388. And with the wild beasts of the earth. That this signifies evils of life, which are lusts and the falsities thence arising from the love of self and of the world, which devastate all things of the church with man, is plain from the signification of wild beasts, as denoting the lusts and falsities arising from the love of self and of the world; and because those are themselves evils of life; for an evil life is a life of lusts and falsities, therefore, by the wild beasts of the earth are here meant those things. That wild beasts signify such things will be seen in what follows. And from the signification of the earth as denoting the church (concerning which see above, n. 29, 304); and as by wild beasts are signified evils of life, and these devastate the church with man; and as by the earth is signified the church, therefore, by the wild beasts of the earth are signified evils of life which devastate the church with man. The church with man is mentioned because the church is in man; for a church is a church from charity and faith, and these are in man; and if these are not present, there is no church with him. It is believed that the church exists where the Word is, and where the Lord is known; but yet the church consists only of those who from the heart acknowledge the Divine of the Lord, and who learn truths from the Lord by the Word, and do them; no others constitute the church. That by the wild beasts of the earth are here specifically signified evils of life, is evident from the series of things in the internal sense. It is said that power was given unto them over the fourth part of the earth, to kill with the sword, and with hunger, and with death, and with the wild beasts of the earth. By the sword is signified falsity destroying truth; by hunger, the deprivation of the knowledges of truth and good; by death, the extinction of spiritual life; thence by the wild beasts of the earth are signified evils of life, because these rule when spiritual life is extinguished for when there is no spiritual life, then the life is merely natural, and the latter life, without the former, is full of lusts from the love of self and the world, - thus infernal; therefore that life is what is meant by an evil wild beast.
Revelation 6:8; The Apocalypse Explained 29, The Apocalypse Explained 304)
 Moreover, with respect to the evil life, which is signified by the evil wild beast, it exists equally with those who lead a good moral life if they are without spiritual life; for they do good, and speak truth, and exercise sincerity and justice, but only for the sake of fame, honours, gain, and the laws; thus make a pretence for the sake of appearance, emulating the spiritual, whereas inwardly they neither will anything good nor think anything of truth; they also ridicule sincerity and justice, except for the above reasons; therefore, inwardly they are infernal. This also is evident with such people when they become spirits, which takes place immediately after death; then, when those external bonds which have been mentioned are taken away from them, they rush without restraint into evils of every kind. But it is different with those who have led a good moral life from a spiritual origin. (But upon this subject more may be seen in the work concerning Heaven and Hell, n. 484, 329-531, 534; also above, n. 182.) These things are mentioned in order that it may be known what is meant by an evil life, namely, that it is not the external life, of the body, and of the world where men are, that is called the natural world, but the internal [life] of the spirit, and of the world where angels are, that is called the spiritual world. For man, as to his body, with its gestures and speech, is in the natural world, but as to his spirit, namely, as to thought and affection, he is in the spiritual world; yea, as the sight of the body has an extension into the natural world, and there diffuses itself abroad, so the sight of the spirit, which is thought from affection, has an extension into the spiritual world, and is there diffused abroad. That this is the case few know, and hence they suppose that it is of no consequence to think evil and to will evil, provided one abstains from doing evil and speaking evil; still, however, all thought and volition affects the man's spirit and constitutes his life after death.
Heaven and Hell 484, 529-531, 534; The Apocalypse Explained 182)
 That evil wild beasts signify lusts and the falsities thence arising from the love of self and the world, which devastate every thing of the church with man, and also, in an opposite sense, the affections of truth, which vivify ever thing of the church, is evident from the following passages in the Word.
"Go, assemble every wild beast of the field; come to devour. Many shepherds have destroyed my vineyards; they have trodden my field under foot, they have reduced the field of desire into a desert of solitude" (xii. 9-11).
The subject here treated of is the vastation of the church as to its truths and as to its goods. Vastation is described by the shepherds destroying the Lord's vineyard, and treading His field under foot. By shepherds are meant those who teach truths, and thereby lead to the good of life; in the present case, those who teach falsities, and thereby lead to evil of life. By the vineyard is meant the church as to truths; and by the field, the church as to good. The vastation thereof is meant by destroying and by treading them under foot, also by reducing the field into a desert of solitude. And because lusts and falsities arising from the love of self and the world, devastate it, it is said, "Go, assemble every wild beast of the field; come to devour"; every wild beast of the field signifying falsities and the lusts thence arising, and to devour signifying to devastate and consume. That by the wild beast of the field is not meant the wild beast of the field, is evident, for it is said that the shepherds have destroyed the vineyard, and trodden the field under foot; and by shepherds are meant pastors of the church, and not shepherds of the flock.
