The Bible

 

Genesis 1

English: King James Version         

Study the Inner Meaning

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1 In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth.

2 And the earth was without form, and void; and darkness was upon the face of the deep. And the Spirit of God moved upon the face of the waters.

3 And God said, Let there be light: and there was light.

4 And God saw the light, that it was good: and God divided the light from the darkness.

5 And God called the light Day, and the darkness he called Night. And the evening and the morning were the first day.

6 And God said, Let there be a firmament in the midst of the waters, and let it divide the waters from the waters.

7 And God made the firmament, and divided the waters which were under the firmament from the waters which were above the firmament: and it was so.

8 And God called the firmament Heaven. And the evening and the morning were the second day.

9 And God said, Let the waters under the heaven be gathered together unto one place, and let the dry land appear: and it was so.

10 And God called the dry land Earth; and the gathering together of the waters called he Seas: and God saw that it was good.

11 And God said, Let the earth bring forth grass, the herb yielding seed, and the fruit tree yielding fruit after his kind, whose seed is in itself, upon the earth: and it was so.

12 And the earth brought forth grass, and herb yielding seed after his kind, and the tree yielding fruit, whose seed was in itself, after his kind: and God saw that it was good.

13 And the evening and the morning were the third day.

14 And God said, Let there be lights in the firmament of the heaven to divide the day from the night; and let them be for signs, and for seasons, and for days, and years:

15 And let them be for lights in the firmament of the heaven to give light upon the earth: and it was so.

16 And God made two great lights; the greater light to rule the day, and the lesser light to rule the night: he made the stars also.

17 And God set them in the firmament of the heaven to give light upon the earth,

18 And to rule over the day and over the night, and to divide the light from the darkness: and God saw that it was good.

19 And the evening and the morning were the fourth day.

20 And God said, Let the waters bring forth abundantly the moving creature that hath life, and fowl that may fly above the earth in the open firmament of heaven.

21 And God created great whales, and every living creature that moveth, which the waters brought forth abundantly, after their kind, and every winged fowl after his kind: and God saw that it was good.

22 And God blessed them, saying, Be fruitful, and multiply, and fill the waters in the seas, and let fowl multiply in the earth.

23 And the evening and the morning were the fifth day.

24 And God said, Let the earth bring forth the living creature after his kind, cattle, and creeping thing, and beast of the earth after his kind: and it was so.

25 And God made the beast of the earth after his kind, and cattle after their kind, and every thing that creepeth upon the earth after his kind: and God saw that it was good.

26 And God said, Let us make man in our image, after our likeness: and let them have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over the cattle, and over all the earth, and over every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth.

27 So God created man in his own image, in the image of God created he him; male and female created he them.

28 And God blessed them, and God said unto them, Be fruitful, and multiply, and replenish the earth, and subdue it: and have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over every living thing that moveth upon the earth.

29 And God said, Behold, I have given you every herb bearing seed, which is upon the face of all the earth, and every tree, in the which is the fruit of a tree yielding seed; to you it shall be for meat.

30 And to every beast of the earth, and to every fowl of the air, and to every thing that creepeth upon the earth, wherein there is life, I have given every green herb for meat: and it was so.

31 And God saw every thing that he had made, and, behold, it was very good. And the evening and the morning were the sixth day.

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   Study the Inner Meaning
From Swedenborg's Works

Main explanations:

Arcana Coelestia 4, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, ...

Apocalypse Explained 257

The Inner Meaning of the Prophets and Psalms 402


Other references to this chapter:

Arcana Coelestia 246, 300, 476, 478, 480, 670, 709, ...

Apocalypse Revealed 200, 414

Conjugial Love 132, 156

Divine Love and Wisdom 11, 18, 287, 358

Divine Providence 123, 328

Sacred Scripture 14, 103

Heaven and Hell 137

The Last Judgment 20

True Christian Religion 20, 34, 46, 48, 364, 490


References from Swedenborg's unpublished works:

Apocalypse Explained 229, 294, 401, 513, 526, 527, 555, ...

Canons of the New Church 45

Charity 91

Coronis (An Appendix to True Christian Religion) 23, 25, 28

De Verbo (The Word) 14

Spiritual Experiences 1973, 1974, 5605, 6110

Marriage 20, 34, 46, 48, 71

Other New Christian Commentary

  Stories and their meanings:




Hop to Similar Bible Verses

Genesis 2:3, 7, 16, 19, 5:1, 2, 6:1, 21, 8:17, 9:1, 2, 3, 6, 11:7

Exodus 20:11

Deuteronomy 4:19, 32:4

2 Kings 19:15

2 Chronicles 2:11

Nehemiah 9:6

Job 12:7, 9, 26:8, 38:8

Psalms 8:4, 7, 19:2, 24:2, 33:6, 7, 9, 74:16, 95:5, 104:6, 14, 19, 25, 115:15, 16, 121:2, 136:5, 7, 9, 148:4, 7

Proverbs 8:29

Ecclesiastes 3:11

Isaiah 40:26, 45:7, 61:11

Jeremiah 4:23, 10:12, 31:35

Jonah 1:9

Zechariah 12:1

Matthew 19:4

Mark 4:28, 10:6

Luke 3:38

Acts of the Apostles 4:24, 17:29

1 Corinthians 11:7, 15:38

2 Corinthians 4:6, 6:14

Colossians 3:10

1 Timothy 4:4

Hebrews 6:8, 11:3

James 3:9

2 Peter 5, 6

Revelation 4:11

Word/Phrase Explanations

beginning
In the Word, "beginning" doesn't just mean the beginning of something in time. In the inner sense, it means the initial phase of a spiritual...

God
The Lord is love itself, expressed in the form of wisdom itself. Love, then, is His essence, His inmost. Wisdom - the loving understanding of...

created
The creation of heaven and earth in the first chapter of Genesis means the new creation of the celestial church called 'Man'.

heaven
"Heaven" and "heavens" are used many times in the Bible, with a couple of variations of meaning. Sometimes it is relatively literal, including times when...

Earth
"Earth" in the Bible can mean a person or a group of like-minded people as in a church. But it refers specifically to the external...

form
A person who has yet to be regenerated is called 'a void and an empty earth', and also 'ground where no good or truth has...

