The Bible

Genesis 1

English: King James Version

Study the Inner Meaning

Genesis 2 →

1 In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth.

2 And the earth was without form, and void; and darkness was upon the face of the deep. And the Spirit of God moved upon the face of the waters.

3 And God said, Let there be light: and there was light.

4 And God saw the light, that it was good: and God divided the light from the darkness.

5 And God called the light Day, and the darkness he called Night. And the evening and the morning were the first day.

6 And God said, Let there be a firmament in the midst of the waters, and let it divide the waters from the waters.

7 And God made the firmament, and divided the waters which were under the firmament from the waters which were above the firmament: and it was so.

8 And God called the firmament Heaven. And the evening and the morning were the second day.

9 And God said, Let the waters under the heaven be gathered together unto one place, and let the dry land appear: and it was so.

10 And God called the dry land Earth; and the gathering together of the waters called he Seas: and God saw that it was good.

11 And God said, Let the earth bring forth grass, the herb yielding seed, and the fruit tree yielding fruit after his kind, whose seed is in itself, upon the earth: and it was so.

12 And the earth brought forth grass, and herb yielding seed after his kind, and the tree yielding fruit, whose seed was in itself, after his kind: and God saw that it was good.

13 And the evening and the morning were the third day.

14 And God said, Let there be lights in the firmament of the heaven to divide the day from the night; and let them be for signs, and for seasons, and for days, and years:

15 And let them be for lights in the firmament of the heaven to give light upon the earth: and it was so.

16 And God made two great lights; the greater light to rule the day, and the lesser light to rule the night: he made the stars also.

17 And God set them in the firmament of the heaven to give light upon the earth,

18 And to rule over the day and over the night, and to divide the light from the darkness: and God saw that it was good.

19 And the evening and the morning were the fourth day.

20 And God said, Let the waters bring forth abundantly the moving creature that hath life, and fowl that may fly above the earth in the open firmament of heaven.

21 And God created great whales, and every living creature that moveth, which the waters brought forth abundantly, after their kind, and every winged fowl after his kind: and God saw that it was good.

22 And God blessed them, saying, Be fruitful, and multiply, and fill the waters in the seas, and let fowl multiply in the earth.

23 And the evening and the morning were the fifth day.

24 And God said, Let the earth bring forth the living creature after his kind, cattle, and creeping thing, and beast of the earth after his kind: and it was so.

25 And God made the beast of the earth after his kind, and cattle after their kind, and every thing that creepeth upon the earth after his kind: and God saw that it was good.

26 And God said, Let us make man in our image, after our likeness: and let them have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over the cattle, and over all the earth, and over every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth.

27 So God created man in his own image, in the image of God created he him; male and female created he them.

28 And God blessed them, and God said unto them, Be fruitful, and multiply, and replenish the earth, and subdue it: and have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over every living thing that moveth upon the earth.

29 And God said, Behold, I have given you every herb bearing seed, which is upon the face of all the earth, and every tree, in the which is the fruit of a tree yielding seed; to you it shall be for meat.

30 And to every beast of the earth, and to every fowl of the air, and to every thing that creepeth upon the earth, wherein there is life, I have given every green herb for meat: and it was so.

31 And God saw every thing that he had made, and, behold, it was very good. And the evening and the morning were the sixth day.

Genesis 2 →

   Study the Inner Meaning
From Swedenborg's Works

Main explanations:

Arcana Coelestia 4, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, ...

Apocalypse Explained 257

The Inner Meaning of the Prophets and Psalms 402


Other references to this chapter:

Arcana Coelestia 246, 300, 476, 478, 480, 670, 709, ...

Apocalypse Revealed 200, 414

Conjugial Love 132, 156

Divine Love and Wisdom 11, 18, 287, 358

Divine Providence 123, 328

Sacred Scripture 14, 103

Heaven and Hell 137

The Last Judgment 20

True Christian Religion 20, 34, 46, 48, 364, 490


References from Swedenborg's unpublished works:

Apocalypse Explained 229, 294, 401, 513, 526, 527, 555, ...

Canons of the New Church 45

Charity 91

Coronis (An Appendix to True Christian Religion) 23, 25, 28

De Verbo (The Word) 14

Spiritual Experiences 1973, 1974, 5605, 6110

Marriage 20, 34, 46, 48, 71

Hop to Similar Bible Verses

Genesis 2:3, 7, 16, 19, 5:1, 2, 6:1, 21, 8:17, 9:1, 2, 3, 6, 11:7

Exodus 20:11

Deuteronomy 4:19, 32:4

2 Kings 19:15

2 Chronicles 2:11

Nehemiah 9:6

Job 12:7, 9, 26:8, 38:8

Psalms 8:4, 7, 19:2, 24:2, 33:6, 7, 9, 74:16, 95:5, 104:6, 14, 19, 25, 115:15, 16, 121:2, 136:5, 7, 9, 148:4, 7

Proverbs 8:29

Ecclesiastes 3:11

Isaiah 40:26, 45:7, 61:11

Jeremiah 4:23, 10:12, 31:35

Jonah 1:9

Zechariah 12:1

Matthew 19:4

Mark 4:28, 10:6

Luke 3:38

Acts of the Apostles 4:24, 17:29

1 Corinthians 11:7, 15:38

2 Corinthians 4:6, 6:14

Colossians 3:10

1 Timothy 4:4

Hebrews 6:8, 11:3

James 3:9

2 Peter 5, 6

Revelation 4:11

Word/Phrase Explanations

Beginning
In the Word, "beginning" doesn't just mean the beginning of something in time. In the inner sense, it means the initial phase of a spiritual...

God
The Lord is love itself, expressed in the form of wisdom itself. Love, then, is His essence, His inmost. Wisdom - the loving understanding of...

created
The creation of heaven and earth in the first chapter of Genesis means the new creation of the celestial church called 'Man'.

heaven
"Heaven" and "heavens" are used many times in the Bible, with a couple of variations of meaning. Sometimes it is relatively literal, including times when...

Earth
"Earth" in the Bible can mean a person or a group of like-minded people as in a church. But it refers specifically to the external...

form
A person who has yet to be regenerated is called 'a void and an empty earth', and also 'ground where no good or truth has...

Void
A 'void', or 'Vacuity' denotes a person's state before regeneration. From Arcana Coelestia 7: "The first state is the state which precedes, both the state...

darkness
"Darkness" is a state without light. "Light" is truth from the Lord, so "darkness" is a state where truth is lacking.

Face of the deep
The face of the deep (Gen. 1:2) signifies the lust of the unregenerate man, and the falsities thence originating.

face
“The eyes are the windows of the soul.” That’s a sentiment with roots somewhere in murky antiquity, but one that has become hopelessly cliché because...

spirit
There are two aspects to the life of each person. We might call them "heart" and "mind," a part of us that wants and feels...

Spirit of God
'The spirit of God,' as in Genesis 1:2, signifies the divine mercy of the Lord. 'The spirit of God' is His emanation. 'The spirit of...

Face of the waters
The face of the water (Gen. 1:2) signifies the knowledges of good and truth.

waters
Water was obviously of tremendous importance in Biblical times (and every other time). It is the basis of life, the essential ingredient in all drinks,...

said
As with many common verbs, the meaning of “to say” in the Bible is highly dependent on context. Who is speaking? Who is hearing? What...

light
Nov. 4, 1879: Thomas Edison filed a patent for a long-burning light bulb. Nov. 5, 1879: The light bulb was universally accepted as the symbol...

saw
The symbolic meaning of "seeing" is "understanding," which is obvious enough that it has become part of common language (think about it; you might see...

good
It seems rather circular to say that “good” in the Bible represents good, but in a general sense it’s true! The case is this: The...

called
To call someone or summon someone in the Bible represents a desire for conjunction between higher and lower states of life. For instance, imagine someone...

night
The sun in the Bible represents the Lord, with its heat representing His love and its light representing His wisdom. “Daytime,” then, represents a state...

evening
Since the light and warmth of the sun represent the Lord’s wisdom and love, it makes sense that evening, a time when the light and...

morning
Morning comes with the rising of the sun, and the sun – which gives life to the earth with its warmth and light – represents...

the first
'Resurrection' signifies salvation and eternal life. 'The first,' mentioned in Revelation 20:5, 6, does not mean a first resurrection, but the essence and primary part...

Firmament
The firmament, as in Genesis 1, signifies the internal man. The firmament of heaven is mutual love.

midst
The "midst" of something in the Bible represents the thing that is most central and most important to the spiritual state being described, the motivation...

under
Generally speaking things that are seen as lower physically in the Bible represent things that are lower or more external spiritually. In some cases this...

Gathered together
'The waters were gathered together' signifies falsities collected.

one
A company might have executives setting policy and strategy, engineers designing products, line workers building them, managers handling personnel and others handling various functions. They...

place
'A room' or 'place' denotes state.

Land
Land' in the Word, denotes the church, for the things which signify the church also signify the things relating to the church, for these constitute...

Grass
Grass signifies the scientific principle. Just as green grass serves animals for support, scientific truth serves men for spiritual nourishment. ‘Grass’ is scientific truth, and...

Herb
Every herb in the Word signifies some species of scientifics. 'Herb bearing seed,' as mentioned in Genesis 1:29, signifies every truth which regards use. 'Green...

Seed
'A seed' signifies love, and everyone who has love, as in Genesis 12:7. 8:15, 16. 'A seed' signifies faith grounded in charity. 'A seed' signifies...

fruit
In Zechariah 8:12, 'the vine shall give her fruit, and the ground her increase,' signifies that the spiritual affection of truth produces the good of...

tree
In general, plants in the Bible represent facts, thoughts and ideas – intellectual things. This makes sense: Plants are rooted in place, but can grow...

after
According to Swedenborg, time and space don’t exist in spiritual reality; they are purely natural things that exist only on the physical plane. This means...

third
The Writings talk about many aspects of life using the philosophical terms "end," "cause" and "effect." The "end" is someone’s goal or purpose, the ultimate...

Third day
'The third day' signifies the end of a state of preparation for reception, and so an end of purification, as in Exodus 19:16. 'The third...

signs
The Bible often speaks of signs and miracles as things that convinced people of the Lord's leading. Swedenborg divides the two, identifying "signs" as things...

days
"Day" describes a state in which we are turned toward the Lord, and are receiving light (which is truth) and heat (which is a desire...

give
Like other common verbs, the meaning of "give" in the Bible is affected by context: who is giving what to whom? In general, though, giving...

two
The number "two" has two different meanings in the Bible. In most cases "two" indicates a joining together or unification. This is easy to see...

Great lights
Great lights, as in luminaries, signify love and faith, and are called in Genesis 1:14-17, the sun, moon, and stars.

stars
'The learned,' or 'wise,' who 'shall shine as the stars,' are people who are in good.

over
'Upon' or 'over' signifies being within.

fourth
'The fourth watch' signifies the first state of the church at break of day, when good begins to act by truth.

life
In John 14:6, 'the way is doctrine,' 'the truth' is every thing pertaining to doctrine, and 'the life' is the essential good which is the...

fowl
"Birds" mean rational concepts in the external man and intellectual concepts in the internal man.