Jeremiah 12:9-10, 12:9-11)
 In David:
"The boar out of the wood treadeth under foot" thy vine, "and the wild beast of the fields doth devour it" (Ps. lxxx. 8, 9, 13).
By the vine here is signified the same as by the vineyard above, namely, the church as to truth, which is called the spiritual church; the vastation thereof by the lusts and falsities of the natural man separated from the spiritual, is meant by the boar out of the wood treading it under foot; the boar out of the wood signifying the evil lusts of the natural man; and the wild beast of the fields, falsities.
Psalms 80:8-9, 80:13)
 In Hosea:
"I will lay waste their vine and their fig-tree, and I will make them a forest, and the wild beast of the field shall devour them" (ii. 12).
By the vine and the fig-tree is signified the church; by the vine, the internal church, which is of the spiritual man; and by the fig-tree, the external church, which is of the natural man; the vastation of both is signified by, I will lay them waste, and make them a forest, and the wild beast of the field shall devour them. The forest signifies the sensual man, which is in absolute fallacies, and in the falsities thence; and the beast of the field signifies falsities thence and evil lusts. For when the church with man is devastated, that is, when the truth of the church is no longer believed, then man becomes sensual, believing nothing but what he can see with his eyes, and touch with his hands, and such a man gives himself up wholly to the love of self and the love of the world, thus to lusts. That the church is here meant by the vine and the fig-tree, is evident from the second verse of the same chapter, where it is said, that they should plead with her mother; for she is "not my wife, neither am I her husband"; and by mother and wife in the Word is signified the church.
Hosea 2:2, 2:12)
 In Moses:
"By little and little I will drive out the" nations "lest the land become a solitude, and the wild beast of the field be multiplied against thee" (Exod. xxiii. 28, 29; Deut. vii. 22).
What these signify, may be seen in the Arcana Coelestia (n. 9333-9338), namely, that by the nations are signified the evils which man has, also those from inheritance; and that with man they are removed by degrees, since if they were removed instantly before good is formed in him by means of truths, falsities would enter which would destroy him. The wild beasts of the field signify falsities arising from the delights of natural loves.
Arcana Coelestia 9333-9338; Deuteronomy 7:22; Exodus 23:28-29, Exodus 23:29-30)
 In the same:
"If ye walk in my statutes, and keep my commandments, and do them, I will give peace on the earth, so that ye shall lie down securely, and none shall make you afraid; and I will cause the evil wild beast to cease out of the land, and the sword shall not go through your land. But if ye will not obey me, and do all my precepts, I will send among you the wild beast of the field, which shall bereave you of your children, and destroy your beast, and make you few in number, that your highways may be laid waste" (Lev. xxvi. 3, 6, 14, 22).
This describes the state of the life of those who have charity, and of those who have not. The life of charity is meant by walking in the statutes, observing the precepts, and doing them, for this is charity; the state of their life is described by peace, by lying down securely, and none making them afraid; by which is signified blessedness of heart and soul, arising from the conjunction of good and truth, whence there is no longer any combat of evil and falsity against them. It is also described by, "I will cause the evil wild beast to cease out of the land, and the sword shall not pass through it," by which is signified that the lusts and falsities arising from the love of self and the world [shall exist no longer]; the evil wild beast signifying the lusts that destroy good affections, and the sword signifying the falsities that destroy truths. That the contrary state is theirs who have not charity, is described by, "if ye will not obey me, and do all my precepts, I will send the wild beast of the field among you, which shall rob you of your children, and destroy your beast, and make you few in number, that your highways may be devastated," by which is signified, that by lusts, and the falsities thence, they shall be deprived of every good and truth. The lusts and the falsities thence which would thus deprive are signified by the wild beast of the field which shall bereave you; the good affections of which they are deprived are signified by the beast which shall be destroyed; and the truths themselves thence are signified by their highways which shall be devastated; ways denoting the truths which lead to good.
Leviticus 26:3, 26:6, 26:14, 26:22)
 In Ezekiel:
"And I will make with them a covenant of peace, and will cause the evil wild beast to cease out of the land, that they may dwell trustingly in the wilderness, and sleep in the woods. They shall no more be a prey to the nations, and the wild beast of the field shall not devour them; but they shall dwell trustingly, and none shall make them afraid" (xxxiv. 25, 28).
These words relate to the Lord's coming, and to His kingdom then; what they signify in the internal sense, is evident from the passages just now explained, where many similar words occur. By the evil wild beast in the land are signified lusts; and by the wild beast of the field, falsities.
Ezekiel 34:25, 34:28)
 In Hosea:
"I will meet them as a bear that is bereaved of her whelps, and I will rend the caul of their heart, and I will devour them like a fierce lion; the wild beast of the field shall tear them" (xiii. 8).