Void
A 'void', or 'Vacuity' denotes a person's state before regeneration. From Arcana Coelestia 7: "The first state is the state which precedes, both the state...

darkness
"Darkness" is a state without light. "Light" is truth from the Lord, so "darkness" is a state where truth is lacking.

upon
'Upon' or 'over' signifies being within.

Face of the deep
The face of the deep (Gen. 1:2) signifies the lust of the unregenerate man, and the falsities thence originating.

face
“The eyes are the windows of the soul.” That’s a sentiment with roots somewhere in murky antiquity, but one that has become hopelessly cliché because...

spirit
There are two aspects to the life of each person. We might call them "heart" and "mind," a part of us that wants and feels...

Spirit of God
'The spirit of God,' as in Genesis 1:2, signifies the divine mercy of the Lord. 'The spirit of God' is His emanation. 'The spirit of...

Face of the waters
The face of the water (Gen. 1:2) signifies the knowledges of good and truth.

Waters
'Waters,' 'rivers,' and 'depths,' as in Psalm 78:15-16, signify truths from the Lord.

said
As with many common verbs, the meaning of “to say” in the Bible is highly dependent on context. Who is speaking? Who is hearing? What...

light
Nov. 4, 1879: Thomas Edison filed a patent for a long-burning light bulb. Nov. 5, 1879: The light bulb was universally accepted as the symbol...

saw
The symbolic meaning of "seeing" is "understanding," which is obvious enough that it has become part of common language (think about it; you might see...

good
It seems rather circular to say that “good” in the Bible represents good, but in a general sense it’s true! The case is this: The...

called
To call someone or summon someone in the Bible represents a desire for conjunction between higher and lower states of life. For instance, imagine someone...

night
The sun in the Bible represents the Lord, with its heat representing His love and its light representing His wisdom. “Daytime,” then, represents a state...

evening
Since the light and warmth of the sun represent the Lord’s wisdom and love, it makes sense that evening, a time when the light and...

morning
Morning comes with the rising of the sun, and the sun – which gives life to the earth with its warmth and light – represents...

the first
'Resurrection' signifies salvation and eternal life. 'The first,' mentioned in Revelation 20:5, 6, does not mean a first resurrection, but the essence and primary part...

Firmament
The firmament, as in Genesis 1, signifies the internal man. The firmament of heaven is mutual love.

midst
The "midst" of something in the Bible represents the thing that is most central and most important to the spiritual state being described, the motivation...

under
Generally speaking things that are seen as lower physically in the Bible represent things that are lower or more external spiritually. In some cases this...

second
The number "two" has two different meanings in the Bible. In most cases "two" indicates a joining together or unification. This is easy to see...

Gathered together
'The waters were gathered together' signifies falsities collected.

one
A company might have executives setting policy and strategy, engineers designing products, line workers building them, managers handling personnel and others handling various functions. They...

place
'A room' or 'place' denotes state.

Land
Land' in the Word, denotes the church, for the things which signify the church also signify the things relating to the church, for these constitute...

Grass
Grass signifies the scientific principle. Just as green grass serves animals for support, scientific truth serves men for spiritual nourishment. ‘Grass’ is scientific truth, and...

Herb
Every herb in the Word signifies some species of scientifics. 'Herb bearing seed,' as mentioned in Genesis 1:29, signifies every truth which regards use. 'Green...

Seed
'A seed' signifies love, and everyone who has love, as in Genesis 12:7. 8:15, 16. 'A seed' signifies faith grounded in charity. 'A seed' signifies...

fruit
In Zechariah 8:12, 'the vine shall give her fruit, and the ground her increase,' signifies that the spiritual affection of truth produces the good of...

tree
In general, plants in the Bible represent facts, thoughts and ideas – intellectual things. This makes sense: Plants are rooted in place, but can grow...

after
According to Swedenborg, time and space don’t exist in spiritual reality; they are purely natural things that exist only on the physical plane. This means...

Third
'Three' denotes fullness, and 'a third,' not full.

Third day
'The third day' signifies the end of a state of preparation for reception, and so an end of purification, as in Exodus 19:16. 'The third...

signs
The Bible often speaks of signs and miracles as things that convinced people of the Lord's leading. Swedenborg divides the two, identifying "signs" as things...

days
"Day" describes a state in which we are turned toward the Lord, and are receiving light (which is truth) and heat (which is a desire...

give
Like other common verbs, the meaning of "give" in the Bible is affected by context: who is giving what to whom? In general, though, giving...

Great lights
Great lights, as in luminaries, signify love and faith, and are called in Genesis 1:14-17, the sun, moon, and stars.

Stars
'Stars' signify the knowledge of truth and good. 'Stars' are frequently mentioned in the Word, and always signify goods and truths, but in an opposite...

fourth
'The fourth watch' signifies the first state of the church at break of day, when good begins to act by truth.

life
In John 14:6, 'the way is doctrine,' 'the truth' is every thing pertaining to doctrine, and 'the life' is the essential good which is the...

Fowl
Fowl signify spiritual truth; a bird, natural truth; and a winged thing, sensual truth. Fowl signify intellectual things. Fowl signify thoughts, and all that creeps...

Fly
To fly, when spoken of the Lord, signifies to foresee and to provide. To fly, when predicated of the Lord, also signifies omnipresence. To fly...

Open
To open,' as in Revelation 9, signifies communication and conjunction.

blessed
The Lord is perfect love expressed as perfect wisdom. He created us so that He could love us, could give us love and wisdom of...

Fruitful
To be fruitful is predicated of goodnesses, and to be multiplied, of truths.

multiply
'Spreading themselves on the earth,' as in Genesis 8:17, signifies the internal self operating on the external.

fill
There are two ways something can be filled: It can be filled with something bad against the wishes of its owner, or it can be...

bring
As with common verbs in general, the meaning of “bring” is highly dependent on context, but in general it represents an introduction to a new...

Cattle
Animals in the Bible generally refer to spiritual activity, the things we actually do on a spiritual level. "Cattle," as typically used in the Bible,...

beast
"Beasts" represent the affection for doing good things, a true desire to do them from the heart. In the negative sense, "beasts" stand for the...

Us
Because people are governed by angels and spirits, in Genesis 1:26 it says 'let us make man into our image.' But because the Lord alone...

Make
'To make,' as in Hosea 8:11, refers to good. In the opposite sense it refers to evil. To make heaven, and earth, and the sea,...

Image
'An image' signifies falsities from self-derived intelligence.

