374. Verse 6. A measure of wheat for a denarius, and three measures of barley for a denarius, signifies that the genuine good of the church, as also the genuine truth of the church, is of no account to them. This is evident from the signification of "measure" [choenix] (which was the Greek measure for wheat and barley), as being the quality of estimation, for "measures" in the Word (as was said in the article above), signify the quality of a thing in respect to good and in respect to truth. It is evident also from the signification of "wheat," as being the good of the church in general (of which presently); also from the signification of "barley," as being the truth of that good (of which presently); and from the signification of "a denarius," the standard of estimation, as being as of no account. Because this was the smallest coin, it signifies the least worth, but here as of no account. The reason for this is that "the red horse" (mentioned above), signifies the understanding of the Word destroyed in respect to good, and "the black horse" the understanding of the Word destroyed in respect to truth (see above, n. 364, 372); and when the understanding of the Word in respect to good and in respect to truth has been destroyed, then the genuine good and the genuine truth of the church are estimated as of no account. The "denarius" is here taken as the standard of estimation, because some piece of money must be taken that some price may be expressed in the sense of the letter, since it is said that "a balance was in the hand of him that sat upon the horse," and that "the wheat and the barley were measured;" consequently the smallest coin of all was taken as the standard of the estimation of the price; and as there was no longer any understanding of the Word in respect to good and in respect to truth, a "denarius" in the spiritual sense here signifies as of no account.
Revelation 6:6; The Apocalypse Explained 364, 372)
 It is said, "a measure of wheat and three measures of barley," because "one" is predicated of good, and "three" of truths; and "one," when predicated of good, signifies what is perfect, thus also what is genuine; and "three," when predicated of truths, signifies what is full, thus also what is genuine; consequently "a measure of wheat and three measures of barley" signify the genuine good and the genuine truth of the church. "Wheat" signifies good, and "barley" its truth, because all things belonging to the field signify the things that belong to the church; and things belonging to the field, as crops of various kinds, serve for food; and things for food and for the nourishment of the body signify in the spiritual sense such things as nourish the soul or mind, all of which have relation to the good of love and the truth of faith; thus especially wheat and barley, because bread is made from them. (That foods of every kind signify spiritual food, thus the things of knowledge, intelligence, and wisdom, consequently the good and truth from which these are, see Arcana Coelestia 3114, 4459, 5147, 5293, 5340, 5342, 5410, 5426, 5576, 5582, 5588, 5655, 5 9 5915, 8408, 8562, 9003. Of "bread" in general, see the work on The New Jerusalem, n. 218; that "field" signifies the church, seeArcana Coelestia 2971, 3766, 9139.)
That "wheat" and "barley" have such a signification is from correspondence, as is evident from the things that appear in the spiritual world, where all appearances are correspondences. There plains, fields, crops of various kinds, and also bread appear; from this is the knowledge that they are correspondences, and consequently that they have significations according to correspondences.
 That "wheat" and "barley" signify the good and truth of the church, "wheat" its good, and "barley" its truth, can be seen also from the passages in the Word where they are mentioned, as from the following. In Jeremiah:
Jehovah, who hath dispersed Israel, will bring him together and will keep him as a shepherd doth his drove; for Jehovah hath ransomed Jacob, and hath redeemed him out of the hand of him that was stronger than he. Therefore shall they come and sing aloud in the height of Zion, and shall flow together unto the good of Jehovah, to the wheat, to the new wine, and to the oil, and to the sons of the flock, and of the herd; and their soul shall become as a watered garden (Jeremiah 31:10-12).