The vastation of good by falsity is treated of in this passage. A bear bereaved of her whelps signifies the power of evil from falsity; and a fierce lion, the power of falsity from evil; and the wild beast of the field, lusts and falsities; destruction by these is signified by the wild beasts tearing them; the of truth from good by falsity and evil is signified by rending the caul of their heart.
 In Isaiah:
"No lion shall be there, and the ravenous of the wild beasts shall not go up thither" (xxxv. 9).
In that chapter the Lord's coming is treated of, and the state of those who are in His kingdom. "No lion shall be there," signifies that there shall be no falsity destroying the truth; "the ravenous of the wild beasts shall not go up thither," signifies that there shall be no lust of destroying; because this [lust] is from hell, it is said, it shall not go up thither.
 In Zephaniah:
Jehovah "will stretch out his hand over the north, and destroy Assyria; that the flocks may lie down in the midst of her, every wild beast of the nation; both the cormorant and the bittern shall pass the night in the upper lintels of it. Such is the city that dwelleth carelessly, saying in her heart, I, and none other beside me; how is she become a desolation, a place for the wild beast to lie down in!" (ii. 13-15).
Man's own intelligence is here treated of, which confirms falsities and evils by reasonings from scientifics, and by applications from the sense of the letter of the Word. By the north is signified the natural and sensual man, also the Scientific which is there; and by Assyria is signified reasoning from it; and by, saying in her heart, "I, and none other beside me," is signified man's own intelligence. From these considerations it is evident what the particulars here mentioned involve in a series, namely, that by, Jehovah "will stretch out his hand over the north, and destroy Assyria," is signified that He will deprive the natural man of such a quality, and the intellectual or reasoning man thence, of all perception of good and understanding of truth. By, "the flocks shall lie down in the midst of her, every wild beast of the nation; both the cormorant and the bittern shall pass the night in the upper lintels of it," is signified, that everywhere therein shall be falsities of evil, and falsities of thought and perception in the knowledges from the Word, the wild beast of the nation denoting the falsity of evil, the cormorant and the bittern, the falsity of thought and perception, and the upper lintels, knowledges from the Word. By, "Such is the city that dwelleth carelessly, saying in her heart, I, and none other beside me," is signified, that such intelligence trusts to itself, and assumes everything from the proprium; a city signifying doctrine from such intelligence. By, "how is she become a desolation, a place for the wild beast to lie down in!" is signified, that nothing of truth remains therein, but that it is full of falsities.
 In Ezekiel:
"Speak unto Pharaoh king of Egypt, and to his multitude; Asshur was a cedar in Lebanon, [which] became high above all the trees of the field; but because his height is exalted, and hath shot up his top among the entwistings, therefore strangers shall cut him off, and the violent of the nations shall cast him down. Upon his ruin shall dwell every bird of the heavens, and every wild beast of the field shall be upon his branches" (xxxi. 2, 3, 5, 10-13).
The things mentioned in this passage are similar in signification to those above described. By Pharaoh king of Egypt is signified the same as above by the north, namely, the natural man and the Scientific which is there; by Assyria is signified reasoning from it; by his height being exalted, and shooting up his top among the entwistings, is signified glorying from the intelligence thence, thus from one's own intelligence. From this general signification of the contents [of the passage] it may be seen what the particulars there involve, namely, that, "speak unto Pharaoh king of Egypt, and to his multitude," is spoken of the natural man, and of the scientifics therein; Pharaoh king of Egypt is the natural man, and his multitude is the Scientific there. That the cedar in Lebanon has become high above all the trees of the field, signifies the Rational increasing by scientifics, Assyria denoting the Rational, and the cedar the Intellectual, and his becoming high above all the trees of the field, signifying immense growth from the knowledges of truth and good. "But because he is exalted in height, and he hath shot up his top among the entwistings," signifies because of his glorying from intelligence, and from the knowledge (scientia) belonging to the natural man, which glorying, being an exaltation of mind from the love of self, is from the proprium. For the natural man, separate from the spiritual, exalts itself, because being separate from the spiritual it is in the proprium, and attributes all things to itself and nothing to God; to shoot up his top is to exalt itself, and the entwistings denote the scientifics which belong to the natural man (as may be seen, n. 2831, 8133). That "strangers and the violent of the nations shall cut him off and cast him down," signifies that falsities and the evils thence shall destroy the Rational, strangers denoting falsities, and the violent of the nations the evils thence; whence "every bird of the heavens shall dwell upon his ruin, and every wild beast of the field shall be upon his branches," signifies that then there will be falsities of thought, and evils of affection; for birds signify knowledges (cognitions) both of truth and of falsity; the wild beast of the field signifies evils of the affection thence; and the field signifies the church; for no other falsities and evils are meant but those that exist in the church. (That birds signify thoughts, ideas, and reasonings in both senses, with a variety according to their genera and species, may be seen, n. 776, 778, 866, 988, 993, 3219, 5149, 7441.)
