raise it up in three days? But He was speaking of the Temple of His body (John 2:18-23).

That "temple" signifies the Lord's Divine Human is here openly declared; for "destroying the temple and raising it up after three days" means the Lord's death, burial, and resurrection.

(References: John 2:18-22)

[3] In Malachi:

Behold, I send My messenger, and he shall prepare the way before Me; and the Lord shall suddenly come to His temple, and the Angel of the covenant whom ye seek (Malachi 3:1).

Here also "temple" means the Lord's Divine Human; for the Lord's coming is here treated of, therefore "coming to His temple" signifies to His Human.

[4] In Revelation:

I saw no temple in the New Jerusalem, for the Lord God Almighty is its temple, and the Lamb (Revelation 21:22).

The New Heaven and the New Earth, when they will be in internals, and not in externals, are here treated of, therefore it is said, that "there will be no temple," but "the Lord God Almighty, and the Lamb." "The Lord God Almighty," is the Divine Itself of the Lord, and "the Lamb" is His Divine Human; from which also it is clear, that His Divine in the heavens is meant by "temple."

(References: Luke 12:8)

[5] In Isaiah:

I saw the Lord sitting upon a throne, high and lifted up, and His skirts filled the temple (Isaiah 6:1).

"The throne high and lifted up," upon which the Lord was seen to sit, signifies the Lord in respect to Divine truth in the higher heavens; but "His skirts" signify His Divine truth in the church. (That "skirts" signify, in reference to the Lord, His Divine truth in ultimates, see Arcana Coelestia 9917.)


The veil of the temple was rent into two parts from the top to the bottom, after the Lord suffered (Matthew 27:51; Mark 15:34, 38; Luke 23:45);

signified the union of the Lord's Divine Human with the Divine itself (see Arcana Coelestia 9670).

[6] In the passages that follow "temple" signifies the Lord's Divine Human, and at the same time heaven and the church.

In David :

I will bow myself down toward the temple of Thy holiness, and will confess unto Thy name (Psalms 138:2).

In Jonah:

I said, I am cast out from before Thine eyes, but yet will I add to look to the temple of Thy holiness, and my prayer came to Thee to the temple of Thy holiness (Jon. Haggai 2:4, 7).

In Habakkuk:

Jehovah in the temple of Thy 1 holiness (Habakkuk 2:20).

In Matthew:

Woe unto you, ye blind guides, who say, Whosoever shall swear by the temple, it is nothing; but whosoever shall swear by the gold of the temple, he is a debtor. Ye fools and blind; for whether is greater, the gold or the temple that sanctifieth the gold? (Matthew 23:16, 17).

In John :

Jesus said to them that sold in the temple, Take these hence; make not My Father's house a house of merchandise. Then the disciples remembered that it was written, The zeal of Thine house hath consumed me (John 2:16, 17).

(References: John 2:16-17; Jonah 2:4, 2:7; Matthew 23:16-17)

[7] Beside these, there are many other passages in the Word where "temple" is mentioned. That it may be known that "temple" means heaven and the church, as also Divine truth proceeding from the Lord, I will cite these passages here, lest the mind should cling to the idea that a mere temple is meant, and not something more holy; for the temple in Jerusalem was holy because it represented and thus signified what is holy. That "temple" signified heaven is evident from these passages. In David:

I called upon Jehovah, and cried unto my God: He heard my voice from His temple (Psalms 18:6).

In the same:

A day in Thy courts is better than thousands. I have chosen to stand at the door in the house of my God, rather than to dwell in the tents of wickedness (Psalms 84:10).

In the same:

The righteous shall flourish like the palm-tree; he shall grow like a cedar in Lebanon. They that are planted in the house of Jehovah shall flourish in the courts of our God (Psalms 92:12-13).

In the same :

One thing have I asked of Jehovah; that I may dwell in the house of Jehovah, and to early visit His temple (Psalms 27:4).

I shall be at rest in the house of Jehovah for length of days (Psalms 23:6).

In John:

Jesus said, In My Father's house are many mansions (John 14:2).

It is clear that in these passages, by "house of Jehovah" and "Father's house" heaven is meant.

[8] In the following passages the church also is meant. In Isaiah:

The house of our holiness and our splendor, where our fathers praised Thee, is burned up with fire (Isaiah 64:11).

In Jeremiah:

I have forsaken My house, I have abandoned Mine heritage (Jeremiah 12:7).

In Haggai:

I will shake all nations, that the choice of all nations may come; and I will fill this house with glory. The silver is Mine, and the gold is Mine. The glory of this latter house shall be greater than that of the former (Haggai 2:7-9).

In Isaiah:

He shall say to Jerusalem, Thou shalt be built; and to the temple, Thou shalt be founded (Isaiah 44:28).

Here the coming of the Lord and a new church at that time are treated of. In Zechariah the meaning is similar:

The house of Jehovah was founded that the temple may be built (Zechariah 8:9).