This treats of the establishment of a new church; "Israel" and "Jacob" signify that church, "Israel" the internal spiritual church, and "Jacob" the external; for every church is internal and external. Its establishment is described by "Jehovah will bring him together and will keep him as a shepherd doth his drove, for He hath ransomed Jacob, and hath redeemed him out of the hand of him that was stronger than he;" "to redeem" signifies to reform (see above, n. 328; "out of the hand of him that was stronger than he" signifies out of evil and falsity, which before had possession; the internal joy or joy of heart arising from celestial good and truths therefrom that such have, is signified by "therefore shall they come and sing aloud in the height of Zion, and shall flow together unto the good of Jehovah, to the wheat, to the new wine, and to the oil, and to the sons of the flock and of the herd," "to sing in the height of Zion" signifying internal celestial joy, or such as is in the Lord's celestial kingdom, "to sing aloud" meaning that joy (see above, n. 326, "height" what is internal, and "Zion" the celestial kingdom; "wheat" signifies the good of the natural man, "new wine" its truth; "oil" the good of the spiritual man, "the sons of the flock" spiritual truths, and "the sons of the herd" natural truths; because these are what are signified they are called "the good of Jehovah." That such have intelligence and wisdom from this source is signified by "their soul shall become as a watered garden," for "garden" in the Word signifies intelligence, and "watered" continual growth. "Wheat," "new wine," "oil," "the sons of a flock and of the herd," are plainly not here meant, for it is said, "Jehovah hath ransomed Jacob, and their soul shall become as a watered garden. "
The Apocalypse Explained 326, 328)
 In Joel:
The field was devastated, the ground mourned; for the corn was devastated, the new wine was dried up, the oil languished. The husbandmen were ashamed, the vine-dressers howled for the wheat and for the barley, because the harvest of the field hath perished (Joel 1:10, 11).
This is not said of a field and its barrenness, but of the church and its vastation; therefore "field," "ground," "corn," "new wine," and "oil" do not mean these things themselves, but "field" and "ground" mean the church, "field" the church in relation to the reception and bringing forth of truth and good, and "ground" the church in respect to the nation that is in it; "corn" means good of every kind in the external man; "new wine" the truth also therein; "oil" the good in the internal man; "the husbandmen that were ashamed," and "the vine-dressers that howled for the wheat and for the barley" signify those who are of the church, "wheat" and "barley" signifying the good and truth of the church; and "the harvest of the field that thus perished" signifying all worship from good and truth.
Joel 1:10-12, Joel 1:10-11)
 In Jeremiah:
Upon all the heights in the wilderness the devastators have come; because the sword of Jehovah devoureth from the end of the land even to the end of the land; no flesh hath peace. They have sown wheat and have reaped thorns (Jeremiah 12:12-13).
This, too is said of the church and its vastation; "the heights in the wilderness upon which the devastators have come" signify that every good of charity has perished through evils and falsities, "heights" in the Word signifying where there is the good of charity, and in an abstract sense that good itself, "wilderness" signifies where there is no good because no truth, and "devastators" signify the evils and falsities through which good and truth perish; "the sword of Jehovah devoureth from the end of the land even to the end of the land" signifies falsity destroying all things of the church, "the sword devouring" meaning falsity destroying, and "from the end of the land even to the end of the land" signifying all things of the church; "no flesh hath peace" signifies that there is no longer internal rest, because of the dominion of evil and falsity; "they have sown wheat and have reaped thorns" signifies that instead of the goods of truth there are the evils of falsity, "wheat" meaning the goods of truth, and "thorns" the evils of falsity.
 In the same:
Ishmael, who was of the seed of the kingdom, slew Gedaliah, whom the king of Babylon had appointed over the land, and all the Jews who were with him, and the Chaldeans, also the men from Shechem, from Shiloh, and from Samaria; but ten men were found among them who said unto Ishmael, Put us not to death, for we have things hid in the field, wheat and barley, and oil and honey. So he forbare, and put them not to death (Jeremiah 41:1-8).