Arcana Coelestia 776, Arcana Coelestia 778, 866, Arcana Coelestia 988, Arcana Coelestia 991, Arcana Coelestia 2831, Arcana Coelestia 3219, Arcana Coelestia 5149, Arcana Coelestia 7441, Arcana Coelestia 8133; Ezekiel 31:1-3, Ezekiel 31:2-3, 31:5, 31:10, 31:12-13)
 In the same:
"And I will leave thee thrown into the wilderness, thee and all the fish of thy rivers; upon the faces of the field shalt thou fall; thou shalt not be brought together, nor gathered; I have given thee for meat to the wild beast of the field and to the bird of the heaven" (xxix. 5; xxxii. 4).
These things also are said of Pharaoh and of Egypt, by whom is signified the natural man separated from the spiritual, which, when separated, is in absolute falsities and evils, for it is then without the light of heaven, which imparts all intelligence. By being left thrown out into the wilderness, therefore, is signified to be without truths and goods; by the fish of his rivers is signified the sensual Scientific (as may be seen above, n. 342); by falling upon the faces of the field, is signified that everything of the church shall perish with him; by not being brought together nor gathered, is signified, that good and truth is not seen; for the spiritual man sees these things in the natural, because he therein collects and gathers together scientifics whence he forms conclusions; by, "I have given thee for meat to the wild beast of the field and the bird of the heaven," is signified here as above, to perish by falsities of the thought, and the evils of the affection thence. Because the natural man, separated from the spiritual, is carried away into falsities of every kind, and becomes hurtful, therefore, Egypt is said to be a wild beast of the reeds (Ps. lxviii. 31).
Ezekiel 29:5, Ezekiel 32:4; Psalms 68:30, Psalms 68:31; The Apocalypse Explained 342)
 In Ezekiel:
"Thou shalt fall upon the mountains of Israel, thou and all thy hands, and the peoples that are with thee; to the flying bird of every wing, and to the wild beast of the field, have I given thee for meat" (xxxix. 4).
This is spoken concerning Gog, by whom is signified external worship separate from internal, which in itself is no worship, being the worship of the natural man separate from the spiritual. "Thou shalt fall upon the mountains of Israel," signifies they have nothing of the good of charity, the mountains of Israel signifying the goods of charity, and to fall there signifying to perish. "Thou and all thy hands, and the people that are with thee," signifies, that that worship together with its doctrinals and falsities would perish; "to the flying bird of every wing, and to the wild beast of the field, have I given thee for meat," signifies the extinction of truth and good by falsities of every kind, and by evils; the evils which are signified by the wild beast of the field, are evils of the life, which are lusts arising from the love of self and the world.
Ezekiel 39:4; Psalms 68:30)
 In David:
"O God, the nations have come into thine inheritance the temple of thy holiness have they defiled; they have laid Jerusalem in heaps. The dead body of thy servants have they given as meat to the bird of the heavens, the flesh of thy saints to the wild beast of the earth" (lxxix. 1, 2).
By the nations here are not meant nations, but evils of life and falsities of doctrine; for by God's inheritance is signified the church, in which the Lord is all good and truth, because [they are] from Him; by polluting the temple of holiness, and laying Jerusalem in heaps, are signified to profane worship, and pervert the doctrine of the church, the temple of holiness signifying worship, because worship takes place therein, and Jerusalem signifying the church as to doctrine, thus also the doctrine of the church. And by giving the dead body of Thy servants as meat to the bird of the heavens, and the flesh of Thy saints to the wild beast of the earth, is signified to destroy all truths by falsities, and goods by evils; the bird of the heavens here also denoting the thoughts of falsity, and the wild beast of the earth denoting the affections of evil thence.
 In the same:
Give not the soul of thy turtle-dove unto the wild beast; forget not the life of thine afflicted ones for ever" (Ps. lxxiv. 19).
By the turtle-dove is signified spiritual good, thus also those who are in that good; and by the wild beast is signified the falsity of evil lusting to destroy, thus also those who are in the falsity of evil and lust to destroy; hence it is evident what is signified [by], "Give not the soul of thy turtle-dove unto the wild beast." By the afflicted ones are meant those that are infested by falsities, and thence are in anxiety, and wait for deliverance.
 In Ezekiel:
The sheep "scattered are without a shepherd, and become meat for every wild beast of the field, and are scattered" (xxxiv. 5, 8).