Fly
To fly, when spoken of the Lord, signifies to foresee and to provide. To fly, when predicated of the Lord, also signifies omnipresence. To fly...

Open
To open,' as in Revelation 9, signifies communication and conjunction.

blessed
The Lord is perfect love expressed as perfect wisdom. He created us so that He could love us, could give us love and wisdom of...

Fruitful
To be fruitful is predicated of goodnesses, and to be multiplied, of truths.

multiply
'Spreading themselves on the earth,' as in Genesis 8:17, signifies the internal self operating on the external.

fill
There are two ways something can be filled: It can be filled with something bad against the wishes of its owner, or it can be...

bring
As with common verbs in general, the meaning of “bring” is highly dependent on context, but in general it represents an introduction to a new...

cattle
Animals in the Bible generally refer to spiritual activity, the things we actually do on a spiritual level. "Cattle," as typically used in the Bible,...

beast
"Beasts" represent the affection for doing good things, a true desire to do them from the heart. In the negative sense, "beasts" stand for the...

Us
Because people are governed by angels and spirits, in Genesis 1:26 it says 'let us make man into our image.' But because the Lord alone...

Make
'To make,' as in Hosea 8:11, refers to good. In the opposite sense it refers to evil. To make heaven, and earth, and the sea,...

man
The relationship between men and women is deep and nuanced, and one entire book of the Writings – Conjugial Love or Love in Marriage –...

Image
'An image' signifies falsities from self-derived intelligence.

Fish
Fish signify sensual affections which are the ultimate affections of the natural man. Also, those who are in common truths, which are also ultimates of...

sea
Water generally represents what Swedenborg calls “natural truth,” or true concepts about day-to-day matters and physical things. Since all water ultimately flows into the seas,...

own
In many cases, the spiritual meaning of "own," both as a verb and as an adjective, is relatively literal. When people are described as the...

female
Female signifies good.

Meat
'Meat,' as in Genesis 40:17, signifies celestial good, because 'the meat of the angels' are nothing but the goods of love and charity, which not...

green
The color green is almost exclusively used in connection with plants in the Bible (the exceptions include two stomach-turning references to moldy plagues in Leviticus),...

sixth
Like most numbers in the Bible, "six" can have various meanings depending on context, but has a couple that are primary. When used in relation...

Resources for parents and teachers

The items listed here are provided courtesy of our friends at the General Church of the New Jerusalem. You can search/browse their whole library at the New Church Vineyard website.


 Animals and Plants in Heaven
Worship Talk | Ages 7 - 14

 Celebrating the Seven Days of Creation
Offers a wide array of ideas for play time, art projects, field trips, and more.
Activity | Ages up to 10

 Correspondences of Light
Illustrations of three stories in the Word that talk about light. (Quotations are the King James translation.)
Coloring Page | Ages 7 - 14

 Creation Chain
Make a paper chain with the names (or pictures) of the people in your family and other things that the Lord has made. Or make a paper chain that illustrates several things in creation that depend on one another. 
Project | Ages 4 - 14

 Creation Diorama
A great family project to build and display in your home.
Project | Ages 4 - 10

 Creation Mobile
Assemble this lovely mobile to remind you of all the Lord's precious gifts to us.
Project | Ages 4 - 14

 Creation Poem with Hand Motions
A lovely poem about creation with hand motions.
Activity | Ages up to 10

 Creation | Seas to Trees Pop-up
Color cut-and-fold pop-up project showing dry land rising out of the water and then growing a tree illustrating Genesis 1:9-13. Sample activity from Creation: reflection of God, Level C, ages 11-14.
Sunday School Lesson | Ages 11 - 14

 Creation Sequencing Cards
Children can color and cut out these cards, then practice putting them in order from day 1-7.
Activity | Ages 4 - 10

 Creation Story (circle book project)
Sunday School Lesson | Ages 9 - 12

 Creation | The First Day - Level A
Complete lesson with activity choices: light and darkness game and song, separate light and darkness collage, scripted story discussion, coloring page, and a memory verse. Sample lesson from Creation: reflection of God, Level A, ages 3-6.
Sunday School Lesson | Ages 3 - 6

 Creation | The First Day - Level B
Complete lesson with activity choices: light and darkness experiment with accompanying video, let there be light folding paper project, scripted story discussion, coloring page, and a memory verse. Sample lesson from Creation: reflection of God, Level B, ages 7-10.
Sunday School Lesson | Ages 7 - 10

 Creation | The First Day - Level C
Complete lesson with activity choices: living in the dark--group blindfold games, video and discussion on the bible, creation and a can of peaches, scripted story discussion, and an illustrated quotation card. Sample Lesson from Creation: reflection of God, Level C.
Sunday School Lesson | Ages 11 - 14

 Family Worship: The Story of Creation
Ideas for reading and discussing the story of creation in Genesis 1. Includes suggestions for extending the experience such as going for a nature walk.
Religion Lesson | Ages 3 - 15

 God Said What? The Creation Story
Spiritual tasks offer a reflection on a Biblical story and suggest a task for spiritual growth.
Activity | Ages over 18

 Memory Verse: Giving Thanks for Creation
Activity | Ages 4 - 14

 Memory Verse: Life Is Eternal
Activity | Ages 4 - 14

 Overview of Creation Reflection of God Levels A, B, C for ages 3-14
Overview of Creation: reflection of God, Levels A, B, C for ages 3-14.
Sunday School Lesson | Ages 3 - 14

 Prophecies of the Advent
Prophecies of Jesus' advent on earth often use the image of new light dawning in darkness to describe the spiritual impact His birth would have on the world.
Sunday School Lesson | Ages 11 - 17

 Quotes: Giving Thanks for Creation
Teaching Support | Ages over 15

 Stars
Sunday School Lesson | Ages 9 - 12

 Summary of Creation and Thankfulness
This lesson discusses a story from the Word and suggests projects and activities for young children.
Sunday School Lesson | Ages 4 - 6

 Sun and the Fruit of Creation
Coloring Page | Ages 7 - 14

 Thankfulness
A Thanksgiving "wreath" to color and display.
Project | Ages 4 - 14

 Thanking the Lord for Creation
How can your words and actions show the Lord that you appreciate His creation?
Activity | Ages over 15

 The Creation
Worship Talk | Ages 7 - 14

 The Creation: A General View
A New Church Bible story explanation for teaching Sunday school. Includes lesson materials for Primary (3-8 years), Junior (9-11 years), Intermediate (12-14 years), Senior (15-17 years) and Adults.
Teaching Support | Ages over 3

 The Creation: The Fifth and Sixth Days
A New Church Bible story explanation for teaching Sunday school. Includes lesson materials for Primary (3-8 years), Junior (9-11 years), Intermediate (12-14 years), Senior (15-17 years) and Adults.
Teaching Support | Ages over 3

 The Creation: The First Four Days
A New Church Bible story explanation for teaching Sunday school. Includes lesson materials for Primary (3-8 years), Junior (9-11 years), Intermediate (12-14 years), Senior (15-17 years) and Adults.
Teaching Support | Ages over 3

 The Days of Creation Collage Book or Mural
Ideas from an art teacher for making a creation book or mural.
Project | Ages 4 - 10

 The Fifth Day of Creation
Lesson outline provides teaching ideas with questions for discussion, projects, and activities.
Sunday School Lesson | Ages 7 - 10

 The Fifth Day of Creation
A lesson for younger children with discussion ideas and a project.
Sunday School Lesson | Ages 4 - 6

 The First Day of Creation
Lesson outline provides teaching ideas with questions for discussion, projects, and activities.
Sunday School Lesson | Ages 7 - 10

 The First Day of Creation
A lesson for younger children with discussion ideas and a project.
Sunday School Lesson | Ages 4 - 6

 The Fourth Day of Creation
Lesson outline provides teaching ideas with questions for discussion, projects, and activities.
Sunday School Lesson | Ages 7 - 10

 The Fourth Day of Creation
A lesson for younger children with discussion ideas and a project.
Sunday School Lesson | Ages 4 - 6

 The Greatest Gift
Article | Ages 15 - 17

 The Meaning of the Tree of Life
Worship Talk | Ages over 18

 The Purpose of Creation
Birth brings a person into the natural world, but God's ultimate purpose is that a person be born again into heavenly life, the life of the spirit.
Sunday School Lesson | Ages 11 - 17

 The Second Day of Creation
Lesson outline provides teaching ideas with questions for discussion, projects, and activities.
Sunday School Lesson | Ages 7 - 10

 The Second Day of Creation
A lesson for younger children with discussion ideas and a project.
Sunday School Lesson | Ages 4 - 6

 The Seven Days of Creation
An illustrated story of the seven days of creation.
Story | Ages 3 - 7

 The Sixth Day of Creation
Lesson outline provides teaching ideas with questions for discussion, projects, and activities.
Sunday School Lesson | Ages 7 - 10

 The Sixth Day of Creation
A lesson for younger children with discussion ideas and a project.
Sunday School Lesson | Ages 4 - 6

 The Story of Creation
Family lessons provide a worship talk and a variety of activities for children and teens..
Religion Lesson | Ages 4 - 17

 The Story of Creation: Family Worship Ideas
Detailed notes on the seven days of creation.
Article | Ages over 18

 The Third Day of Creation
Lesson outline provides teaching ideas with questions for discussion, projects, and activities.
Sunday School Lesson | Ages 7 - 10

 The Third Day of Creation
A lesson for younger children with discussion ideas and a project.
Sunday School Lesson | Ages 4 - 6

 The Universe
Coloring Page | Ages 7 - 14

 The Word Made Flesh
Like Genesis, the Gospel of John begins with creation. While Genesis describes the creation of natural light, John describes a second creation into spiritual light.
Sunday School Lesson | Ages 11 - 17

 Two Great Lights
Coloring Page | Ages 7 - 14

 Using the Lord’s Creation
Worship Talk | Ages over 18

 Where Did Everything Come From?
Grandpa explains to Annika and Peter where everything came from.
Story | Ages 4 - 6

 Why Are We Here?
Lesson and activities to explore why we were created - what God intends for us.
Religion Lesson | Ages over 15

The Bible

Genesis 9:6

English: King James Version

Study the Inner Meaning

← Genesis 9:5    Full Chapter    Genesis 9:7 →

6 Whoso sheddeth man's blood, by man shall his blood be shed: for in the image of God made he man.

   Study the Inner Meaning
From Swedenborg's Works

Main explanations:

Arcana Coelestia 1009, 1010, 1011, 1012, 1013


Other references to this verse:

Arcana Coelestia 972, 999


References from Swedenborg's unpublished works:

Spiritual Experiences 155

Other New Christian Commentary

  Stories and their meanings:

Hop to Similar Bible Verses

Genesis 1:27, 42:22

Exodus 21:12

Leviticus 24:17

Numbers 35:16

Deuteronomy 19:11

2 Samuel 4:11

1 Kings 2:6, 9

2 Kings 11:1, 16, 20

2 Chronicles 33:24

Matthew 26:52

Word/Phrase Explanations

man
"Man" is a tricky word to discuss, because the Hebrew of the Old Testament uses six different words that are generally translated as "man," with...

blood
The internal meaning of “blood” is a little tricky, because Swedenborg gives two meanings that seem quite different. In most cases, Swedenborg links blood with...