Fish
Fish signify sensual affections which are the ultimate affections of the natural man. Also, those who are in common truths, which are also ultimates of...

sea
'The sea and the waves roaring' means heresy and controversies in the church and individual.

own
In many cases, the spiritual meaning of "own," both as a verb and as an adjective, is relatively literal. When people are described as the...

male
The relationship between men and women is deep and nuanced, and one entire book of the Writings – Conjugial Love or Love in Marriage –...

female
Female signifies good.

meat
'Provision' or 'meat,' as in Genesis 42:25 and Psalm 78:25, signifies support from truth and good.

green
The color green is almost exclusively used in connection with plants in the Bible (the exceptions include two stomach-turning references to moldy plagues in Leviticus),...

sixth
Like most numbers in the Bible, "six" can have various meanings depending on context, but has a couple that are primary. When used in relation...

Resources for parents and teachers

The items listed here are provided courtesy of our friends at the General Church of the New Jerusalem. You can search/browse their whole library at the New Church Vineyard website.


 Animals and Plants in Heaven
Worship Talk | Ages 7 - 14

 Celebrating the Seven Days of Creation
Offers a wide array of ideas for play time, art projects, field trips, and more.
Activity | Ages up to 10

 Correspondences of Light
Illustrations of three stories in the Word that talk about light. (Quotations are the King James translation.)
Coloring Page | Ages 7 - 14

 Creation Chain
Make a paper chain with the names (or pictures) of the people in your family and other things that the Lord has made. Or make a paper chain that illustrates several things in creation that depend on one another. 
Project | Ages 4 - 14

 Creation Diorama
A great family project to build and display in your home.
Project | Ages 4 - 10

 Creation Mobile
Assemble this lovely mobile to remind you of all the Lord's precious gifts to us.
Project | Ages 4 - 14

 Creation Poem with Hand Motions
A lovely poem about creation with hand motions.
Activity | Ages up to 10

 Creation | Seas to Trees Pop-up
Color cut-and-fold pop-up project showing dry land rising out of the water and then growing a tree illustrating Genesis 1:9-13. Sample activity from Creation: reflection of God, Level C, ages 11-14.
Sunday School Lesson | Ages 11 - 14

 Creation Sequencing Cards
Children can color and cut out these cards, then practice putting them in order from day 1-7.
Activity | Ages 4 - 10

 Creation Story (circle book project)
Sunday School Lesson | Ages 9 - 12

 Creation | The First Day - Level A
Complete lesson with activity choices: light and darkness game and song, separate light and darkness collage, scripted story discussion, coloring page, and a memory verse. Sample lesson from Creation: reflection of God, Level A, ages 3-6.
Sunday School Lesson | Ages 3 - 6

 Creation | The First Day - Level B
Complete lesson with activity choices: light and darkness experiment with accompanying video, let there be light folding paper project, scripted story discussion, coloring page, and a memory verse. Sample lesson from Creation: reflection of God, Level B, ages 7-10.
Sunday School Lesson | Ages 7 - 10

 Creation | The First Day - Level C
Complete lesson with activity choices: living in the dark--group blindfold games, video and discussion on the bible, creation and a can of peaches, scripted story discussion, and an illustrated quotation card. Sample Lesson from Creation: reflection of God, Level C.
Sunday School Lesson | Ages 11 - 14

 Family Worship: The Story of Creation
Ideas for reading and discussing the story of creation in Genesis 1. Includes suggestions for extending the experience such as going for a nature walk.
Religion Lesson | Ages 3 - 15

 God Said What? The Creation Story
Spiritual tasks offer a reflection on a Biblical story and suggest a task for spiritual growth.
Activity | Ages over 18

 Memory Verse: Giving Thanks for Creation
Activity | Ages 4 - 14

 Memory Verse: Life Is Eternal
Activity | Ages 4 - 14

 Overview of Creation Reflection of God Levels A, B, C for ages 3-14
Overview of Creation: reflection of God, Levels A, B, C for ages 3-14.
Sunday School Lesson | Ages 3 - 14

 Prophecies of the Advent
Prophecies of Jesus' advent on earth often use the image of new light dawning in darkness to describe the spiritual impact His birth would have on the world.
Sunday School Lesson | Ages 11 - 17

 Quotes: Giving Thanks for Creation
Teaching Support | Ages over 15

 Stars
Sunday School Lesson | Ages 9 - 12

 Summary of Creation and Thankfulness
This lesson discusses a story from the Word and suggests projects and activities for young children.
Sunday School Lesson | Ages 4 - 6

 Sun and the Fruit of Creation
Coloring Page | Ages 7 - 14

 Thankfulness
A Thanksgiving "wreath" to color and display.
Project | Ages 4 - 14

 Thanking the Lord for Creation
How can your words and actions show the Lord that you appreciate His creation?
Activity | Ages over 15

 The Creation
Worship Talk | Ages 7 - 14

 The Creation: A General View
A New Church Bible story explanation for teaching Sunday school. Includes lesson materials for Primary (3-8 years), Junior (9-11 years), Intermediate (12-14 years), Senior (15-17 years) and Adults.
Teaching Support | Ages over 3

 The Creation: The Fifth and Sixth Days
A New Church Bible story explanation for teaching Sunday school. Includes lesson materials for Primary (3-8 years), Junior (9-11 years), Intermediate (12-14 years), Senior (15-17 years) and Adults.
Teaching Support | Ages over 3

 The Creation: The First Four Days
A New Church Bible story explanation for teaching Sunday school. Includes lesson materials for Primary (3-8 years), Junior (9-11 years), Intermediate (12-14 years), Senior (15-17 years) and Adults.
Teaching Support | Ages over 3

 The Days of Creation Collage Book or Mural
Ideas from an art teacher for making a creation book or mural.
Project | Ages 4 - 10

 The Fifth Day of Creation
Lesson outline provides teaching ideas with questions for discussion, projects, and activities.
Sunday School Lesson | Ages 7 - 10

 The Fifth Day of Creation
A lesson for younger children with discussion ideas and a project.
Sunday School Lesson | Ages 4 - 6

 The First Day of Creation
Lesson outline provides teaching ideas with questions for discussion, projects, and activities.
Sunday School Lesson | Ages 7 - 10

 The First Day of Creation
A lesson for younger children with discussion ideas and a project.
Sunday School Lesson | Ages 4 - 6

 The Fourth Day of Creation
Lesson outline provides teaching ideas with questions for discussion, projects, and activities.
Sunday School Lesson | Ages 7 - 10