By this is signified that the goods of charity have been destroyed by falsities, and altogether consumed by evils of every kind thence. The wild beast of the field denotes evils of the life arising from falsities of doctrine. By sheep, in the Word, are meant those who are in the good of charity; but because the genuine spiritual sense is apart from persons, by sheep are signified the goods of charity; by shepherds are signified those who by truths lead to good, and in the abstract the truths themselves by which good is acquired; therefore to be without a shepherd, signifies to have no truth by which good is acquired, consequently, falsity. By becoming meat is signified to be consumed, the same as by being devoured, when wild beasts are spoken of. By the wild beast of the field evils from falsities are signified.
Ezekiel 34:5, 34:8)
 In Job:
"Blessed is the man whom God chastiseth. In famine he shall redeem thee from death; and in war from the hands of the sword. At devastation and famine thou shalt laugh, and thou shalt not be afraid of the wild beast of the earth" (v. 17, 20, 22).
These expressions relate to temptations. "Blessed is the man whom God chasteneth" signifies, he that is tempted. "In famine he shall redeem thee from death," signifies deliverance from evils when he is tempted through a lack of good and the non-perception of it; "in war from the hands of the sword," signifies deliverance from falsities when he is tempted through a lack of truth and the non-understanding of it; war denoting temptation. "At devastation and famine thou shalt laugh," signifies that for him there shall be no lack of good; and "thou shalt not be afraid of the wild beast of the earth," signifies that no falsity shall [infest] him.
Acts of the Apostles 5:17, 5:20, 5:22; Job 5:17, 5:20, 5:22)
 In Ezekiel:
"Thus shalt thou say unto them, They who are in the wastes shall die by the sword, and him who is upon the faces of the field I will give to the wild beast to be devoured; and they that are in the forts and in the caves shall die of the pestilence. For I will give the land unto desolation and wasteness" (xxxiii. 27, 28).
The subjects here treated of are the desolation of all the truth, and the vastation of all the good in the church, since it is also said, I will give the land unto desolation and wasteness; the land signifying the church. "They who are in the wastes shall die by the sword," signifies that those who are in scientifics shall perish by falsities; for the scientifics of the natural man without light from the spiritual are here meant by wastes; "him who is upon the faces of the field I will give to the wild beast to be devoured," signifies that those who are in knowledges from the Word shall perish by the evils of falsity, the faces of the field denoting the things of the church, here knowledges (cognitions) from the Word; the wild beast denoting the evil of falsity. "They that are in the forts and in the caves shall die of the pestilence," signifies that those who have confirmed themselves in falsities and evils from the Word, and also from scientifics, shall utterly perish by evils and falsities; forts denoting confirmations from the Word, caves confirmations from scientifics. That such things are signified by these words, can be seen only from the series in the internal sense, for the subject treated of is, as has been said, the total vastation of the church.
 In the same:
"I will send upon you famine and the evil wild beast, and I will make thee bereaved; and pestilence and blood shall pass through thee; especially will I bring the sword upon thee" (v. 17).
"When I shall send famine upon the land, and cut off man and beast [from it]; when I shall make the evil wild beast to pass through the land, and bereave it, that it become desolate, so that none pass through because of the wild beast; and when I shall bring the sword, and send the pestilence; thus when I shall send my four evil judgments upon Jerusalem, the sword, the famine, the evil wild beast, and the pestilence, to cut off from it man and beast" (xiv. 18, 15, 17, 19, 21).
In the internal sense, by cutting off man and beast is signified to deprive of every affection of good and truth, both internal or spiritual and external or natural. (That this is signified by man and beast in the Word, may be seen, n. 7424, 7523, 7872.) By famine is signified the deprivation of the good of love; by the sword, the deprivation of the truth of faith, both by falsity. By the evil wild beast is signified the deprivation of both by the evils of the love of self and of the world; and by the pestilence, the deprivation of spiritual life thence. These are called here the four judgments, because man is judged from them.
Arcana Coelestia 7424, Arcana Coelestia 7523, 7872; Ezekiel 5:17, Ezekiel 14:13, 14:15, 14:17, 14:19, 14:21)
 From the explanation of these passages and of those which precede, it is evident what is meant by each particular here in the series. By the evil wild beast are meant all destructive beasts, such as lions, bears, tigers, panthers, boars, wolves, dragons, serpents, and many others, which prey upon and rend useful animals, such as lambs, sheep, cows, oxen, and the like. That by such wild beasts, and in general by the evil wild beast, are signified lusts arising from the love of self and of the world, from which are all evils of life and falsities of doctrine, is from correspondence, as is evident from appearances in the spiritual world. There all the lusts of evil and falsity appear as wild beasts of various kinds. Those also from whom such appearances arise resemble wild beasts, for their chief delight is to assault and destroy the good. This delight is an infernal delight, and is inherent in the loves of self and of the world, in which the hells are. From these considerations it is evident whence it is that by the evil wild beast in general are signified evils of life, or lusts and the falsities thence arising from the loves of self and of the world, which vastate all things of the church with man.