Image
'An image' signifies falsities from self-derived intelligence.

God
The Lord is love itself, expressed in the form of wisdom itself. Love, then, is His essence, His inmost. Wisdom - the loving understanding of...

Resources for parents and teachers

The items listed here are provided courtesy of our friends at the General Church of the New Jerusalem. You can search/browse their whole library at the New Church Vineyard website.


 Correspondences of Color
Illustrations of three stories in the Word that mention colors. (Quotations are the King James translation.)
Coloring Page | Ages 7 - 14

 Ham, the Son of Noah
Worship Talk | Ages 7 - 14

 Noah and the Rainbow
Coloring Page | Ages 7 - 14

 Noah and the Rainbow
This lesson discusses a story from the Word and suggests projects and activities for young children.
Sunday School Lesson | Ages 4 - 6

 Noah Built an Ark
Coloring Page | Ages 7 - 14

 Noah (sheet music)
Song | Ages 4 - 14

 Rainbow Crown
Project | Ages 4 - 10

 Rainbow in the Clouds
Coloring Page | Ages 7 - 14

 Rainbows
Sunday School Lesson | Ages 9 - 12

 Reading Chart: Noah and Rainbow
Color a section of the rainbow each time you read or hear the Lord's Word.
Activity | Ages 4 - 10

 Shem and Japheth
Worship Talk | Ages 7 - 14

 The First Rainbow
The Lord makes a covenant with Noah and sends a rainbow.
Story | Ages 2 - 7

 The Rainbow
Coloring Page | Ages 7 - 14

 The Rainbow
A New Church Bible story explanation for teaching Sunday school. Includes lesson materials for Primary (3-8 years), Junior (9-11 years), Intermediate (12-14 years), Senior (15-17 years) and Adults.
Teaching Support | Ages over 3

 True Friendship
How are we to react to the faults of others? New Church teachings say we should have a person's good in mind particularly when we deal with their bad side.
Sunday School Lesson | Ages 11 - 17

From Swedenborg's Works

Apocalypse Explained #405

Apocalypse Explained (Tansley translation)

Study this Passage

Go to section / 1232  

← Previous    Next →

405. And every mountain and island were moved out of their places. That this signifies that all the good of love and the truth of faith perished, is plain from the signification of a mountain, as denoting the good of love to the Lord, concerning which we shall treat presently; from the signification of island, as denoting the truth of faith, which will be explained in the next article; and from the signification of, to be moved out of their places, as denoting to be taken away and to perish, since the good of love and the truth of faith are meant, for when these are moved out of their places, then evils and falsities succeed, and by the evils and falsities the goods and truths perish. The reason why a mountain signifies the good of love, is that in heaven those dwell upon mountains who are in the good of love to the Lord, and upon hills those who are in charity towards the neighbour, or what is the same, those who are of the Lord's celestial kingdom dwell upon mountains, and those who are of His spiritual kingdom, upon hills; and the celestial kingdom is distinguished from the spiritual kingdom in this [particular], that those who belong to the celestial kingdom are in love to the Lord, and those who belong to the spiritual kingdom in charity towards the neighbour (but concerning the latter and the former, see the work concerning Heaven and Hell, n. 20-28). These are the reasons why by a mountain is signified the good of love to the Lord.

(References: Heaven and Hell 20-28; Revelation 6:14)


[2] That the good of love to the Lord is meant abstractedly by a mountain, is, because all things in the internal sense of the Word are spiritual, and spiritual things are meant apart from persons and places; therefore also the angels, because they are spiritual, think and speak in the abstract in regard to such things, and thereby they have intelligence and wisdom; for an idea of persons and places limits the thought, because it confines it to those things, and thus limits it. This idea of the thought is properly natural, whereas an idea apart from persons and places extends itself into heaven in every direction, and is no otherwise bounded than the sight of the eye while it views the sky without intervening objects; such an idea is properly spiritual. Hence it is that by a mountain, in the spiritual sense of the Word, is signified the good of love. It is the same with the signification of the earth, as denoting the church; for an idea apart from places, and from nations and people upon the earth, is that of the church there or with those [who live there]; this, therefore, is signified by the earth in the Word. It is the same with other things mentioned in the natural sense of the Word, as with hills, rocks, valleys, rivers, seas, cities, houses, gardens, woods, and other things.

[3] That a mountain signifies love to the Lord, and hence all the good that is from it, which is called celestial good; and that in the opposite sense, it signifies the love of self, and hence all the evil that is from that, is plain from the following passages in the Word. In Amos:

"Dispose thyself towards thy God, O Israel. For, lo, he is former of the mountains, and the creator of the spirit, and declareth unto man what is his thought" (iv. 12, 13).

God is here called the former of the mountains, because mountains signify the goods of love; and the creator of the spirit, because spirit signifies the life therefrom; and because He thereby gives intelligence to man, it is added, and declareth to man what is his thought; for the intelligence of man is from his thought, which flows in from the Lord by the good of love into his life, therefore to declare here denotes to flow in.

(References: Amos 4:12-13)


[4] In David:

God "who setteth fast the mountains by his strength; he is girded with power" (Ps. lxv. 6).

By mountains here also are signified the goods of love; these the Lord establishes in heaven and in the church by means of His Divine truth, which has all power, therefore it is said, "He setteth fast the mountains by his strength; he is girded with power." In the Word, by the strength of God is signified Divine truth; and by power, when said of the Lord, all power or omnipotence. (That all power is in the Divine truth which proceeds from the Lord, may be seen in the work concerning Heaven and Hell, n. 228-233, and above, n. 209, 333; and that power when predicated of the Lord denotes omnipotence, see above, n. 338.)

(References: Heaven and Hell 228-233; Psalms 65:6; The Apocalypse Explained 209, The Apocalypse Explained 333, 338)


[5] In the same:

"I lift up mine eyes to the mountains, whence cometh help" (Ps. cxxi. 1).

By mountains are here meant the heavens; and because in the heavens those who are in the goods of love and charity dwell upon mountains and hills, as said above, and the Lord is in these goods, therefore to lift up the eyes to the mountains is also meant to the Lord, from whom is all aid. When mountains are mentioned in the plural number, both mountains and hills are meant, consequently, both the good of love to the Lord, and the good of charity towards the neighbour.

(References: Psalms 121:2)


[6] In Isaiah:

"There shall be upon every high mountain, and upon every lofty hill, streams, courses of waters, in the day of the great slaughter, when the towers shall fall" (xxx. 25).

The Last Judgment, here treated of, is meant by the day of great slaughter, when the towers shall fall. The great slaughter denotes the destruction of the evil; the towers which shall fall, denote the falsities of doctrine that are from the love of self and the world. That such things are signified by towers, is from appearances in the spiritual world, for those who seek to rule by such things as pertain to the church, build for themselves towers in high places (concerning which see the small work concerning the Last Judgment, n. 56, 58). That then those who are in love to the Lord, and in charity towards the neighbour, are raised into heaven, and gifted with intelligence and wisdom, is meant by,

"There shall be upon every high mountain, and upon every lofty hill, streams, courses of waters." The high mountain signifies where those are who are in love to the Lord, and the lofty hill, where those are who are in charity towards the neighbour; streams signify wisdom, and courses of waters intelligence; for waters denote truths from which are intelligence and wisdom.

(References: Isaiah 30:25; The Last Judgment 56, 58)


[7] In Joel:

"It shall come to pass in that day, that the mountains shall drop down new wine, and the hills shall flow with milk, and all the streams of Judah shall flow with waters" (iii. 18).

The Lord's advent is here treated of, and the new heaven and the new earth then [to be formed]. And by, the mountains shall drop down new wine, is meant all truth from the good of love to the Lord; by, the hills shall flow with milk, is understood spiritual life from the good of charity towards the neighbour; and by, all the streams of Judah shall flow with waters, is meant truths from the particulars of the Word by which there is intelligence (but these things may be seen more fully explained above, n. 376).

(References: Joel 3:18; The Apocalypse Explained 376)


[8] In Nahum:

"Behold upon the mountains the feet of him that bringeth good tidings, [that publisheth] peace" (i. 15).

In Isaiah:

"How delightful [upon the mountains] are the feet of him that bringeth good tidings, that publisheth peace; that saith unto Zion, Thy King reigneth" (lii. 7).

In the same:

"O Zion, that bringest good tidings, get thee up into the high mountain; O Jerusalem, that bringest good tidings, lift up thy voice with strength" (xl. 9).

These things are said concerning the Lord's advent, and the salvation then of those who are in the good of love to Him, and thence in truths of doctrine from the Word; and because the salvation of those is treated of, therefore it is said, "Behold upon the mountains the feet of him that publisheth peace," and, "O Zion, that bringest good tidings, get thee up into the high mountain." By publishing peace, is signified to preach the Lord's advent; for by peace, in the highest sense, is signified the Lord, and in the internal sense, all good and truth from the Lord (as may be seen above, n. 365); and by Zion, that bringeth good tidings, is meant the church which is in the good of love to the Lord; and by Jerusalem, that bringeth good tidings, the church which is thence in truths of doctrine from the Word.

(References: Isaiah 40:9, Isaiah 52:7; Nahum 1:15; The Apocalypse Explained 365)


[9] In Isaiah:

"I will set all my mountains into a way, and my highways shall be exalted. Sing, O heavens; and be joyful, O earth; and break forth into singing, O mountains; for Jehovah hath comforted his people" (xlix. 11, 13).

By mountains in the plural number, are meant both mountains and hills, thus both the good of love and the good of charity. That the mountains and hills shall be set into a way, and the highways shall be exalted, signifies that those who are in those goods, shall be in genuine truths; to be set into a way signifying to be in truths, and the highways being exalted, signifies to be in genuine truths. For ways and highways signify truths that are said to be exalted from good, and truths that are from good are genuine truths. Their joy of heart thence is signified by, "Sing, O heavens, be joyful, O earth"; internal joy [being signified] by, sing, O heavens, and external joy by, be joyful, O earth. Confessions from joy originating in the good of love, are signified by, "break forth into singing, O mountains"; that this is on account of reformation and regeneration, is signified by, "for Jehovah hath comforted his people." That mountains in the world are not here meant, is evident; for to what purpose would it be for the mountains to be set into a way, for the highways to be exalted, and also for the mountains to break forth into singing?