 The Fourth Day of Creation
A lesson for younger children with discussion ideas and a project.
Sunday School Lesson | Ages 4 - 6

 The Greatest Gift
Article | Ages 15 - 17

 The Meaning of the Tree of Life
Worship Talk | Ages over 18

 The Purpose of Creation
Birth brings a person into the natural world, but God's ultimate purpose is that a person be born again into heavenly life, the life of the spirit.
Sunday School Lesson | Ages 11 - 17

 The Second Day of Creation
Lesson outline provides teaching ideas with questions for discussion, projects, and activities.
Sunday School Lesson | Ages 7 - 10

 The Second Day of Creation
A lesson for younger children with discussion ideas and a project.
Sunday School Lesson | Ages 4 - 6

 The Seven Days of Creation
An illustrated story of the seven days of creation.
Story | Ages 3 - 7

 The Sixth Day of Creation
Lesson outline provides teaching ideas with questions for discussion, projects, and activities.
Sunday School Lesson | Ages 7 - 10

 The Sixth Day of Creation
A lesson for younger children with discussion ideas and a project.
Sunday School Lesson | Ages 4 - 6

 The Story of Creation
Family lessons provide a worship talk and a variety of activities for children and teens..
Religion Lesson | Ages 4 - 17

 The Story of Creation: Family Worship Ideas
Detailed notes on the seven days of creation.
Article | Ages over 18

 The Third Day of Creation
Lesson outline provides teaching ideas with questions for discussion, projects, and activities.
Sunday School Lesson | Ages 7 - 10

 The Third Day of Creation
A lesson for younger children with discussion ideas and a project.
Sunday School Lesson | Ages 4 - 6

 The Universe
Coloring Page | Ages 7 - 14

 The Word Made Flesh
Like Genesis, the Gospel of John begins with creation. While Genesis describes the creation of natural light, John describes a second creation into spiritual light.
Sunday School Lesson | Ages 11 - 17

 Two Great Lights
Coloring Page | Ages 7 - 14

 Using the Lord’s Creation
Worship Talk | Ages over 18

 Where Did Everything Come From?
Grandpa explains to Annika and Peter where everything came from.
Story | Ages 4 - 6

 Why Are We Here?
Lesson and activities to explore why we were created - what God intends for us.
Religion Lesson | Ages over 15

From Swedenborg's Works

 

Arcana Coelestia #9340

Arcana Coelestia (Elliott translation)      

Study this Passage

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9340. 'And I will set your boundary from the Sea Suph even to the Sea of the Philistines' means the full range of truths from factual ones to interior truths of faith. This is clear from the meaning of 'setting the boundary from one place to another', when it refers to spiritual truths, as the full range; from the meaning of 'the Sea Suph' as truths on the levels of the senses and of factual knowledge, which are the lowest levels of the human mind (the Sea Suph was the final boundary of the land of Egypt, and 'Egypt' means factual knowledge in both senses, that is, true factual knowledge and false, 1164, 1165, 1186, 1462, 2588, 4749, 4964, 4966, 5700, 6004, 6015, 6125, 6651, 6679, 6683, 6692, 6750, 7779 (end), 7926, 8146, 8148; in this instance true factual knowledge is meant since the subject is the full range of spiritual matters of faith among the children of Israel, who represented the spiritual Church, 4286, 4598, 6426, 6637, 6862, 6868, 7035, 7062, 7198, 7201, 7215, 7223, 8805); and from the meaning of 'the Sea of the Philistines' as interior truths of faith. The reason why these truths are meant by 'the Sea of the Philistines' is that the sea where Tyre and Sidon lay was the boundary of the land of Philistia, and 'Tyre and Sidon' means cognitions or knowledge of truth and good, 1201, while 'the land of Philistia' means the knowledge of interior matters of faith, 1197, 2504, 2726, 3463.

(References: Arcana Coelestia 1164-1165)


[2] Since 'the land of Canaan' represented the Lord's kingdom, which is heaven and the Church, all places in the land therefore meant such things as form part of the Lord's kingdom, or heaven and the Church, which things are called celestial and spiritual, and are connected with the good of love to the Lord and the truths of faith in Him. For this reason the seas and rivers which were boundaries meant the final limits there, and therefore 'from sea to sea' or 'from river to river' meant the full range of those things, as may be seen in 1585, 1866, 4116, 4240, 6516. From all this it becomes clear that 'the boundary from the Sea Suph even to the Sea of the Philistines' means the range of spiritual things, which are matters of truth, from external ones to internal, thus truths ranging from factual ones to interior truths of faith. But the range of celestial things, which are aspects of the good of love, is described next by the words 'from the wilderness even to the River'. The fact that places belonging to the land of Canaan, including seas and rivers, mean such things in the Word, has been shown in explanations everywhere.

[3] What the full range of truths from factual ones to interior truths of faith is must be stated briefly. Truths which exist in the external man are called factual ones, but truths which exist in the internal man are called interior truths of faith. Factual truths reside in a person's memory, and when they are brought out from there they pass into the person's immediate awareness. But interior truths of faith are truths of life itself which are inscribed on the internal man, but few of which show up in the memory. These however are matters which will in the Lord's Divine mercy be spoken of more fully elsewhere. Factual truths and interior truths of faith were meant in Genesis 1:6-7 by the waters under the expanse and the waters above the expanse, 24; for the first chapter of Genesis deals in the internal sense with the new creation or the regeneration of a member of the celestial Church.

(References: Genesis 1:1)


[4] The reason why 'Philistia', which also bordered on the land of Canaan as far as Tyre and Sidon, meant the interior truths of faith was that there also the representative Ancient Church had existed, as is evident from the remnants of Divine worship among them which are alluded to in historical sections and prophetical parts of the Word in which the Philistines and the land of Philistia are the subject, such as - in the prophetical parts - Jeremiah 25:20; Jeremiah 47:1-end; Jeremiah 47:Ezekiel 16:27, 57; 25:15-16; Amos 1:8; Zephaniah 2:5; Zechariah 9:6; Psalms 56:1; 1 60:8; 83:7; 108:9. The situation with the Philistines was the same as it was with all the nations in the land of Canaan, in that they represented the Church's forms of good and its truths, and also evils and falsities. When the representative Ancient Church existed among them they represented celestial things which were aspects of good and spiritual things which were matters of truth. But when they fell away from true representative worship they began to represent devilish things which were aspects of evil and hellish things which were matters of falsity. This is the reason why 'Philistia', like all the other nations belonging to the land of Canaan in the Word, means either forms of good and truths, or else evils and falsities.