In Daniel:

Belshazzar commanded to bring the vessels of gold and silver which Nebuchadnezzar his father had taken out of the temple in Jerusalem, that they might drink from them. They drank wine, and praised the gods of gold, and of silver, of brass, of iron, of wood, and of stone, and then came the writing on the wall (Daniel 5:2-4.).

The "gold and silver vessels that were brought from the temple of Jerusalem" signified the goods and truths of the church; that they "drank wine from them and praised the gods of gold, of silver, of brass, of iron, of wood, and of stone," signifies the profanation of those goods and truths; and on account of this the writing appeared on the wall, and the king 2 was changed from a man into a wild beast.

[9] In Matthew:

And the disciples came to show Jesus the building of the temple. Jesus said unto them, See ye all these things? There shall not be left here stone upon stone that shall not be thrown down (Matthew 24:1, 2; Mark 13:1-5; Luke 21:5-7).

That "there should not be left of the temple stone upon stone that should not be thrown down" signifies the total destruction and vastation of the church ("stone" signifying the truth of the church); and because this is what is meant, the successive vastation of the church is what is treated of in these chapters in the Evangelists.

In Revelation:

And the angel stood, saying, Rise and measure the temple of God and the altar, and them that worship therein (Revelation 11:1).

The "temple" here also signifies the church, and "measuring" signifies to explore its quality:

The new temple and its measurements (Ezekiel 40-Ezekiel 47); have a like signification.

(References: Mark 13:1-2; Matthew 24:1-2)

[10] That "temple" signifies Divine truth which is from the Lord, is evident from the following passages.

In Ezekiel:

The glory of Jehovah mounted up from above the cherub over the threshold of the house; and the house was filled with the cloud; but the court was full of the brightness of the glory of Jehovah (Ezekiel 10:4).

"House" here means heaven and the church, and "cloud" and "glory" Divine truth. (That "cloud" is Divine truth, see above, n. 36; and "glory" the like, n. 33.)

(References: Ezekiel 40:1, 41:1, 42:1, 43:1, 44:1, 45:1, 46:1, 47:1; The Apocalypse Explained 33, 36)

[11] In Micah:

Many nations shall go, and say, Come and let us go up to the mountain of Jehovah, and to the house of our God; that He may instruct us of His ways, and that we may go in His paths; for from Zion shall go forth instruction, and the Word out of Jerusalem (Micah 4:2).

"Mountain of Jehovah, and house of God," signify the church, likewise "Zion" and "Jerusalem;" "to be instructed of His ways, and to go in His paths," is to be instructed in Divine truths; it is therefore said, "From Zion shall go forth instruction, and the Word out of Jerusalem."

[12] In Isaiah:

A voice of a tumult of Jehovah 3 from the city, the voice of Jehovah out of the temple (Isaiah 66:6).

"City" means the doctrine of truth; "temple" the church; and "the voice of Jehovah out of the temple" Divine truth. In Revelation:

There came forth a great voice out of the temple of heaven, from the throne, saying (Revelation 16:17).

Here, likewise, "voice" means Divine truth.


And the temple of God in heaven was opened, and there was seen in the temple the ark of His covenant; and there were lightnings, voices, thunderings (Revelation 11:19).

"Lightnings, voices, thunderings," signify in the Word Divine truths out of heaven (see Arcana Coelestia 7573, 8914).

The temple of the tabernacle of the testimony in heaven was opened; and there came out from the temple seven angels, having the seven plagues. And the temple was filled with smoke from the glory of God, and from His power (Revelation 15:5-6, 8).

Here seven angels are said to have come out from the temple in heaven, because "angels" signify Divine truths (see above, n. 130, 200). What is signified by "smoke from the glory of God" will be seen in the explanation of these words further on. It should be known, moreover, that the temple built by Solomon, and also the house of the forest of Lebanon, and each particular thing pertaining to them (as described in 1 Kings 6, 1 Kings 7), signified spiritual and celestial things pertaining to the church and to heaven.


1. The Hebrew has "His," as found in Apocalypse Explained 587; Arcana Coelestia 643 Arcana Coelestia 643[1-4].

2. It was not Belshazzar but Nebuchadnezzar who was changed into a beast.

3. "Of Jehovah" is not found in the Hebrew.


(References: 1 Kings 6:1, 7:1; John 2:16-22; Luke 12:8; Revelation 3:12; The Apocalypse Explained 130, 200)

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From Swedenborg's Works

References from Swedenborg's drafts, indexes & diaries:

Apocalypse Explained 202, 222, 223, 242, 253, 277, 313, 392, 478, 608, 629, 695, 699, 909, 914, 915, 918, 920, 939, 948, 1013

   Swedenborg Research Tools

Related New Christian Commentary

Thanks to the Swedenborg Foundation for their permission to use this translation.