These historical statements describe, in the internal sense, the damnation of those who profane holy things; for "Gedaliah, whom the king of Babylon appointed over the land," and "the Jews who were with him," and "the Chaldeans," and "the men from Shechem, from Shiloh, and from Samaria," mean those who profane, and in the abstract sense, profanations of every kind, "the king of Babylon" signifying the profanation of good and truth. Their damnation is signified by their being put to death, for "to be put to death" signifies to be slain spiritually (see n. 315; but "the ten men who said to Ishmael, put us not to death for we have things hid in the field, wheat and barley, and oil and honey," mean those who have not profaned the holy things of the church, because inwardly they have good and truth; for those who profane have nothing of good and truth inwardly, but only outwardly when they speak and preach, while those who do not profane have good and truth inwardly; this is meant by their saying that "they have things hid in the field, wheat, barley, oil, and honey," "wheat and barley" signifying the goods and truths of the external man, "oil" the good of the internal man, and "honey" the delight thereof; "ten men" signify all who are such, "ten" signifying all persons and all things; that "he forbare and put them not to death" signifies that they were not profane, thus not damned; "Ishmael" represents those who are in the genuine truths of the church, which is also signified by "the seed of the kingdom," of which he was. Such are the things involved in this history, the histories in the Word equally with the prophecies having an internal sense.
The Apocalypse Explained 315)
 In Moses:
Jehovah thy God bringeth thee into a good land, a land of brooks of water, of fountains and depths going forth in valley and mountain; a land of wheat and barley, and of vine, and fig-tree, and pomegranate; a land of oil olive and honey (Deuteronomy 8:7-8
In the sense of the letter this is a description of the land of Canaan, but in the spiritual sense the Lord's church is described, since this is meant in that sense by "the land of Canaan;" and all kinds of good and truth pertaining to the church are enumerated. The land is called "a land of brooks of water," because "brooks of water" signify the doctrinals of truth; "fountains and depths going forth in valley and mountain" signify interior and exterior truths from the Word, "fountains," interior truths therefrom, and "depths" exterior truths. The latter are said to go forth "out of the valley," because "a valley" signifies what is lower and exterior, where such truths are; and the former are said "to go forth out of the mountain," because a "mountain" signifies what is higher and interior, where truths of that kind are; "a land of wheat and barley, and of vine and fig-tree, and pomegranate," signifies the church in respect to good and truth of every kind, "wheat and barley" signifying good and truth from a celestial origin, "vine and fig-tree" good and truth from a spiritual origin, and "pomegranate" knowledges of good and truth; and "a land of oil olive and honey" signifies the church in respect to the good of love and its enjoyment. One who does not know the spiritual sense of the Word believes no otherwise than that this merely describes the land of Canaan; but in that case the Word would be merely natural, and not spiritual, and yet the Word everywhere is in its bosom spiritual, and it is spiritual when by these words are understood the spiritual things they signify, namely, goods and truths of every kind. (But what "brooks," "fountains," "depths," "valley," "mountain," "vine," "fig-tree," "pomegranate," "olive," "oil" and "honey" signify is shown in Arcana Coelestia, all of which would be too extended to cite here; but many of these things have been shown and will be shown in this explanation of Revelation, and these may be consulted in their places.)
 In Job:
If I have eaten the strength (of the earth) without silver, and have made the soul of its [masters] to expire, let the thorn come forth instead of wheat, and the wild vine instead of barley (Job 31:39-40).
"To eat the strength of the earth without silver" signifies to appropriate to oneself the good of the church without the truth, "earth" meaning the church, and "silver" truth; and "to make the soul of its [masters] to expire" signifies thus to empty out the spiritual life; "let the thorn come forth instead of wheat, and the wild vine instead of barley" signifies that evil will be held for good, and falsity for truth, "wheat" meaning good, "thorn" evil, "barley" truth, and "wild vine" falsity; for good can be acquired only by means of truths.
 In Isaiah:
I have heard a consummation and decision from the Lord Jehovih of Hosts upon the whole earth. Will the ploughman plough all day for sowing? will he open and harrow his ground? when he hath made plain the faces thereof doth he not scatter the fennel? and doth he not put in the measured wheat and the appointed barley and the appointed spelt? Thus doth he chasten him for judgment, his God doth instruct him (Isaiah 28:22, 24-26).