[5] The fact that interior truths of faith are meant by 'the Philistines' is clear in David,

Glorious things are to be spoken in you, O city of God. I will mention Rahab and Babel among those who know Me; also Philistia and Tyre, with Ethiopia. The latter was born here. 2 Psalms 87:3-4.

'The city of God' means teachings presenting the truth of faith that are drawn from the Word, 402, 2268, 2449, 2712, 2943, 3216, 4492, 4493, 5297; 'Tyre' means cognitions or knowledge of truth and good, 1201, and so does 'Ethiopia', 116, 117. From this it is evident that 'Philistia' means knowledge of the truths of faith.

(References: Arcana Coelestia 4492-4493)


[6] In Amos,

Are you not like the children of the Ethiopians to Me, O children of Israel? Did I not cause Israel to come up from the land of Egypt, and the Philistines from Caphtor, and the Syrians from Kir? Amos 9:7.

This refers to the corruption and destruction of the Church after it had been established. 'The children of the Ethiopians' here are those in possession of cognitions of goodness and truth, which they use to substantiate evils and falsities, 1163, 1164. 'The children of Israel from the land of Egypt' are those who had been brought to spiritual truths and forms of good by means of factual truths, 'the children of Israel' being people in possession of spiritual truths and forms of good, thus in the abstract sense spiritual truths and forms of good, see 5414, 5801, 5803, 5806, 5812, 5817, 5819, 5826, 5833, 5879, 5951, 7957, 8234, and 'the land of Egypt' being factual truth, as shown above. The same is meant by 'the Philistines from Caphtor' and by 'the Syrians from Kir', to whom they are therefore likened. 'The Philistines from Caphtor' are people who had been brought to interior truths by means of exterior ones, but who perverted them and used them to substantiate falsities and evils, 1197, 1198, 3412, 3413, 3762, 8093, 8096, 8099, 8313, whereas 'the Syrians from Kir' are those who were in possession of cognitions of goodness and truth, which they likewise perverted, 1232, 1234, 3051, 3249, 3664, 3680, 4112.

(References: Arcana Coelestia 1163-1164, Arcana Coelestia 1197-1198, 3412-3413)


[7] In Jeremiah,

... because of the day that is coming to lay waste all the Philistines, to cut off from Tyre and Sidon every helper that is left, for Jehovah is laying waste the Philistines, the remnants of the island of Caphtor. Jeremiah 47:4.

The subject in Jeremiah 47 is the laying waste of the Church's truths of faith, interior truths of faith being meant by 'the Philistines' and exterior truths by 'the remnants of the island of Caphtor'.

[8] In Joel,

What have you to do with Me, O Tyre and Sidon, and all the borders of Philistia? Swiftly I will return your recompense upon your own head, inasmuch as you have taken My silver and My gold, and My good and desirable treasures you have carried into your temples. Joel 3:4-5.

'All the borders of Philistia' stands for all the interior and the exterior truths of faith; 'carrying silver and gold, and good and desirable treasures into their temples' stands for perverting truths and forms of good, and profaning them by putting them together with evils and falsities. For the meaning of 'silver and gold' as truths and forms of good, see 1551, 2954, 5658, 6112, 6914, 6917, 8932.

(References: Joel 3:4, 3:6)


[9] In Obadiah,

At that time those in the south will be the heirs of the mountain of Esau, and of the plain of the Philistines, and they will become the heirs of the field of Ephraim; but Benjamin [will be the heir] of Gilead. Obad. verse 19.

This refers to the establishment of the Church; but spiritual things are implied by the names. 'Those in the south' are people who dwell in the light of truth, 1458, 3195, 3708, 5672, 5962; 'the mountain of Esau' is the good of love, 3300, 3322, 3494, 3504, 3576; 'the plain of the Philistines' is the truth of faith, 'the plain' being also that which constitutes matters of doctrine about faith, 2418; 'Ephraim' is the Church's power of understanding, 3969, 5354, 6222, 6234, 6238, 6267; 'Benjamin' is the Church's spiritual-celestial truth, 3969, 4592, 5686, 5689, 6440; and 'Gilead' is the corresponding exterior good, 4117, 4124, 4747.

(References: Obadiah 1:19)


[10] In Isaiah,

He will gather the outcasts of Israel, and will assemble the dispersed of Judah from the four corners of the earth. They will fly down onto the shoulder of the Philistines towards the sea, together they will plunder the sons of the east. Isaiah 11:12, 14.

Here 'Israel' and 'Judah' are not used to mean Israel and Judah; rather, 'Israel' means those who are governed by the good of faith, and 'Judah' those who are governed by the good of love. 'Flying down onto the shoulder of the Philistines' stands for receiving and taking into possession interior truths of faith; and 'plundering the sons of the east' stands for receiving and taking into possession interior forms of the good of faith, for 'the sons of the east' are people who are governed by forms of the good of faith and with whom cognitions or knowledge of good exists, 3249. 3762. For the meaning of 'plundering' as receiving and taking into possession, see what has been shown in 6914, 6917, regarding the plundering of the Egyptians by the children of Israel.

[11] Since 'the land of Philistia' meant knowledge of the interior truths of faith, and since Abraham and Isaac represented the Lord, and the sojourning of these two in places meant instruction received by the Lord in the truths and forms of the good of faith and love, which belong to God's wisdom, therefore - to provide a figurative representation of this - Abraham was commanded to sojourn in Philistia, Genesis 20:1-end, and so too was Isaac, Genesis 26:1-24. Therefore also Abimelech king of the Philistines made a covenant with Abraham, Genesis 21:22-end, and also with Isaac, Genesis 26:26-end. Regarding all this, see the explanations to those chapters.

-----
Footnotes:

1. i.e. in the superscription or heading of this Psalm

2. i.e. in the city of God, see 1164:7.