(References: Isaiah 49:11, 49:13)


[10] In the same:

"Sing, O ye heavens; shout, ye lower parts of the earth; break forth into singing, ye mountains, ye forest, and every tree therein; for Jehovah hath redeemed Jacob, and hath shown himself full of glory in Israel" (xliv. 23).

By, "Sing, O ye heavens, shout, ye lower parts of the earth, break forth into singing, ye mountains," are signified the same things as just above; but here by mountains are signified the goods of charity; therefore it is also said, ye forest, and every tree therein, for by a forest is meant the external or natural man as to all things thereof, and by every tree is meant the knowing and scientific part there. The reformation of those is signified by, "Jehovah hath redeemed Jacob, and hath shown himself full of glory in Israel." By Jacob and Israel is meant the church external and internal; thus the external and internal with those in whom the church is.

(References: Isaiah 44:23)


[11] In the same:

The mountains and hills shall break forth into singing, and all the trees of the field clap their hands" (lv. 12).

In David:

"Praise Jehovah, ye mountains and hills; ye tree of fruit, and all cedars" (Ps. cxlviii. 7, 9).

In these words is described joy of heart from the good of love and charity; and mountains, hills, trees, cedars, are said to break forth into singing, to clap their hands and to praise, because thereby are signified the goods and truths that are the cause of joys to man; for man does not rejoice from himself, but from the goods and truths that he has; these things rejoice because they make the rejoicing of man.

(References: Isaiah 55:12; Psalms 148:7, 148:9)


[12] In Isaiah:

"The wilderness and the cities thereof shall lift up their voice, and the villages that Arabia doth inhabit; the inhabitants of the rock shall sing, they shall shout from the top of the mountains" (xlii. 11).

By the wilderness is signified an obscure [state] of truth; by the cities thereof are signified doctrinals; by the villages, natural knowledges and scientifics. By Arabia is signified the natural man, for an Arabian in the wilderness denotes the natural man. By the inhabitants of the rock are signified the goods of faith, or those who are in the goods of faith. By the top of the mountains is signified the good of love to the Lord. Hence it is clear that the particulars signify in order, confession and joyful worship, from the good of love in such things as are mentioned; to shout from the top of the mountains, denotes to worship from the good of love.

(References: Isaiah 42:11)


[13] In David:

"The mountain of God is the mountain of Bashan; a mountain of hills is the mountain of Bashan. Why leap ye, ye mountains, ye hills of the mountain? God desireth to dwell in it; yea, Jehovah will dwell in it for ever" (Ps. lxviii. 15, 16).

By the mountain of Bashan is signified voluntary good, such as exists with those who are in the externals of the church; for Bashan was a region beyond Jordan, which was given for an inheritance to the half tribe of Manasseh, as may be seen in Joshua (xiii. 29-32); and by Manasseh is signified the voluntary good of the external or natural man. This voluntary good is the same as the good of love in the external man, for all good of love pertains to the will, and all the truth thence to the understanding. Therefore by Ephraim, his brother, is signified the intellectual truth of that good. Because the mountain of Bashan signifies that good, therefore by the hills of that mountain are signified goods in act. Because the will acts - for all the active part of the mind and body is from the will, as all the active part of the thought and speech is from the understanding - therefore the joy arising from the good of love is described and meant by leaping and skipping; hence it is clear what is signified by, "The mountain of God is the mountain of Bashan; a mountain of hills is the mountain of Bashan; why leap ye, ye mountains, ye hills of the mountain?" Because the Lord dwells in man in his voluntary good, whence [proceed] goods in act, therefore it is said, God desireth to dwell in it; yea, Jehovah will dwell in it for ever.

(References: Joshua 13:29-32; Psalms 68:15-16)


[14] In the same:

"Judah became the sanctuary of Jehovah, [and Israel his property]. The sea saw it and fled: Jordan turned back. The mountains leaped like rams, the hills like the sons of the flock. What possessedst thee, O thou sea, that thou fleddest? thou Jordan, that thou turnedst back? ye mountains, that ye leaped like rams; and ye hills, like the sons of the flock? Thou bringest forth, O earth, at the presence of the Lord, at the presence of the God of Jacob; who turned the rock into a pool of waters, the flint into a fountain of waters" (Ps. cxiv. 1 to the end).

The departure of the sons of Israel out of Egypt is thus described; nevertheless, without explanation by the internal sense, no one can know the signification of the mountains then leaping like rams, and the hills like the sons of the flock, also the meaning of the sea saw it and fled, and Jordan turned back; therefore it shall be explained. The establishment of the church, or the regeneration of the men of the church, is meant in the internal sense, for the church to be established is signified by the sons of Israel; the establishment, by their departure; the shaking off of evils is signified by the passage through the Red Sea, concerning which it is said that it fled; and introduction into the church is signified by the passing over Jordan, concerning which it is said that it turned back. But for the particulars: That Judah became a sanctuary, and Israel a property, signifies that the good of love to the Lord is the very holiness of heaven and the church, and that truth from that good is the means of government. For by Judah is signified celestial good, which is the good of love to the Lord; by the sanctuary, the very holiness of heaven and the church; by Israel, spiritual good, which is truth from that good by means of which there is government; for all government pertains to the Lord by means of Divine truth proceeding from the Divine good. By, "The sea saw it and fled; Jordan turned back," is signified that the evils and falsities which were in the natural man, having been shaken off, scientific truths and the knowledges of truth and good succeeded. "The mountains leaped like rams, the hills like the sons of the flock," signifies that celestial good, which is the good of love, and spiritual good, which is the truth from that good, from joy do goods, or produce an effect. Mountains signify the good of love; hills, the goods of charity, which in their essence are truths from that good; to leap, because said of these, signifies from joy to do goods. It is said like rams, and like the sons of the flock, because rams signify the goods of charity, and sons of the flock the truths thence. The establishment of the church thereby, or the regeneration of the men of the church, is signified by, "Thou bringest forth, O earth, at the presence of the Lord, at the presence of the God of Jacob; who turned the rock into a pool of waters, and the flint into a fountain of waters." The earth denotes the church, and it is said to bring forth, when it is established, or the man of the church is born anew; it is said, at the presence of the Lord, and at the presence of the God of Jacob, because where the good of love is treated of in the Word, the Lord is called the Lord; and when goods in act [are treated of, He is called] the God of Jacob. Regeneration by truths from goods is signified by, "He turned the rock into a pool of waters, and the flint into a fountain of waters." By a pool of waters are signified knowledges of truth, and by a fountain of waters is signified the Word from which these are; and by the rock, the natural man as to truth before reformation, and by the flint, the natural man as to good before reformation.

(References: Psalms 114:2-8)


[15] In the same:

"Thou hast brought a vine out of Egypt; thou hast cast out the nations, and planted it. The mountains were covered by its shadow, and the cedars of God by its branches" (Ps. lxxx. 8, 10).

By the vine out of Egypt is signified the spiritual church, which commences with man by scientifics and knowledges in the natural man; the vine denotes the spiritual church, and Egypt denotes the Scientific which is in the natural man. By, "Thou hast cast out the nations, and planted it," is signified that after evils were cast out, the church is established; the nations denoting evils, and to plant a vine denoting to establish that church. By, "The mountains were covered by its shadow, and the cedars of God by its branches," is signified that the whole [church is] from spiritual goods and truths; the mountains denoting spiritual goods, and the cedars of God denoting spiritual truths. That the bringing forth of the sons of Israel out of Egypt, and their introduction into the land of Canaan, whence the nations were expelled, are meant by these words, is evident; but still by the same words, in the internal sense, are meant such things as have been explained; nor was anything else represented and signified by the introduction of the sons of Israel into the land of Canaan, and by the expulsion of the nations thence; for all the historical parts of the Word, as well as its prophetical parts, involve spiritual things.

(References: Psalms 80:8, 80:10)


[16] In Isaiah:

"On all mountains that shall be weeded with the hoe, the fear of the briar and thorn shall not come thither; but there shall be the sending forth of the ox, and the treading of the sheep" (vii. 25).

By the mountains which shall be weeded with the hoe, are meant those who do goods from the love of good. What is signified by the rest may be seen above (n. 104), where they are explained. In the same:

"I will bring forth a seed out of Jacob, and out of Judah an inheritor of my mountains, that mine elect may possess it and my servants dwell there" (lxv. 9).

By Jacob and Judah is signified the church; by Jacob, the external church, which is in the knowledges of good and truth; and by Judah, the church which is in the good of love to the Lord; therefore, by a seed out of Jacob are signified the knowledges of good and truth, and hence those who are in them; and by the mountains, whose inheritor shall [be] out of Judah, is signified the good of love to the Lord, and thence those who are in it. By the elect who shall possess the mountain, are signified those who are in good, and by the servants, those who are in truths from good.

(References: Isaiah 7:25, Isaiah 65:9; The Apocalypse Explained 304)


[17] In Jeremiah:

"I will bring" the sons of Israel again "upon their land. Behold, I send to many fishers, who shall fish them; and I shall send to many hunters, who shall hunt them upon every mountain, and upon every hill, and out of the holes of the rocks" (xvi. 15, 16).

The establishment of a new church is here treated of, which was represented and signified by the bringing back of the Jews from captivity out of the land of Babylon into the land of Canaan. He who does not know what is signified by fishing and hunting, by a mountain, a hill, and by the holes of the rocks, can gather nothing from these words, but what is not even understood. That a church is to be established of those who are in natural good and in spiritual good, is meant by, "I will send fishers, who shall fish them; and hunters, who shall hunt them." To gather together those who are in natural good, is meant by sending fishers who shall fish them; and to gather together those who are in spiritual good, is meant by hunters who shall hunt them; because such are meant it is also said, upon every mountain, and upon every hill, and out of the holes of the rocks. By those who are upon the mountain are meant those who are in the good of love; by those who are upon the hill, those who are in the good of charity; and by those who are out of the holes of the rocks, those who are in the obscure things of truth.

(References: Jeremiah 16:15-16)


[18] In Ezekiel:

"Ye mountains of Israel, ye shall shoot forth your branch, and yield your fruit to my people Israel, when they draw near to come" (xxxvi. 8).

By the mountains of Israel are signified the goods of charity; that the truths of faith and the goods of life are thence, is signified by, "ye shall shoot forth your branch, and yield your fruit"; branch denoting the truth of faith, and fruit denoting the good of life.

(References: Ezekiel 36:8; Jeremiah 36:8)


[19] In Amos:

"Behold, the days come, that the ploughman shall overtake the reaper, and the treader of grapes him that scattereth [the seed]; and the mountains shall drop new wine, and all the hills shall flow. And I will bring back the captivity of my people" (ix. 13, 14).