This in the spiritual sense describes the total destruction of the church with the Jewish and Israelitish nation, and teaches that it is of no avail to learn and know the Word except for the purpose of applying its good and truth to the use of life; from this source and no other is intelligence from the Lord. That the church with that nation was wholly destroyed is meant by "I have heard a consummation and decision from the Lord Jehovih of Hosts upon the whole earth," "consummation and decision" meaning the complete destruction, and "the whole earth," the whole church, that is, every thing of it; that it is of no avail to learn and know the Word is signified by "will the ploughman plough all day for sowing? Will he open and harrow his ground?" "to plough for sowing" meaning to learn, and "to harrow the ground" meaning to deposit in the memory. That the good and truth of the Word should be applied to the use of life is signified by "when he hath made plain the faces thereof, doth he not scatter the fennel, and put in the measured wheat and the appointed barley and the appointed spelt?" "When he hath made plain the faces of the ground he scattereth the fennel" signifies when there is preparation by the Word; "the measured wheat and the appointed barley and the appointed spelt" signify the application of good and truth to the use of life, "wheat" meaning good, "barley" truth, and "spelt" knowledges; and that from this source and no other is intelligence from the Lord is signified by "thus doth he chasten for judgment, his God doth instruct him," "judgment" signifying intelligence, and "his God doth instruct him" signifying that it is from the Lord.
 In Moses:
Jehovah made him ride upon the high places of the earth, and fed him with the increase of the fields; He made him to suck honey out of the cliff, and oil out of the flint of the rock; butter of the herd and milk of the flock, with the fat of lambs, and of rams, the sons of Bashan, and of he-goats, with the fat of the kidneys of wheat; and thou drinkest the blood of grapes, unmixed wine (Deuteronomy 32:13-14).
This is said of the Ancient Church established by the Lord after the flood, which was in intelligence and wisdom, because it was in the good of charity and in the faith therefrom. This intelligence and wisdom from the Lord is signified by "Jehovah made him to ride upon the high places of the earth, and fed him with the increase of the fields;" the celestial and spiritual goods that they received through truths are described by "He made him to suck honey out of the cliff, and oil out of the flint of the rock; butter of the herd and milk of the flock, with the fat of lambs, and of rams, the sons of Bashan, and of he-goats, with the fat of the kidneys of wheat; and thou drinkest the blood of grapes, unmixed wine," "wheat" signifying here in a general sense all good, and "blood of grapes" and "unmixed wine" all truth therefrom.
 In David:
O that My people would hearken unto Me, and Israel would walk in My ways! I would feed 1
them with the fat of wheat; and with honey out of the rock I would satisfy them (Psalms 81:13, 16).
"Fat of wheat," and "honey out of the rock with which they would be fed and satisfied" signify good of every kind from celestial good and enjoyment thereof from the Lord; for "fat" signifies celestial good, "wheat" good of every kind, "honey" the enjoyment of good, and "rock" the Lord. That those who live according to the Lord's commandments will possess these things is meant by "O that My people would hearken unto me, and Israel would walk in My ways!" "Ways" in the Word signifying truths and also commandments, and "to walk" signifying to live.
 In the same:
Celebrate Jehovah, O Jerusalem; praise thy God, O Zion. For He strengtheneth the bars of thy gates, He blesseth thy sons in the midst of thee. He maketh thy border peace, and satisfieth thee with the fat of wheat (Psalms 147:12-14).
"Jerusalem" and "Zion" mean the church; "Jerusalem" the church in respect to the truths of doctrine, and "Zion" the church in respect to the goods of love; "He maketh thy border peace" signifies all things of heaven and the church, for "border" signifies all these things; "He satisfieth thee with the fat of wheat" signifies with every good of love and with wisdom, "fat" signifying the good of love, and "wheat" all things from it, which are goods because they are from good; these things being signified, it is said, "the fat of wheat."
 In Hosea:
Jehovah said to the prophet, Go yet, love a woman beloved of her companion, and an adulteress, even as the love of Jehovah to the sons of Israel, who regard other gods, and love flagons of grapes. And I bought her to me for fifteen pieces of silver, and for a homer of barley, and a half homer of barley (Hosea 3:1-2).