-----

(References: Exodus 23:31; Genesis 20, 21:22-24, 21:22-34, 26:26-35)

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Arcana Coelestia 9341, 9346, 9348, 9384, 9390, 9404, 9458, 9525, 9755, 9779, 9789, 9808, 9818, 9842, 10038, 10095, 10144, 10148, 10153, 10156, 10212, 10216, 10229, 10231, 10248, 10280, 10283, 10284, 10355, 10370, 10372, 10400, 10416, 10442, 10732

The White Horse 8


References from Swedenborg's unpublished works:

Apocalypse Explained 140, 195, 235, 240, 278, 340, 386, 388, 573, 946

Other New Christian Commentary

Thanks to the Swedenborg Society for the permission to use this translation.

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Apocalypse Explained #573

Apocalypse Explained (Tansley translation)      

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573. And the number of the armies of the horsemen was two myriads of myriads.- That this signifies innumerable falsities of evil, from which and on behalf of which there are reasonings, which conspire against the truths of good, is evident from the signification of armies, as denoting the falsities of evil, of which in what follows; and from the signification of horsemen, as denoting reasonings thence; for horses, in the Word, signify the understanding of truth, and in the opposite sense, the understanding perverted and destroyed, as may be seen above (n. 355, 364, 372, 373, 381, 382); horsemen, therefore, in this sense, signify reasonings from falsities, because these are of the understanding perverted and destroyed, for truths form the understanding, but falsities destroy it; and from the signification of two myriads of myriads, as denoting that they are innumerable and conspire against the truths of good; that the term myriads signifies what is innumerable and is used in reference to truths, may be seen above (n. 336). And it is said two myriads of myriads because things innumerable that conjoin, and unite, are signified, for the number two signifies conjunction, agreement, and union, as may be seen above (n. 283, 384). The reason why it is said, against the truths of good, is that the subject treated of in what follows is the destruction of truth by the armies of such horsemen. From these considerations it is clear, that the number of the armies of the horsemen being two myriads of myriads, signifies that the falsities of evil from which, and on behalf of which reasonings exist, are innumerable and conspire against the truths of good.

(References: Revelation 9:16; The Apocalypse Explained 283, The Apocalypse Explained 336, The Apocalypse Explained 355, 364, 372-373, 381-382, 384)


[2] In the Word, the term armies (hosts) is frequently used, and also the Lord is called Jehovah of Hosts or Zebaoth, and by hosts are there signified truths from good fighting against falsities from evil, and in the opposite sense, falsities from evil fighting against truths from good. Hosts signify such things in the Word, because the wars there mentioned, both in the historical and prophetical parts, signify in the internal sense spiritual wars waged against hell and the diabolical crew there, and such wars have relation to truths and goods combating against falsities and evils, and hence it is that armies signify all truths from good, and in the opposite sense, all falsities from evil. That they signify all truths from good, is evident from this fact, that the sun, the moon, the stars, and also the angels, are called the armies of Jehovah, because they signify all truths from good in their whole extent. Also the sons of Israel, because they signify the truths and goods of the church, are called armies; and because all truths and goods are from the Lord, and He alone combats for all in heaven, and for all in the church, against falsities and evils from hell, therefore He is called Jehovah Zebaoth, that is, [Jehovah] of armies [or hosts].

[3] That the sun, the moon, and the stars, are called armies [or hosts], is plain from numerous passages.

Thus in Moses:

"The heavens and the earth were finished, and all the host of them (Gen. ii. 1).

So in David:

"By the word of Jehovah were the heavens made; and all the host of them by the breath of his mouth" (Psalm xxxiii. 6).

Again:

"Praise ye" Jehovah, "all his angels; praise ye him, all his hosts. Praise ye him, sun and moon; praise him, all ye stars of light" (Psalm cxlviii. 2, 3).

And in Isaiah:

"All the host of the heavens shall be dissolved, and the heavens shall be rolled together as a scroll; and all their host shall fall down, as the leaf falleth off from the vine, and as a falling [fig] from the fig-tree" (xxxiv. 4).

And again, in the same prophet:

"I have made the earth, and created man upon it; my hands have stretched out the heavens, and all their host have I commanded" (xlv. 12).

And again:

"Lift up your eyes on high, and behold who hath created these things, that bringeth out their host by number; he calleth them all by name" (xl. 26).

So in Jeremiah:

"As the host of the heavens is not numbered, neither the sand of the sea measured:" (xxxiii. 22).

In these passages, the sun, the moon, and stars, are called a host [or army], because the sun signifies the good of love, the moon, truth from good, while the stars signify the cognitions of truth and good, consequently they signify goods and truths in their whole extent, and they are called an army, because they resist evils and falsities, and continually conquer them as enemies.

(References: Genesis 2:1; Isaiah 34:4, Isaiah 40:26, 45:12; Jeremiah 33:22; Psalms 33:6, Psalms 148:2-3)


[4] So in Daniel:

One horn of the he-goat "waxed great, even to the host of the heavens; and it cast down some of the host and of the stars to the ground, and trampled upon them. Yea, it magnified itself even to the prince of the host, and from him the continual [burnt-offering] was taken away, and the dwellingplace of his sanctuary was cast down. And the host was delivered up upon the continual [burnt-offering] for transgression, because it cast down the truth to the ground. One holy one said, How long this vision, the continual [burnt-offering], and the desolating transgression, to give both the holy place and the host to be trampled upon? And he said unto the evening morning" (viii. 10-14).

The signification of the he-goat, here mentioned, of his horns, and of this horn which waxed great even to the host of the heavens, may be seen above (n. 316:16, 336, 535). By the host of the heavens, which he cast down to the earth, are meant the truths and goods of heaven; for the subject here treated of is the last state of the church, when the truths and goods of heaven are thought to be of no importance, and are rejected, which is signified by their being trampled upon; wherefore it also follows, that he cast down the truth to the earth. The prince of the host means the Lord, who is also called Jehovah God Zebaoth, or of armies [or hosts]. That all worship from the good of love and the truths of faith would perish, is signified by the continual [burnt-offering] being taken away from him, and the dwelling-place of his sanctuary being cast down. That this would come to pass at the end of the church, when the Lord would come into the world, is signified by unto the evening morning, the evening denoting the last time of the old church, and the morning, the commencement of the new church.

(References: Daniel 8:10-14; The Apocalypse Explained 316, 336, The Apocalypse Explained 535)


[5] That the angels are called hosts is evident from the following passages.

Thus in Joel:

"Jehovah uttered his voice before his army; for his camp is very great" (ii. 11).

And in Zechariah:

"I will place a camp to my house concerning the army, because of him that goeth away, and because of him that returneth; that the exactor may no more pass through over them" (ix. 8).