 So far it has been shown from the Word that wild beasts signify evil lusts and falsities, and specifically the lusts of ravaging and destroying goods and truths by means of falsities, thus the spiritual life of man. Now it shall also be shown that wild beasts in the Word signify also the affections of truth and good, which are opposed to the affections of falsity from evils, which are called lusts. The reason why wild beasts in the Word signify also the affections of truth and good is, because the expression, from which they are named and called in the original tongue, signifies life, for wild beast in that tongue is called chajah, and chajah signifies life, and in the affection of truth and good is the very life of the spiritual man; therefore when the wild beast is mentioned in this good sense in the Word, it is better to be changed and called animal, which signifies a living soul. But when in this sense wild beast (fera) is spoken of, the idea which adheres to the word fera in the Latin tongue must be entirely laid aside, for in that language the idea of wild and ferocious adheres to the word fera, and thus an idea unfavourable and evil. It is different in the Hebrew tongue, in which wild beast signifies life, and in general a living soul or animal; in this sense chajah or wild beast (fera) cannot be called beast (bestia), because everywhere in the Word wild beast (fera) and beast (bestia) are mentioned, and by wild beast (fera) is signified the affection of truth, and by beast (bestia) the affection of good. Because wild beast or chajah in this opposite sense signifies the affection of truth and good, therefore Eve, the wife of Adam, is called Chavah, from that expression; as is evident in Moses:
"And the man called his wife's name Eve (Chavah); because she would be the mother of all chaj, that is, living (Gen. iii. 20).
And also the four animals which were cherubim, are called from the same expression, chajah, in the plural; and because to the expression wild beast (fera) in the Latin tongue adheres the idea, of wild and ferocious as has been said, the translators have said animals. That from this word they are called cherubim, which appeared as animals, see Ezekiel i. 5, 13-15, 22; x. 15; and elsewhere.
Ezekiel 1:5, 1:13-15, 1:22, Ezekiel 10:15; Genesis 3:20)
 Similarly, the animals to be eaten, as lambs, sheep, she-goats, rams, kids, he-goats, heifers, oxen, cows, as also animals not to be eaten, are, in common language, called wild beasts (feroe), and yet all animals that are to be eaten signify good affections, for they are mild and useful, consequently, not wild and ferocious.
Thus in Moses:
"This is the wild beast (fera) which ye shall eat of every beast (bestia) among all the wild beasts that go upon four, to distinguish between the wild beast which is eaten, and the wild beast which is not eaten" (Lev. xi. 2, 27, 47).
And in another place:
"He that hunteth a hunting of the wild beast, and of the bird, which is eaten" (Lev. xvii. 13).
The animals also that were sacrificed, and have been named above, were termed wild beasts (fera).
Thus in Isaiah:
"And Lebanon is not sufficient to burn, and the wild beast thereof is not sufficient for a burnt offering" (xl. 16).
And in David:
"I will take no bullock out of thy house, nor he-goats out of thy folds for sacrifice. For every wild beast (fera) of the forest is mine, and the cattle (bestiae) upon the mountains of thousands. I know every bird of the mountains: and the wild beast of my fields is with me. If I were hungry I would not tell thee; for the world is mine, and the fulness thereof. Sacrifice unto God confession" (Ps. l. 9-14).
Isaiah 40:16; Leviticus 11:2, 11:27, 11:47, 17:13; Psalms 50:9-14, Psalms 50:9-12, 50:14)
 That wild beast signifies both the affection of truth and good, is further plain from the following passages. In Moses:
"In the seventh year, which is the sabbatical year, thou shalt let the land rest and lie still; that the poor of thy people may eat it, and that the wild beast of the field may eat the remainder of them" (Exod. xxiii. 11).
And in another place:
In the year of the sabbath, "all the produce which is in thy land shall be for meat for thy cattle [bestiae], and for the wild beasts (feroe)" (Lev. xxv. 6, 7).
Here by cattle (bestiae) and wild beasts (feroe), are meant lambs, sheep, she-goats, kids, rams, he-goats, heifers, oxen, cows, horses, and asses, but not lions, bears, boars, wolves, and similar rapacious wild beasts; therefore by wild beasts here, are meant domestic wild beasts, which are useful, by which are signified the affections of truth and good.
Exodus 23:11; Leviticus 25:6-7, Leviticus 25:7)
 In David:
"Praise Jehovah from the earth, ye whales, and all deeps; wild beast and all cattle; creeping thing, and winged bird; kings of the earth, and all peoples" (Ps. cxlviii. 7, 10, 11).