What is signified by these words, may be seen above (n. 376), where they are explained. The mountains are said to drop new wine, and the hills to flow, because by mountains is signified the good of love to the Lord, and by hills the good of charity towards the neighbour, and by new wine truths; and hence by these words, that from both those goods they shall have truths in abundance, for by the bringing back of the people from captivity, concerning which those things are said, is signified the establishment of a new church.

(References: Amos 9:13-14; The Apocalypse Explained 376)


[20] In David:

Jehovah, "thy justice is as the mountains of God; thy judgments as a great abyss" (Ps. xxxvi. 6).

Because justice, in the Word, is said of good, and judgment of truth, it is therefore said that the justice of Jehovah is like the mountains of God, and His judgments like a great abyss; for the mountains of God signify the good of charity, and the abyss signifies truths in general, which are called truths of faith. That justice is said of good, and judgment of truth, may be seen, n. 2235, 9857.

(References: Arcana Coelestia 2235, Arcana Coelestia 9857; Psalms 36:6)


[21] In the same:

Jehovah "founded the earth upon its bases; thou coveredst it with the deep as with a garment; the waters stand above the mountains. At thy rebuke they flee; at the voice of thy thunder they haste away. The mountains ascend, the valleys descend, unto the place which thou hast founded for them. Thou hast set a boundary, they go not beyond [it]; they return not again to cover the earth. Who sendeth forth springs into the rivers, they run between the mountains. Who watereth the mountains from his chambers; the earth is satisfied with the fruit of thy works" (Ps. civ. 5-13).

By these words, understood in the spiritual sense, the process of regeneration is described, or the formation of the church with man. And by, "He founded the earth upon its bases," is signified the church with man, with its boundaries, and closings. By, "Thou coveredst it with the deep as with a garment," is signified that they are encompassed with scientifics in the natural man, as to its interiors, where the spiritual things of the church reside; the deep signifies scientifics in general, and garment signifies scientific truths, which are encircling and clothing. By, "the waters stand above the mountains," are signified falsities upon the delights of the natural loves, which delights are in themselves evils; the mountains denote the evils of those loves, and waters denote the falsities thence. That, at "Thy rebuke they flee, at the voice of thy thunder they haste away," signifies that falsities are dissipated by truths, and evils by goods from heaven. By, "the mountains ascend, and the valleys descend, unto the place which thou hast founded for them," is signified that in the place of natural loves, and of the evils therefrom, there are inserted heavenly loves, and the goods therefrom, and in the place of falsities general truths are admitted. By, "Thou hast set a boundary, they go not beyond [it]; they return not again to cover the earth," is signified that falsities and evils are kept without, separated from truths and goods, and enclosed lest they flow in again and destroy. By, He "sendeth forth springs into the rivers, they run between the mountains," is signified that the Lord, from the truths of the Word, gives intelligence, all things of which are from the good of celestial love; by springs are signified the truths of the Word; by springs sent into rivers, is signified intelligence thence; and by, "they run between the mountains," is signified that [they are] from the goods of celestial love, mountains denoting those goods. By, "Who watereth the mountains from his chambers," is signified that all goods are by means of truths from heaven, to water being said of truths, because waters denote truths; mountains denoting the goods of love, and chambers denoting the heavens, whence they [are]. By, "the earth is satisfied with the fruit of thy works," is signified that from the Divine operation the church continually increases with man; the fruit of works, when said of the Lord, denotes the Divine operation, and the earth denotes the church with man, the formation of which is here treated of, and it is said to be satisfied by continual increase. These are the arcana which are hid in these words. But who can see them, unless he knows them from the internal sense, and unless he is in knowledges, in this case, unless he has knowledge concerning the internal and external man, and concerning the goods and truths that constitute the church in them?

(References: Psalms 104:5-10, 104:13)


[22] In Zechariah:

"I lifted up mine eyes, and looked, when, behold, four chariots going forth between the mountains; and the mountains were mountains of brass" (vi. 1).

The new church to be established among the Gentiles is treated of in this chapter, for the new temple is treated of, by which a new church is signified. By the chariots going forth between the mountains, is signified the doctrine, which was to be formed from good by means of truths; chariots signifying doctrinals, mountains the goods of love, between the mountains signifying truths from goods; for the valleys between mountains signify lower truths, which are the truths of the natural man. In order that it may be known that by mountains are signified the goods of the natural man, it is therefore said, "and the mountains were mountains of brass," brass signifying the good of the natural man.

(References: Zechariah 6:1)


[23] In Zechariah:

"Jehovah shall go forth and fight against the nations; his feet shall stand in that day upon the mount of Olives, before the faces of Jerusalem from the east, and the mount of Olives shall be cloven asunder, part thereof toward the east and toward the sea, [and there shall be a very] great valley; and a part of the mountain shall withdraw toward the north, and a part of it toward the south. Then shall ye flee through the valley of my mountains; for the valley of the mountains shall reach towards Azal" (xiv. 3-5).

These things are said concerning the Last Judgment, which was accomplished by the Lord when He was in the world. For the Lord, when He was in the world, reduced all things to order in the heavens and in the hells, therefore He then brought about a judgment upon the evil and the good. This judgment is what is meant in the Word of the Old Testament, by the day of indignation, of anger, of wrath, of the vengeance of Jehovah, and by the year of retributions (concerning this judgment, see the tractate upon the Last Judgment, n. 46). That the Lord's advent and the judgment which then took place, are treated of in this chapter, is evident from these words in it:

"Then Jehovah my God shall come, [and] all the saints with thee. And in that day there shall not be light, brightness, and glittering; and it shall be one day which shall be known to Jehovah, not day nor night: for at evening time it shall be light" (verses 5-7).

The evening time denotes the last time of the church, when judgment takes place; then it is evening with the evil, but light with the good. When these things are first known, it is evident afterwards by the spiritual sense, what the particulars therein signify, namely, by, "Jehovah shall go forth and fight against the nations," is signified the Last Judgment upon the evil; to go forth and fight denoting to execute judgment, and the nations denoting the evil. By, "His feet shall stand upon the mount of Olives, before the faces of Jerusalem from the east," is signified that [this is effected] from the Divine love by means of Divine truths proceeding from His Divine good. For the mount of Olives, when said of the Lord, signifies the Divine love; Jerusalem, the church as to truths, and thence the Divine truths of the church; and the east, the Divine good. By, "the mount of Olives shall be cloven asunder, part thereof toward the east and toward the sea, [and there shall be a very] great valley," is signified the separation of those who are in good from those who are in evil; for, as has been said, the mount of Olives denotes the Divine love; the east denotes where those who are in the Divine good [dwell]; and the sea denotes where those who are in evil are, for the sea in the western quarter of the spiritual world separates. By, "part of the mountain shall withdraw toward the north, and part of it toward the south," is signified the separation of those who are in the falsities of evil from those who are in the truths of good; the north denotes where those are who are in the falsities of evil, because in darkness, and the south where those are who are in the truths of good, because in the light. By, "then shall ye flee through the valley of my mountains," is signified, that then those who are in truths from good shall be rescued; to flee signifying to be rescued; the valley of the mountains signifying where those are who are in the knowledges of truth, and thence in truths from good; for those who are in the knowledges of truth dwell in valleys, and those who are in good upon mountains. "For the valley of the mountains shall reach even unto Azal," signifies separation from the falsities of evil; for Azal signifies separation and liberation.

(References: The Last Judgment 46; Zechariah 14:3-5, 14:5-7)


[24] Because the mount of Olives, which was before Jerusalem eastward, signified the Divine love, and Jerusalem eastward the Divine truth proceeding from the Divine good, as mentioned above, therefore the Lord usually abode upon that mount; as is evident in Luke:

Jesus "was in the day-time teaching in the temple; and at night he went out, and abode in the mount that is called [the mount] of Olives" (xxi. 37; xxii. 39; John viii. 1).

Here also He discoursed with His disciples respecting His advent, and concerning the consummation of the age, that is concerning the Last Judgment (Matt. xxiv. 3 et seq.; Mark xiii. 3 et seq.). Thence also He went to Jerusalem and suffered (Matt. xxi. 1; xxvi. 30; Mark xi. 1; xiv. 26; Luke xix. 29, 37; xxi. 37; xxii. 39) and by this was signified that He did all things from the Divine love, for the mount of Olives signified it; for whatever the Lord did in the world represented, and whatever He spoke signified. The reason why He was in representatives and significatives, when He was in the world, was that He might be in the ultimates of heaven and the church, and at the same time in their primaries, and thus might rule and dispose the ultimates from the primaries, and all intermediates from primaries by means of ultimates; representatives and significatives being in the ultimates.

(References: John 8:1; Luke 19:29, 19:37, Luke 21:37, 22:39; Mark 11:1, Mark 13:3, Mark 14:26; Matthew 21:1, 24:3, Matthew 26:30)


[25] Because a mountain signified the good of love, and when said of the Lord, the Divine good of the Divine love, and from that good proceeds the Divine truth; therefore Jehovah, that is, the Lord, descended upon mount Sinai, and promulgated the law. For it is said that

He came down upon that mount, on the top of the mount (Exod. xix. 20; xxiv. 17);

and that there He promulgated the law (Exod. xx.). Hence also by Sinai in the Word is signified Divine truth from the Divine good, [and] also by the law there promulgated. And therefore also:

The Lord took Peter, James, and John into a high mountain, when He was transfigured (Matt. xvii. 1; Mark ix. 2);

and when He was transfigured, He appeared in the Divine truth from the Divine good; for His face, which [shone] as the sun, represented the Divine good, and His raiment, which was as the light, the Divine truth; and Moses and Elias, who appeared, signified the Word, which is Divine truth from the Divine good.

(References: Exodus 19:20, 20, 20:1, 24:16-17, 24:17; Mark 9:2; Matthew 17:1)


[26] Because a mountain signified the good of love, and, in the highest sense, the Divine good, and from the Divine good proceeds the Divine truth, therefore mount Zion was situated above Jerusalem; and by mount Zion in the Word is signified the church which is in the good of love to the Lord, and by Jerusalem the church which is in truths from that good, or the church as to doctrine. Therefore, Jerusalem is also called a mountain and a hill of holiness, for by a mountain of holiness is signified spiritual good, which in its essence is truth from good, similarly also by hill, as is evident in the following passages.

In Isaiah:

"It shall come to pass in the days that come after, that the mountain of Jehovah shall be on the top of the mountains, and shall be exalted above the hills; whence all nations shall flow unto it. And many people shall go and say, Come ye, and let us go up to the mountain of Jehovah, to the house of the God of Jacob" (ii. 2, 3).

In the same:

"And it shall come to pass in that day, that the great trumpet shall be blown, and they who were ready to perish shall come in the land of Assyria, and the outcasts in the land of Egypt, and they shall bow down to Jehovah in the mountain of holiness at Jerusalem" (xxvii. 13).

In Joel:

"Blow ye the trumpet out of Zion, and cry aloud in the mountain of holiness" (ii. 1).

In Daniel:

"Let thine anger and thy fury be turned away from thy city Jerusalem, the mountain of thy holiness" (ix. 16).