This represented what the Jewish and Israelitish church was in respect to doctrine and worship, namely that by vain traditions it had falsified all things of the Word, though worshiping it as holy; "a woman beloved of her companion, and an adulteress whom the prophet should love" signifies such a church, "a woman" signifying the church, and "beloved of her companion and an adulteress" the falsification of truth and the adulteration of good; "even as the love of Jehovah to the sons of Israel, who regard other gods" signifies the falsities of doctrine and the evils of worship; these are signified by "regarding other gods;" "loving flagons of grapes" signifies the Word in the sense of the letter alone, for "wine" signifies the truths of doctrine from the Word, "grapes" its goods from which are truths, and "a flagon" signifies that which contains, thus the ultimate sense of the Word, which is the sense of the letter, and which they apply to their falsities and evils. "He bought her to him for fifteen pieces of silver" signifies for a small price, "fifteen" meaning very little; "a homer of barley" and "half a homer of barley" signifying so little of good and truths as to be scarcely any.
 In Matthew:
John said of Jesus, He shall baptize you with the Holy Spirit and with fire; whose fan is in His hand, and He will thoroughly purge His floor; and will gather the wheat into the garner; but the chaff He will burn with unquenchable fire (Matthew 3:11-12).
"To baptize with the Holy Spirit and with fire" signifies to reform the church and to regenerate the man of the church by means of Divine truth and Divine good; "to baptize" signifying to reform and to regenerate, "the Holy Spirit" Divine truth proceeding from the Lord, and "fire" the Divine good of His Divine love. "The wheat that He will gather into the garner" signifies good of every kind that is of heavenly origin, which He is to preserve to eternity, thus those who are in good; and "the chaff that He will burn with unquenchable fire" signifies falsity of every kind that is of infernal origin, which He is to destroy, thus those who are in falsity; and because "wheat," "garner," and "chaff" are mentioned, "fan" and "floor" are also mentioned, "fan" signifying separation, and "floor" signifying where separation is effected.
 In the same:
Jesus said, The kingdom of the heavens is like unto a man that sowed good seed in his field; but while men slept, his enemy came and sowed tares, and went away. But when the blade sprang up, and brought forth fruit, then appeared the tares also. And the servants of the householder coming said unto him, Lord, didst thou not sow good seed in thy field? whence then hath it tares? Then he said unto them, A man, an enemy hath done this. But the servants said, wilt thou then that we going out gather them up? But he said, Nay; lest haply while ye gather up the tares, ye root up at the same time the wheat with them. Let both grow together until the harvest; and in the season of harvest I will say to the reapers, Gather ye first the tares and bind them in bundles to burn them, but gather the wheat into my barn (Matthew 13:24-30).
What these words involve is very clear from the spiritual sense, for the particulars here are correspondences. For when the Lord was in the world, He spoke by pure correspondences, because He spoke from the Divine. Here the Last Judgment is treated of when there must be a separation of the good from the evil, and the good are to come into heaven, and the evil into hell. "The good seed in the field that the man sowed" signifies the truths of the church that are from good, "field" signifying the church where these are, and "sowing" signifying influx and reception, thus also instruction; "the man who sowed" means the Lord through the Word, in which are all the truths of the church; "while men slept his enemy came and sowed tares, and went away," signifies that with natural men the falsities of evil flow in from hell, and are received; for "to sleep" signifies to live a natural life separated from the spiritual life (see above 187), and "enemy" signifies hell, and "tares" signify the evils of falsity. What the remainder to the end signifies, can be seen from what is presented in the small work on The Last Judgment 70); for it involves arcana that are there explained; here it need only be said that "wheat" signifies the good of truth, and therefore those who are in good through truths; and that "tares" signify the evil of falsity, and therefore those who are in evil through falsities. That these things are said of the Last Judgment is evident from what follows in the same chapter, where it is said:
He that soweth the good seed is the Son of man; the field is the world; the seed are the sons of the kingdom; the tares are the sons of the evil one; the enemy is the devil; the harvest is the consummation of the age (Matthew 13:37-39).
"The consummation of the age" is the last time of the church when judgment takes place. From these passages quoted from the Word it can be seen that "wheat" signifies the good of the church in general, and "barley" its truth.
1. In AC 6377 we read "He would feed."
Joel 1:10-12; Matthew 13:38-39; The Apocalypse Explained 187)