By these things are signified goods and truths of every kind in man, from which man worships God; and because from such things man worships God, and these are not of man, but of the Lord in Him, it is therefore to be understood that these things worship God, for no one can worship God from himself aright, but from God, that is, from the goods and truths which are of God in him. That no one can name Jesus from himself, but from the Lord, is known to some in the church, and is well known in heaven. By praising Jehovah is signified to worship Him; by whales and deeps are signified scientifics and knowledges (cognitions) in general or in the aggregate; by wild beast and all cattle are signified the affections of truth and good; by creeping thing and bird of every wing is signified the delight of good and truth pertaining to the natural and spiritual man. On this account it is also said, "Praise Jehovah, ye kings of the earth, and all peoples," by whom are signified the truths of good of every kind. That such things are signified by these words, is evident from their signification in the internal sense, and from the Word in heaven, where it is spiritual, because for the angels who are spiritual. (That the Word is also in the heavens, and there, according to the internal sense, may be seen in the work concerning Heaven and Hell, n. 259-261.)
Heaven and Hell 259-261; Psalms 148:7, Psalms 148:10-11)
"O God, thou makest the rain of benevolences to drop down, thou shalt confirm thy labouring inheritance; thy wild beasts shall dwell therein" (Ps. lxviii. 9, 10).
Here also the wild beast or animal means those who are in the affections of truth and good, or in the abstract, those affections themselves; for by the rain of benevolences which God causes to drop down, is signified the Divine truth from the Divine good. By the labouring inheritance which God shall confirm, is signified the church which is in Divine truth as to doctrine and life; the inheritance denoting the church where these are, which is called labouring from an earnest endeavour to do good. That the wild beasts shall dwell therein, namely, in the inheritance or church, signifies the affections of truth and good. That nothing else is meant here by wild beast, is evident, for the rapacious wild beast, that is, the lust of falsity and evil, cannot dwell in the inheritance upon which God causes the rain of benevolences to drop down.
 In Hosea:
"And in that day will I make a covenant for them with the wild beast (fera) of the field, and with the bird of the heavens, and with the creeping thing of the ground; and I will break the bow and the sword and the battle out of the earth; and I will make them to lie down safely. And I will betroth myself to thee for ever" (ii. 18, 19).
These things are said of a new church from the Lord; and by the wild beast of the field, the bird of the heavens, and the creeping thing of the earth, are signified the same as by those things above in David (Ps. cxlviii. 7, 10, 11), which have been already explained. By covenant is signified conjunction; thus, by making a covenant is signified to be conjoined (see n. 665, 666, 1023, 1038, 1864, 1996, 2003, 2021, 6804, 8767, 8778, 9396, 10,632). For Jehovah cannot make a covenant with or be conjoined with the affections of evil and falsity, or with the lusts signified by wild beasts in the former sense, and He cannot in any way make a covenant with the wild beast, bird, and reptile, but with such things as are signified by them. But these things may be seen more fully explained above (n. 357).
Arcana Coelestia 665-666, Arcana Coelestia 1023, 1038, Arcana Coelestia 1864, 1996, 2003, 2021, Arcana Coelestia 6804, Arcana Coelestia 8767, 8778, Arcana Coelestia 9396, 10632; Hosea 2:18-19; Psalms 148:7, Psalms 148:10-11; The Apocalypse Explained 357)
 In Ezekiel:
"Speak unto Pharaoh king of Egypt; Behold, Asshur, a cedar in Lebanon, beautiful in branch, and a shady wood, and high in stature. The waters made him to grow, whence his height became exalted above all the trees of the field, all the birds of the heavens made their nests in his branches, and under his branches every wild beast of the field brought forth; and in his shade dwelt all great nations; no tree in the garden of God was equal to him in beauty" (xxxi. 2-9).
By Pharaoh and Egypt is here signified the Scientific of the natural man; and by Asshur, the Rational which the Scientific serves, whose growth by true scientifics and knowledges (cognitions) is described by the cedar in Lebanon, by which also the Rational is signified. By the waters which caused it to grow are signified truths; and by the branches is signified extension, such as belongs to the thought of the rational man. Hence it is evident what is signified by, all the birds of the heavens built their nests in his boughs every wild beast of the field brought forth under his branches," and by, "in his shade dwelt all great nations," namely, rational and spiritual truths, affections of truth, and goods, of every kind. For by the birds of the heavens are signified the rational and spiritual truths of every kind; by the wild beast, the affections of truth; by bringing forth is signified to multiply, for from the affections of truth every spiritual birth or multiplication takes place; and by great nations are signified goods. (That birds signify thoughts, things rational, intellectual, and spiritual, thus, truths, because all things of the thought are either truths or falsities, may be seen, n. 745, 776, 866, 988, 991, 3219, 5149, 7441. That to bring forth signifies to multiply truths and goods, and that this is spiritual birth, n. 3860, 3868, 9325. That nations signify those who are in goods, and hence abstractedly goods, n. 1059, 1159, 1258, 1260, 1416, 1849, 6005; and above, n. 175, 331. That Pharaoh and Egypt signify the Scientific in both senses, good and evil, may be seen, n. 1164, 1165, 1186, 1462, 5700, 5702, 6015, 6651, 6679, 6683, 6692, 7296, 9340, 9391. And that Assyria signifies the Rational in both senses, n. 119, 1186.)