In Isaiah:

"And they shall bring all your brethren unto Jehovah, out of all nations, to Jerusalem, the mountain of my holiness" (lxvi. 20).

In the same:

"He that putteth his trust in me shall possess the land for a heritage, and shall inherit the mountain of my holiness" (lvii. 13).

In Ezekiel:

"In the mountain of my holiness, in the mountain of the height of Israel, all the house of Israel, all of them in the land, shall serve me; there will I accept them, and there will I require your offerings, and the first-fruits of your oblations, with all your holy things" (xx. 40).

In Micah:

In the end of the days the mountain of the house of Jehovah shall be established on the top of the mountains, and it shall be exalted above the hills; and the people shall flow unto it" (iv. 1).

Besides many other passages elsewhere, in which the mountain of holiness, mount Zion, and the mountain of Jehovah are mentioned;

The mountain of holiness, in Isa. xi. 9; lvi. 7; lxv. 11, 25; Jer. xxxi. 23; Ezek. xxviii. 14; Dan. ix. 20; xi. 45; Joel ii. 1; iv. 17; Obad., verse 17; Zeph. iii. 11; Zech. viii. 3; Ps. xv. 1; xliii. 3.

And the [following] where mount Zion is mentioned, Isa. iv. 5; viii. 18; x. 12; xviii. 7; xxiv. 23; xxix. 8; xxxi. 4; xxxvii. 32; Joel ii. 32; [iii. 5]; Obad., verses 17, 21; Micah iv. 7; Lam. v. 18; Ps. xlviii. 11; lxxiv. 2; lxxviii. 68; cxxv. 1, etc.

Because mount Zion signified the Divine Good, and the church as to that, therefore it is said in Isaiah:

"Send ye [the lamb] of the ruler of the land from the rock towards the wilderness, unto the mountain of the daughter of Zion" (xvi. 1).

And in the Apocalypse:

"A Lamb stood upon the mount Zion, and with him a hundred forty and four thousand" (xvi. 1).

(References: Daniel 9:16, 9:20, 11:45; Ezekiel 20:40, 28:14; Isaiah 2:2-3, Isaiah 4:5, Isaiah 8:18, 10:12, 11:9, Isaiah 16:1, 18:7, 24:23, 27:13, 29:8, Isaiah 31:4, Isaiah 37:32, Isaiah 56:7, Isaiah 57:13, Isaiah 65:11, 65:25, 66:20; Jeremiah 26:23, 31:23; Joel 2:1, 2:11, 2:32, 3:5, 3:17; Lamentations 5:18; Micah 4:1, 4:1-2, 4:7; Obadiah 1:16, 1:16-17, 1:17, 1:21; Psalms 43:3, Psalms 48:11, Psalms 74:2, 78:68; Revelation 14:1; Zechariah 8:3; Zephaniah 3:11)


[27] From these things it is also evident whence it was that the New Jerusalem, in which was the temple, was seen by Ezekiel constructed upon a high mountain, concerning which it is thus written:

"In the visions of God I was brought forth upon the land of Israel; he set me upon a very high mountain, upon which was as the building of a city on the south" (Ezek. xl. 2).

Much is said on this subject in the chapters which follow. In David:

"Great is Jehovah, and greatly to be praised in the city of our God, in the mountain of his holiness; beautiful for situation, the joy of the whole earth is mount Zion, on the sides of the north, the city of the great King. God is known in her palaces as a refuge" (Ps. xlviii. 1-3).

By these words is described the worship of the Lord from truths which are from good. The worship of Him from spiritual truths and goods, and the pleasure of the soul thence, is signified by, "Great is Jehovah, and greatly to be praised in the city of our God, in the mountain of his holiness; beautiful for situation." Worship is meant by, "to be great, and to be greatly praised"; spiritual truth, which is from spiritual good, by, "in the city of our God, the mountain of his holiness"; and the pleasure of the soul thence, by, "beautiful for situation." The worship of the Lord from celestial goods and truths is described by, "the joy of the whole earth is mount Zion, on the sides of the north, the city of the great King." Worship from celestial good is meant by, the joy of the whole earth is mount Zion, and truths from that good are meant by, on the sides of the north, the city of the great King; the sides of the north denoting truths from celestial good, and the city of the great King denoting the doctrine of truth thence. That truths are inscribed in those who are in celestial good, is signified by, "God is known in her palaces." The reason why the sides of the north signify truths from celestial good, is, because those who are in the Lord's celestial kingdom dwell in the east in heaven; and those who are in truths from that good, towards the north there.

(References: Ezekiel 40:2; Psalms 48:1-3)


[28] In Isaiah:

O Lucifer, "thou hast said in thine heart, I will ascend the heavens; I will exalt my throne above the stars of God; and I will sit on the mount of the assembly, on the sides of the north" (xiv. 12, 13).

By Lucifer is meant Babylon, as is evident from what precedes and follows in this chapter; his love of ruling over heaven and the church, is described by his ascending the heavens, and exalting his throne above the stars of God; by which is meant the love of dominion over those heavens that constitute the Lord's spiritual kingdom, for truths and the knowledges of truth with them appear as stars. And by his sitting on the mount of the assembly, on the sides of the north, is signified [the love of dominion] over the heavens which constitute the Lord's celestial kingdom; for the mount of the assembly, and the sides of the north, denote the goods and truths there, as said above. Because mount Zion and Jerusalem were built as much as possible according to the form of heaven, it is evident what is signified by the words adduced above from David:

"Mount Zion, on the sides of the north, the city of the great King";

and by the words in Isaiah:

"The mount of the assembly, on the sides of the north."

(References: Isaiah 14:13)


[29] In Isaiah:

"Sennacherib the king of Assyria said, By the multitude of my chariots I will come up to the height of the mountains, to the sides of Lebanon; where I will cut down the height of the cedars thereof, the choice of the fir-trees thereof" (xxxvii. 24).

By these words, in the internal sense, is described the haughtiness of those who, by reasonings from falsities, are desirous of destroying the goods and truths of the church. The king of Assyria signifies the Rational perverted. The multitude of his chariots signifies reasonings from falsities of doctrine; to come up to the height of the mountains, to the sides of Lebanon, and to cut down the height of its cedars, and the choice of its fir-trees, signifies the endeavour to destroy the goods and truths of the church as well internal as external. The mountains denote the goods of the church, the sides of Lebanon denote where those are conjoined with truths, Lebanon denoting the spiritual church, and the cedars denoting the internal truths thereof, which are from good, and the fir-trees denoting the external truths thereof, also from good. These are the things meant by those words in the spiritual sense, consequently, in heaven.

(References: Isaiah 37:24)


[30] A mountain and mountains also signify the goods of love and charity in the following passages. In David:

Jehovah "who covereth the heavens with clouds, who prepareth rain for the earth, who maketh grass to grow upon the mountains" (Ps. cxlvii. 8).

By the clouds, with which Jehovah covereth the heavens, are signified external truths, such as are in the sense of the letter of the Word; for those that are in that sense are, in the Word, called clouds, and those that are in the internal sense, [are called] glory. By the heavens are meant internal truths, because those who are in the heavens are in those [truths]. By the rain which He prepares for the earth, is signified the influx of truth, the earth denoting the church, and thence those therein who receive the truth, for the church consists of such. By the mountains on which He maketh grass to grow, are signified the goods of love, and thence those who are in the goods of love. Grass signifies the spiritual nourishment which they have; for grass is meant for beasts, and beasts signify the good affections of the natural man.

(References: Psalms 147:8)


[31] In Moses:

Of Joseph he said, Blessed of Jehovah be "Joseph's land, for the precious things of heaven, for the dew, and for the abyss lying beneath; for the first-fruits of the mountains of the east, and for the precious things of the hills of an age" (Deut. xxxiii. 13-15).

This is Joseph's blessing by Moses - or of the tribe named from Joseph - and this blessing was pronounced upon him, because by Joseph is signified the Lord's spiritual kingdom, and the heaven, there which next communicates with the Lord's celestial kingdom. By the land of Joseph is meant that heaven, and also the church that consists of those who will be in that heaven. By the precious things of heaven, by the dew, and the abyss lying beneath, are signified Divine-spiritual and spiritual-natural things, from a celestial origin; by the precious things of heaven, Divine-spiritual things; by the dew, spiritual things communicating; and by the abyss lying beneath, spiritual-natural things. By the first-fruits of the mountains of the east, and the precious things of the hills of an age, are signified genuine goods, both those of love to the Lord and of charity towards the neighbour; the mountains of the east denoting the goods of love to the Lord; first-fruits denoting genuine goods, and the hills of an age the goods of charity towards the neighbour. Those who do not know what is represented by Joseph and by his tribe, and besides that, what [is signified] by dew, the abyss lying beneath, the mountains of the east, and the hills of an age, can perceive scarcely anything of what such words involve, and generally can scarcely perceive the signification of anything of all those things said by Moses in that whole chapter concerning the tribes of Israel, and by the father Israel, in Gen. xlix.

(References: Deuteronomy 33:13-15)


[32] In Matthew:

"Ye are the light of the world. A city that is set on a mountain cannot be hid" (v. 14).

This was [addressed] to the disciples, by whom the church is meant that is in truths from good; therefore it is said, ye are the light of the world; the light of the world denoting the truth of the church. That it is not [truth] unless it is from good, is signified "by a city which is set on a mountain cannot be hid," a city on a mountain denoting truth from good.

(References: Matthew 5:14)


[33] In the same:

"If a man have a hundred sheep, and one of them be gone astray, will he not leave the ninety and nine on the mountains, and going seek that which is gone astray?" (xviii. 12).

It is said, "will he not leave the ninety and nine on the mountains?" for by sheep on the mountains are signified those who are in the good of love and charity; but by the one that is gone astray, is signified one who is not in that [good], because in falsities from ignorance; for where falsity is, there good is not, because good is of truth.

(References: Matthew 18:12)


[34] In the Evangelists:

"When ye shall see the abomination of desolation, spoken of by Daniel the prophet, then let him that is in Judea flee to the mountains; and let him that is on the roof not go down into the house" (Mark xiii. 14, 15; Matt. xxiv. 16; Luke xxi. 21).

In those chapters is described the successive vastation of the church by the Lord, but it is described by pure correspondences. "When ye shall see the abomination of desolation," signifies, when the disciples, that is, those who are in truths from good, perceive the church to be devastated, which takes place when there is no longer any truth because there is no good, or no faith because no charity. "Then let him that is in Judea flee to the mountains," signifies that those who are of the Lord's church should remain in the good of love; Judea signifying the Lord's church; and mountains, the goods of love; to flee to them denoting to remain therein. "Let him that is on the roof not go down into the house," signifies that he who is in genuine truths should abide therein, a house signifying the man as to all interior things of his mind, and hence the roof signifies intelligence from genuine truths, thus also the genuine truths by which intelligence [is formed in man]. Unless the spiritual sense illuminated the particulars which the Lord spake in these chapters of the Evangelists, scarcely anything contained therein would be known, thus what, "let not him that is on the roof go down into the house," may mean; and elsewhere, "let not him that is in the field return back to take his garments with" many other passages.