And in David:

"Bless ye Jehovah, all ye his hosts, ye ministers of his that do his pleasure" (ciii. 21).

And in the 1st Book of Kings:

Micah the prophet said to the king, "I saw Jehovah sitting on his throne and all the host of the heavens standing by him on his right hand and on his left. And one said on this manner, and another said on that manner" (xxii. 19, 20).

So in the Apocalypse:

"His armies which were in heaven followed him upon white horses, clothed in fine linen, white and clean" (xix. 14).

And again:

"I saw the beast, and the kings of the earth, and their armies gathered together to make war against him that sat on the white horse, and against his army" (xix. 19).

The reason why angels gathered together or a consociation of them are called armies, is, that angels, like armies, signify Divine truths and goods, because they are the recipients of them from the Lord, concerning which, see above (n. 130, 200, 302).

(References: 1 Kings 22:19-20; Joel 2:11; Psalms 103:21; Revelation 19:14, 19:19; The Apocalypse Explained 130, 200, The Apocalypse Explained 302; Zechariah 9:8)


[6] It is for the same reason also, that the sons of Israel are called armies, because they signify the truths and goods of the church.

Thus in Moses:

"Jehovah said, Bring out the sons of Israel from the land of Egypt according to their armies" (Exod. vi. 26).

Again:

"I will bring forth mine army, my people the sons of Israel, out of the land of Egypt by great judgments" (Exod. vii. 4; xii. 17).

Again:

"It came to pass even the self same day, that all the armies of Jehovah went out from the land of Egypt" (xii. 41).

And again:

Thou shalt number "every one going into the army" (Num. i. 3).

Again it is said:

That the camp should be pitched around the tent of meeting, and also that they should set out according to their armies (Num. ii. 3, 9, 24);

and again,

that the Levites were chosen to wait upon the service (militia) to do the work in the tent of meeting (Num. iv. 3, 23, 30, 39).

The sons of Israel were called the armies of Jehovah, because they represented the church, and signified all its truths and goods, as may be seen in the Arcana Coelestia (n. 5414, 5801, 5803, 5806, 5812, 5817, 5819, 5826, 5833, 5879, 5951, 6637, 6862, 6868, 7035, 7062, 7198, 7201, 7215, 7223, 7957, 8234, 8805, 9340). They were called armies in the plural, because each tribe was called an army, as is evident in Moses, for when it was commanded that all should be numbered according to their armies, they were numbered according to their tribes (Num. i. 3, and following verses). Similarly when the camp was pitched around the tent of Meeting, according to the tribes, it is said "according to their armies" (Num. ii. 3, 9, and following verses). The tribes were called armies, because the twelve tribes taken together represented all the truths and goods of the church, and each tribe some universal essential of it; see above (n. 431).

(References: Arcana Coelestia 5414, 5801, 5803, 5806, 5812, 5817, 5819, 5826, 5833, 5879, 5951, 6637, 6862, 6868, 7035, 7062, 7198, 7201, 7215, 7223, 7957, Arcana Coelestia 8234, Arcana Coelestia 8805, 9340; Exodus 6:26, 7:4, 12:17, 12:41; Numbers 1:3, 2:3, 2:9, 2:16, 2:24, 4:3, 4:23, 4:30, 4:39; The Apocalypse Explained 431)


[7] From these considerations it is evident, that the truths and goods of heaven and the church are meant by armies in the Word; and from these things the reason why Jehovah is called in the Word, Jehovah Zebaoth, and Jehovah God Zebaoth, that is, of armies, is perfectly clear (as in Isaiah i. 9, 24; ii. 12; iii. 1, 15; v. 7, 9, 16, 24; vi. 3, 5; viii. 13, 18; xiv. 22, 23, 24, 27; xvii. 3; xxv. 6; xxviii. 5, 22, 29; xxix. 6; xxxi. 4, 5; xxxvii. 16; Jerem. v. 14; xxxviii. 17; xliv. 7; Amos v. 16; Haggai i. 9, 14; ii. 4, 8, 23; Zech. i. 3; Malachi ii. 12; and various other places).

(References: Amos 5:14, 5:16; Haggai 1:9, 1:14, 2:4, 2:8, 2:23; Isaiah 1:9, 1:24, 2:12, 3:1, 3:15, 5:7, 5:9, 5:16, 5:24, 6:3, 6:5, 8:13, 8:18, Isaiah 14:22-23, 14:22-24, 14:24, 14:27, 17:3, 25:6, 28:5, 28:22, 28:29, 29:6, 31:4-5, Isaiah 37:16; Jeremiah 5:14, Jeremiah 38:17, 44:7; Malachi 2:12; Zechariah 1:3)


[8] From these things it is now evident, that armies signify the truths and goods of heaven and the church in their whole extent; and because most things in the Word have also an opposite sense, so also have armies, in which sense they signify falsities and evils in their whole extent. This will appear from the following passages of the Word.

Thus in Jeremiah:

"Upon the roofs" of the houses "they have burned incense unto all the host of the heavens, and have poured out drink-offerings unto other gods" (xix. 13).

And in Zephaniah:

"They worship the host of the heavens upon the house tops" (i. 5).

And in Moses:

"Lest thou bow thyself and worship the sun, and moon, and the stars, and all the host of the heavens" (Deut. iv. 19; xvii. 3).

And in Jeremiah:

"They shall spread" the bones brought out from the sepulchre "before the sun, and the moon, and all the host of the heavens, whom they have loved, and whom they have served" (viii. 2).

Here by the host of the heavens, are meant the sun, moon, and stars, because these signify all goods and truths in the aggregate, but, in this case, all evils and falsities in the aggregate; for the sun, in the opposite sense, as here, signifies all evil springing from the love of self, the moon, the falsity of faith, while the stars signify falsities in general. That by the sun, moon, and stars, in the natural world, when they are worshipped instead of the sun and moon of the angelic heaven, are signified abominable evils and falsities, may be seen in Heaven and Hell (n. 122, 123), and also above (n. 401, 402, 525). And since truths from good fight against falsities from evil, and, on the contrary, falsities from evil against truths from good, therefore they are called armies. There is therefore continual combat, because evils and falsities continually exhale from the hells, and endeavour to destroy the truths from good that are in heaven, and from heaven, and which continually offer resistance. For everywhere in the spiritual world there is an equilibrium between heaven and hell; and where an equilibrium exists, there two forces continually act against each other, one acting and the other reacting, and continual action and reaction is continual combat; but an equilibrium is always provided by the Lord, as may be seen in the Heaven and Hell (n. 589-596, and n. 597-603). And because there is such a continual combat between heaven and hell, therefore, as all things of heaven are called armies, so also are all things of hell.