Arcana Coelestia 119, Arcana Coelestia 745, Arcana Coelestia 776, Arcana Coelestia 866, Arcana Coelestia 988, Arcana Coelestia 991, Arcana Coelestia 1059, 1159, 1164-1165, 1186, 1258, 1260, 1416, 1462, 1849, Arcana Coelestia 3219, Arcana Coelestia 3860, 3868, Arcana Coelestia 5149, 5700, 5702, 6005, 6015, 6651, 6679, 6683, 6692, Arcana Coelestia 7296, Arcana Coelestia 7441, Arcana Coelestia 9325, Arcana Coelestia 9340, 9391; Ezekiel 31:2-9; The Apocalypse Explained 175, The Apocalypse Explained 331)
 That Egypt signifies scientific truth, and Assyria rational [truth], and that everything rational pertaining to man has its birth by means of scientifics, or that these are subservient to it, as was said above, is evident from these words in Isaiah:
"In that day shall there be a highway out of Egypt into Assyria, that the Assyrian may come into Egypt, and the Egyptian into Assyria, and they shall serve Jehovah, the Egyptians with Assyria. In that day shall Israel be the third with Egypt and with Assyria, a blessing in the midst of the land; whom Jehovah Zebaoth shall bless, saying, Blessed be Egypt my people, Assyria the work of my hands, and Israel mine inheritance" (xix. 23-25).
Here Egypt signifies the Scientific, Assyria the Rational, and Israel the Spiritual.
 From the passages now adduced it is evident what is signified by the bird and the wild beast of the field, in Ezekiel:
"Thus said the Lord Jehovih; Say unto the bird of every wing, and to every wild beast of the field, Assemble yourselves, and come; gather yourselves on every side over my sacrifice that I do sacrifice for you, a great sacrifice upon the mountains of Israel, that ye may eat flesh and drink blood. Ye shall eat the flesh of the mighty, and drink the blood of the princes of the earth. And ye shall eat fat to satiety, and ye shall drink blood even to drunkenness, of my sacrifice which I will sacrifice for you. And ye shall be satisfied upon my table, with horse and chariot, with mighty man and with every man of war. So will I give my glory among the nations" (xxxix. 17-21).
That these things are spoken of the church to be established by the Lord among the nations, is evident from all the particulars here; therefore by the bird of every wing, and every wild beast of the field, which are to be assembled and to be invited to the sacrifice, are signified all those who are in the affection of truth and good, for by the flesh which they shall eat is signified the good of love; and by the blood which they shall drink, truth from that good; and by the sacrifice is signified the worship itself from these. But these things may be seen more fully explained above (n. 329).
Ezekiel 39:17-22, 39:17-21; The Apocalypse Explained 329)
 Sometimes, in the Word, wild beast (fera) and beast (bestia) are mentioned together, sometimes wild beast alone, also beast alone; and sometimes the wild beast of the earth, or the wild beast of the field; and when wild beast and beast are mentioned, then the affection or love of falsity and evil is signified; by the wild beast, the affection or love of falsity; and by beast, the affection or love of evil; or, in the opposite sense, by the wild beast, the affection or love of truth; and by the beast the affection or love of good. But when the wild beast only is mentioned, also when beast only, then by wild beast is meant the affection both of falsity and evil, and in the opposite sense, the affection both of truth and good; but by beast, the affection of evil and of falsity thence, and in the opposite sense, the affection of good and of truth thence. But concerning the signification of beast it will be seen below in its proper place. When, however, the wild beast of the earth is mentioned, the wild beast is meant which devours animals and men; but when the wild beast of the field is mentioned, the wild beast which consumes what is sown is meant; thus the wild beast of the earth signifies those things that destroy the goods of the church; and the wild beast of the field signifies those things that destroy the truths of the church; for by the earth, and also by field, is signified the church; but by the earth is signified the church from the nation and people there, and by the field, the church from what is sown, or from the reception of seeds.
Exodus 23:28-29; Ezekiel 31:1-10, Ezekiel 39:17-22; Hosea 2:2; Jeremiah 12:9-11; Leviticus 25:6-7; Psalms 50:9-14; Revelation 6:8)