(References: Luke 21:21; Mark 13:14-15, 13:14, Mark 13:16; Matthew 24:15-17, 24:16-17)


[35] Hitherto it has been shown, that mountains in the Word signify the goods of love; and because most things in the Word have also the opposite sense, so also mountains, which, in that sense, signify the evils of the love, or the evils which flow forth from the loves of self and of the world. Mountains are mentioned in this sense in the following passages in the Word.

In Isaiah:

"The day of Jehovah of hosts shall come upon every one that is proud and lofty, and upon all the high mountains, and upon all the hills that are lifted up" (ii. 12, 14).

By the day of Jehovah of hosts is meant the Last Judgment, when the evil are cast down from the mountains and hills which they occupied in the spiritual world, as described in the beginning of this article; and because such dwelt upon mountains and hills before the Last Judgment, therefore by mountains and hills are meant the loves and the evils thence, in which they were; by mountains, the evils of the love of self; and by hills, the evils of the love of the world. It should be known, that all those who are in the love of self, especially those who are in the love of ruling, when they come into the spiritual world, have the greatest desire to attain high places, this being inherent in that love; whence also it has come to be said in common speech, "To be of a high and lofty mind," and "To aspire after high things." The real reason why there is such a desire in the love of ruling, is, that they wish to make themselves gods, and God is in the highest. That mountains and hills signify those loves and thence the evil thereof, is evident, for it is said, the day of Jehovah of hosts shall come upon every one that is proud and lofty, and upon all the high mountains, and upon all the hills that are lifted up. What otherwise would be the object of His coming upon the mountains and hills'?

(References: Isaiah 2:12, 2:14)


[36] In the same:

"The voice of him that crieth in the wilderness, Prepare ye the way of Jehovah, make straight a highway for our God. Every valley shall be exalted, and every mountain and hill shall be made low" (xl. 3, 4).

Here also the Lord's advent and the Last Judgment at that time are treated of. And by, "The voice of him that crieth in the wilderness, Prepare ye the way of Jehovah," and "a highway for our God," is signified that they should prepare themselves to receive the Lord; the wilderness signifies where there is no good, because no truth, thus where there is as yet no church. By, "every valley shall be exalted, and every mountain and hill shall be made low," is signified that all the humble in heart, who are those that are in goods and truths, shall be received, for those who are received by the Lord are raised up to heaven; and by, "every mountain and hill shall be made low," is signified that all those who are lofty in mind, these being those that are in the love of self and the world, shall be put down.

(References: Isaiah 40:3-4)


[37] In Ezekiel:

"For I will give the land to desolation and wasteness, that the pomp of strength may cease; and the mountains of Israel are desolate, that none pass through" (xxxiii. 28).

The desolation and vastation of the spiritual church, which the Israelites represented, are described by these words; for the Jews represented the Lord's celestial kingdom, or the celestial church, but the Israelites the Lord's spiritual kingdom, or the spiritual church. The desolation and vastation of the latter signify the last state of the former church, which was when there was no longer any truth because no good, or, when there was no faith because no charity; desolation is said of truth which is of faith; and wasteness, of good which is of charity. The boasting and loftiness of mind from falsities which they declare to be truths, is signified by "the pomp of strength," strength and power being said of truths from good, because such possess all strength and all power; here, however, [they are said] of falsities, because from boasting and loftiness of mind. That there is no longer any good of charity and faith, is signified by, "the mountains of Israel are desolated." That there was no longer any good but [what was] altogether evil, is signified by that none pass through."

(References: Ezekiel 33:28)


[38] In the same:

"Son of man, set thy faces toward the mountains of Israel, and prophesy against them, and say, Ye mountains of Israel, hear the word of the Lord Jehovih; Thus said the Lord Jehovih to the mountains and to the hills, to the channels and to the valleys; Behold I will bring a sword upon you" (vi. 2, 3).

Here, also, by the mountains of Israel are signified the, evils proceeding from the love of self and of the world, which exist with those who are in the spiritual church, when they no longer possess any good of life, but evil of life and the falsity of doctrine thence. By mountains, hills, channels, and valleys, are signified all things of the church, both the interior or spiritual and the exterior or natural. The mountains and hills signify things interior or spiritual; the channels and valleys things exterior or natural; that they should perish by falsities, is signified by, "Behold I will bring a sword upon you." A sword denotes the destruction of falsity by truths, but in an opposite sense, as here, the destruction of truth by falsities.

(References: Ezekiel 6:2-3)


[39] In the same:

"In the day in which Gog shall come upon the land of Israel, the fishes of the sea shall tremble before me, and the bird of the heavens, and the wild beast of the field, and every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth, and every man who is upon the faces of the earth, and the mountains shall be thrown down, and the steps shall fall, and every wall shall fall to the ground; then I will call for a sword against him throughout all my mountains" (xxxviii. 18-21).

What is signified by all these things may be seen above (n. 400), where they are explained, namely, the signification of Gog, the fishes of the sea, the bird of the heavens, the wild beast of the field, the creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth; and that by the mountains of Israel are signified the goods of spiritual love, but here the evils of the love [that are] opposed to those goods.

(References: Ezekiel 38:18-21, 38:18, 38:20-21; The Apocalypse Explained 400)


[40] In Micah:

"Arise, contend thou with the mountains, that the hills may hear thy voice. Hear, O ye mountains, the controversy of Jehovah, and ye strong foundations of the earth; for Jehovah hath a controversy with his people, and he will plead with Israel" (vi. 1, 2).

These things also are spoken of the spiritual church, which the Israelites separated from the Jews, represented; and by mountains are meant the goods of charity, and by hills the goods of faith; here, however, the evils and falsities opposed to those goods; therefore it is said, "contend thou with the mountains, and let the hills hear thy voice." The strong foundations of the earth denote the principles of falsity in that church, the earth denoting the church, and foundations denoting the principles upon which the other things are founded. It is said, with His people, with Israel, because by people are meant those who are in truths, and those who are in falsities; and by Israel, those who are in goods, and those who are in evils.

(References: Micah 6:1-2)


[41] In Jeremiah:

"Behold, I am against thee, O destroying mountain, destroying the whole earth; and I will stretch out my hand against thee, and roll thee down from the rocks, and will make thee a mountain of burning" (li. 25).

These things are said of Babylon, by which are meant those who are in the falsities of evil, and in the evils of falsity, from the love of self, for they abuse the holy things of the church as a means of ruling. It is from that love, and the falsities and evils thence, that it is called a destroying mountain, destroying the whole earth, the earth denoting the church. Their destruction and damnation by the falsities of evil, is signified by, "I will roll thee down from the rocks," rocks denoting where the truths of faith are, here the falsities of evil; and their destruction and damnation by the evils of falsity, is signified by, "I will make thee a mountain of burning"; burning being said of the love of self, because fire signifies that [love] (as may be seen in the work concerning Heaven and Hell, n. 566-573). From these things it is quite clear, that by mountains are signified the evils of the love of self and of the world, because Babylon is called a destroying mountain, and will be made a mountain of burning. In Nahum:

"The mountains quake before him, and the hills melt, and the whole earth is burned up before him, yea, who can stand before his rebuking?" (i. 5, 6).

What these words signify in series may be seen above (n. 400), where the particulars are explained; and that the mountains and hills here denote the evils of the love of self and of the world.

(References: Heaven and Hell 566-573; Jeremiah 51:25; Nahum 1:5-6; The Apocalypse Explained 400)


[42] In Micah:

"Jehovah going forth out of his place, will come down and tread upon the high places of the earth. And the mountains are melted under him, and the valleys are cleft, as wax before the fire, and as waters poured down a steep place; on account of the transgressions of Jacob is all this, and on account of the sins of the house of Israel" (i. 3-5).

These things are also said of the Last Judgment, and of those who then made to themselves a resemblance of heaven upon mountains and hills, concerning whom we have frequently treated above. The Last Judgment is meant by, "Jehovah going forth out of His place, will come down and tread upon the high places of the earth"; upon the high places of the earth signifying upon those who are in high places, namely, those upon whom judgment is accomplished; for in the spiritual world there are earths, mountains, hills, and valleys, just as in the natural world. The destruction of those who are upon the mountains and in the valleys, these being those who are in evils from the love of self and of the world, and in the falsities thence, is signified by, "the mountains are melted under him, and the valleys are cleft, as wax before the fire, as waters poured down a steep place"; mountains signifying the evils of the loves of self and of the world, and valleys the falsities thence. Concerning the evils of the loves of self and of the world signified by mountains, it is said that they are melted as wax before the fire, because fire signifies those loves; and concerning the falsities signified by valleys, it is said as waters poured down a steep place, because waters signify falsities.

(References: Micah 1:3-5)


[43] That this is on account of evils and falsities, is clear, for it is said, "on account of the transgressions of Jacob is all this, and on account of the sins of the house of Israel."

In Jeremiah:

"I looked to the earth, and, lo, it was empty and void; and towards the heavens, and they had no light. I beheld the mountains, and, lo, they trembled, and all the hills were overturned. I beheld, and, lo, there was no man, and every bird of the heaven had fled" (iv. 23-25).

By the trembling of the mountains is signified the destruction of those who are in the evils of the love of self, and by the overturning of the hills, the destruction of those who are in the evils of the love of the world, and in falsities; the other particulars may be seen explained above (n. 280, and 304).

In Isaiah:

O Jehovah, "that thou wouldst rend the heavens, that thou wouldst come down, that the mountains might flow down before thee" (lxiv. 1).

These words signify the same as those explained above on Micah i. 3-5.

(References: Isaiah 63:19, Isaiah 64:1; Jeremiah 4:23-25; Micah 1:3-5; The Apocalypse Explained 280, The Apocalypse Explained 304)


[44] In David:

"Bow thy heavens, O Jehovah, and come down; touch the mountains, that they may smoke. Cast forth lightning and scatter them" (Ps. cxliv. 5, 6).

By, to bow the heavens and come down, is signified the same as above, by rending the heavens and coming down, by going forth out of His place, to come down and tread upon the high places of the earth, namely, to visit and judge. By, to touch the mountains that they may smoke, is signified by His presence to destroy those who are in the evils of the loves of self and of the world, and in the falsities thence; to smoke signifies to be let into the evils of those loves and into their falsities, for fire signifies those loves, and smoke their falsities. By, cast forth lightning, and scatter them, is signified the Divine truth, by which they are dissipated, for by the presence of the Divine truth evils and falsities are discovered, and by the collision at the time, they appear as lightnings.