All things of heaven have reference to goods and truths, and all things of hell, to evils and falsities. Hence it is that in the following passages hosts signify the falsities of evil.

(References: Deuteronomy 4:19, 17:3; Heaven and Hell 122-123, 589-596; Jeremiah 8:2, 19:13; The Apocalypse Explained 401-402, The Apocalypse Explained 525, The Apocalypse Explained 597-603; Zephaniah 1:5)


[9] Thus in Isaiah:

"The anger of Jehovah is against all nations, and his wrath against all their army; he hath devoted them, he hath delivered them to the slaughter" (xxxiv. 2).

Here nations signify evils, and army, falsities from evil; the total destruction of these is signified by he hath devoted them, he hath delivered them to the slaughter.

(References: Isaiah 34:2)


[10] Again:

"The voice of a multitude in the mountains, like as of a great people; the voice of the tumult of the kingdoms of nations gathered together; Jehovah Zebaoth leadeth the army" (xiii. 4).

Here the voice of a multitude in the mountains, signifies falsities from evils, a multitude denoting falsities, and mountains denoting evils. Like as of a great people, signifies the appearance as it were of truth from good, the words, like as, denoting appearance, "people" denoting those who are in truths, and thus truths, while great is used in reference to good. The voice of the tumult of the kingdoms of nations gathered together, signifies dissension in the church springing from evils and falsities thence, the voice of the tumult denoting dissension, kingdoms, the church as to truths and falsities, and nations gathered together, as to evils and the falsities therefrom conspiring against the goods and truths of the church. Jehovah Zebaoth leadeth the army, signifies that it is accomplished by the Lord, for this is ascribed to the Lord, as is plain from the fifth verse immediately following in which it is said: "Jehovah cometh with the weapons of his anger, to destroy the whole land." This is attributed to the Lord just as evil, the punishment of evil, and the destruction of the church are also ascribed to Him in other passages of the Word, because such is the appearance of things, for the sense of the letter of the Word is written according to appearances. But in the spiritual sense, such things mean that the man of the church himself does them.

(References: Isaiah 13:4)


[11] Again, in Jeremiah:

"Spare ye not her young men; give to the curse all her host" (li. 3).

The subject here treated of is Babylon; and by not sparing her young men, is signified the destruction of confirmed falsities. By giving to the curse all her army, is signified the total destruction of falsities from evils pertaining to her, thus the destruction of Babylon. Falsities from evil are signified also by the army of the Chaldeans, and the army of Pharaoh (Jeremiah xxxvii. 7-11, and following verses);

and in Moses, by

"The waters returned, and covered the chariots, and the horsemen, and all the army of Pharaoh" (Exod. xiv. 28; xv. 4);

this is explained above (n. 355:37), and in the Arcana Coelestia (n. 8230, 8275).

(References: Arcana Coelestia 8230, Arcana Coelestia 8275; Exodus 14:28, 15:4; Jeremiah 37:7, 37:10-11, Jeremiah 51:3; The Apocalypse Explained 355)


[12] So in Daniel:

"The king of the north shall return, and shall set forth a multitude greater than the former, and after the end of the times of the years he shall come with a great army and with much riches. And he shall stir up his powers and his heart against the king of the south with a great army; and the king of the south shall stir himself up to battle with a very great and mighty army; but he shall not stand" (xi. 13, 25).

The subject treated of in that chapter is the war between the king of the north and the king of the south, and by the king of the north are meant those within the church who are in the falsities of evil, and by the king of the south, those within the church who are in the truths of good; there collision and combat at the end of the church, in the spiritual sense are described by their war; therefore by the army of the king of the north are meant falsities of every kind, and by the army of the king of the south truths of every kind.

(References: Daniel 11:13, Daniel 11:15, 11:25)


[13] So in Luke:

"When ye shall see Jerusalem compassed with armies, then know that the devastation thereof is nigh" (xxi. 20).

In that chapter the Lord speaks of the consummation of the age, which signifies the last time of the church. Jerusalem means the church as to doctrine; and its being compassed with armies, means the possession of it by falsities. That then the destruction of it comes, and presently the last judgment, is signified by its desolation being then nigh. It is supposed that these things were said concerning the destruction of Jerusalem by the Romans, but from the details of the chapter it is evident that it treats of the destruction of the church at its end; similarly in Matthew xxiv. from the first verse to the last, an explanation of which is given in the Arcana Coelestia. Nevertheless this is not opposed to the literal meaning concerning the destruction of Jerusalem, but that destruction represented and therefore signified the destruction of the church at its end; this is confirmed by every detail in the chapter, considered in the spiritual sense.

(References: Luke 21:20; Matthew 24)


[14] Again, in David:

"God hath cast off, and put us to shame; and he hath not gone forth with our armies. Thou makest us to turn back from the enemy" (Psalm xliv. 9, 10).

Here by God not going forth with their armies, signifies that he did not defend them, because they were in falsities of evil, for armies denote falsities of evil; therefore it is said that they were cast off, and put to shame, and made to turn back from the enemy, the enemy denoting evil from hell.

(References: Psalms 44:9-10)


[15] Again, in Joel:

"I will restore to you the years that the locust hath eaten, the canker-worm, and the grasshopper, and the palmer-worm, my great army which I sent among you" (ii. 25).

That the great army signifies falsities and evils of every kind, is evident from this fact, that by those destructive little creatures, - the locust, the canker-worm, the grasshopper, and the palmer-worm, are signified the falsities and evils which vastate or consume the truths and goods of the church, as may be seen above (n. 543:9), where this passage is explained, and where it is shown that the locust and grasshopper signify the falsities [and evils] of the sensual man. The signification of armies in the Word in both senses is now evident from these things. Similar things are signified by hosts (or armies) in the historical parts of the Word, for they, as well as the prophetical parts, contain a spiritual sense; but it shines forth less clearly because the mind, being detained in the historical circumstances, can be scarcely elevated above the worldly things therein so as to see the spiritual things which are stored up in them.

(References: Daniel 11:15; Joel 2:25; The Apocalypse Explained 543)

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