(References: Psalms 144:5-6)


[45] In Moses:

"A fire is kindled in mine anger, and shall burn unto the lowest hell, and shall consume the earth and her increase, and set on fire the foundations of the mountains" (Deut. xxxii. 22).

It is said that a fire is kindled of Jehovah in His anger, which shall burn unto the lowest hell, although Jehovah has not any fire of anger in Him, much less that which burns to the lowest hell; for Jehovah, that is, the Lord, is never angry with any one, nor does evil to any one, neither does He cast any one into hell (as may be seen in the work concerning Heaven and Hell, n. 545-550); but it is so said in the sense of the letter of the Word, because it so appears before the evil man, and also before the simple man; for the Word in the letter is according to the appearance, because according to the apprehension of natural men. But whereas the angels, who are spiritual, do not see the truths themselves of the Word, apparently according to the apprehension of man, but spiritually, therefore the sense of such expressions, which also is the internal or spiritual sense, is inverted with them, namely, that the infernal love with man is such a fire, and burns even to the lowest hell; and because that fire, that is, that love utterly destroys all things of the church with man, it is therefore said that it shall consume the earth and her increase, and set on fire the foundations of the mountains; the earth denoting the church, her increase everything pertaining to the church, the foundations of the mountains denoting the truths upon which the goods of love are founded, which are said to be set on fire by the fire of the love of self and of the world. In David:

Then the earth shook and trembled; and the foundations of the mountains were moved and shaken, because he was wroth" (Ps. xviii. 7).

Similar things are meant by these words; and may be seen particularly explained above (n. 400).

In the same:

"God is for us a refuge. Therefore will not we fear, when the earth shall be changed, and the mountains be removed into the heart of the seas; they shall make an uproar, the waters thereof shall be troubled, the mountains shall tremble in the pride thereof" (Ps. xlvi. 1-3).

These words also may be seen explained above, n. 301, and also what is signified by the mountains shall be removed into the heart of the seas, and, the mountains shall tremble in pride, namely, the evils of the loves of self and of the world, shall dazzle according to their increase.

(References: Deuteronomy 32:22; Heaven and Hell 545-550; Psalms 18:7, Psalms 44:1-3, Psalms 46:1-3; The Apocalypse Explained 304, The Apocalypse Explained 400)


[46] In Isaiah:

The anger of Jehovah is against all nations, and wrath upon all their army: he hath devoted them, he hath delivered them to the slaughter, so that their slain shall be cast out, and the stink of their carcases shall come up, and the mountains shall be melted with their blood" (xxxiv. 2, 3).

These things are said concerning the Last Judgement; and by the anger of Jehovah against all nations, and by His wrath against all their army, is signified the destruction and damnation of all who are in evils and the falsities thence. That such as are in these shall be accursed and perish, is signified by, "He hath devoted them, he hath delivered them to the slaughter." The damnation of those who would perish by falsities is signified by, "their slain shall be cast out," slain, in the Word, being said of those who have perished by falsities, and to be cast out signifying to be damned. The damnation of those who would perish by evils is signified by, "the stink of their carcases shall come up"; carcases, in the Word, being said of those who have perished by evils, and stink signifying their damnation. "The mountains shall be melted with their blood," signifies that the evils of the loves with those have reference to falsities; mountains denoting the evils of the loves of self and of the world, and blood denoting falsity.

(References: Isaiah 34:2-3)


[47] In the same:

"I will make waste mountains and hills, and dry up all their herb; and I will make the rivers islands, and I will dry up the pools" (xlii. 15).

By making waste the mountains and hills, is signified to destroy all the good of love to the Lord and towards the neighbour; by drying up all the herb, is signified thence to destroy all truths, herb signifying truths springing from good. By making the rivers islands, and drying up the pools, is signified to annihilate all understanding and perception of truth; rivers, signifying intelligence which is of truth; islands, where there is no intelligence, pools signifying the perception of truth; the understanding of truth is from the light of truth, but the perception of truth is from the heat or love of truth.

(References: Isaiah 42:15)


[48] In the same:

"Behold, Jacob, I will make thee a new threshing instrument having sharp teeth; thou shalt thresh the mountains, and beat them small, and shalt make the hills as chaff. Thou shalt fan them, that the wind may carry them away, and the whirlwind scatter them" (xli. 15, 16).

By Jacob is meant the external church as to good and truth, and hence also external good and truth, which are good and truth from the sense of the letter of the Word. In these those are who belong to the external church. The reason why these are compared to a new threshing instrument having sharp teeth, is, because a threshing instrument strikes out the wheat, barley, and other grain, from the ears, and by these are signified the goods and truths of the church (as may be seen above, n. 374, 375); also that it would here bruise and break evils and falsities, therefore it is said, "a threshing instrument having sharp teeth," that thou mayest thresh the mountains, and beat them small, and that thou mayest make the hills as chaff, by which is signified the destruction of the evils arising from the love of self and of the world, and also of the falsities hence. And it is also said, thou shalt fan them, that the wind may carry them away, and the whirlwind scatter them, by which is signified that they shall be of no account. The wind and whirlwind are both mentioned, because evils and falsities are meant; for the wind is said of truths, and in an opposite sense of falsities, and a whirlwind of the evils of falsity.

(References: Isaiah 41:15-16; The Apocalypse Explained 374-375)


[49] In the same:

"The mountains shall depart, and the hills be removed, but my mercy shall not depart from thee" (liv. 10).

By the mountains shall depart, and the hills be removed, is not meant that the mountains and hills in the world would depart and be removed, but those who are in evil loves, and in the falsities thence; for the Gentiles from whom a new church is to be formed are treated of in this chapter, therefore by the mountains and hills are specifically meant those of the former church, consequently the Jews, with whom were mere evils of falsity and falsities of evil, because they were in the loves of self and of the world.

(References: Isaiah 54:10)


[50] In Jeremiah:

"For the mountains will I take up a weeping and wailing, and for the habitations of the wilderness a lamentation, because they are wasted that no man passeth through them" (ix. 10).

The mountains, over which there is weeping and lamentation, denote evils of every kind flowing forth from the two loves above-mentioned; and by the habitations of the wilderness are signified the falsities thence; for by the wilderness is signified, where there is no good because no truth; and by habitations, where these are; here, therefore, the habitations of the wilderness denote falsities from the evils before mentioned; there being no good and truth at all is meant by their being wasted, that no man passeth through them. It is usually said in the Word, where vastation is treated of, that no man passeth through, and thereby is signified that there is no longer any truth, and, consequently, no intelligence. That they are not mountains and habitations of the wilderness that are here meant, and over which there are weeping and lamenting, is evident.

(References: Jeremiah 9:10)


[51] In the same:

"My people have been lost sheep; their shepherds have caused them to go astray, the mountains have turned away; they have gone from mountain to hill, they have forgotten their resting place" (l. 6).

In Ezekiel:

"My sheep wander upon all the mountains, and upon every high hill; my sheep are scattered over all the faces of the earth, and there is none to search or to seek" (xxxiv. 6).

That the sheep have gone from mountain to hill, and that they wander upon all the mountains and upon every high hill, signifies that they seek goods and truths, but do not find them, and that instead thereof they seize upon evils and falsities. That the mountains have turned away, signifies that instead of goods there are evils.

(References: Ezekiel 34:6; Jeremiah 50:6)


[52] In Jeremiah:

"Give glory to Jehovah your God, before he cause darkness, and before your feet stumble upon the mountains of twilight" (xiii. 16).

By these words is signified that Divine truth is to be acknowledged, lest falsities and the evils thence should break in from the natural man. To give glory to God, signifies to acknowledge the Divine truth, glory in the Word signifying Divine truth; and to acknowledge this, and live according to it, is the glory which the Lord desires, and which is given to Him. "Before he cause darkness," signifies, lest falsities take possession, darkness denoting falsities; "and before your feet stumble upon the mountains of twilight," signifies, lest the evils thence from the natural man [take possession], mountains of twilight denoting evils of falsity; for mountains denote evils, and it is twilight when truth is not seen, but instead thereof falsity; and feet signifying the natural man, for all evils and the falsities thence are in the natural man, because man from his hereditary nature is moved to love himself above God, and the world above heaven, and also the evils adhering to those loves from his parents. These evils and the falsities thence are not removed except by means of Divine truth, and a life according to it. By these the higher or interior mind of man is opened, which sees from the light of heaven, and by this light the Lord disperses the evils and the falsities in the natural mind. (That feet signify the natural man, may be seen above, n. 65, 69; and in the Arcana Coelestia, n. 2162, 3147, 3761, 3986, 4280, 4938-4952.)

(References: Arcana Coelestia 2162, Arcana Coelestia 3147, 3761, 3986, 4280, 4938-4952; Jeremiah 13:16; The Apocalypse Explained 65, 69)


[53] In the Evangelists:

Jesus saith unto his disciples, "Have the faith of God; verily I say unto you, Whosoever shall say unto a mountain, Be thou removed, and cast thyself into the sea; and shall not doubt in his heart, but shall believe that those things which he saith shall come to pass; those things which he said shall be accomplished for him" (Mark xi. 22, 23; Matt. xvii. 20).

He who does not know the arcana of heaven, and the spiritual sense of the Word, may suppose that the Lord spoke these words, not concerning saving faith, but concerning some other faith, which they call historical and miraculous; but the Lord spoke them of saving faith, which faith makes one with charity, and all [such faith] being from the Lord, therefore the Lord calls this faith the faith of God. And because the Lord by this faith, which is the faith of charity from Him, removes all the evils flowing from the loves of self and of the world, and casts them into hell whence they originate, therefore He says, [whosoever] shall say unto a mountain, "Be thou removed, and cast thyself into the sea"; for by a mountain are signified the evils of those loves, and by the sea is signified hell. Hence, by saying to a mountain, "Be thou removed," is signified the removal of those things, and by being cast into the sea, is signified to be cast down into hell whence they originate. From such signification of a mountain and of the sea, this became a common expression amongst the ancients, when the power of faith was the subject of discourse; not that the mountains on the earth could thereby be cast into the sea, but that evils from hell could. The mountains also in the spiritual world, upon which the evil dwell, are usually overturned and cast down by faith from the Lord; for when the evils with them are cast down, the mountains also upon which they dwell are cast down, as has been said above many times, and also often seen by me. That no other faith but the faith of charity from the Lord is here meant, is evident from the continuation of the Lord's discourse in Mark, where it is said:

"Therefore I say unto you, All things whatsoever which praying ye ask, believe that ye will receive, then shall it be done unto you. But when ye stand praying, forgive, if ye have ought against any, that your Father also who is in the heavens, may forgive you your trespasses. But if ye do not forgive, neither will your Father who is in the heavens, forgive your trespasses" (xi. 24-26).

From these words it is evident that the faith of God, of which the Lord here speaks, is the faith of charity, that is, the faith that forms one with charity, and, consequently, which is all from the Lord. The Lord, besides, spoke those things to the disciples when they supposed that they could do miracles from their own faith, thus from themselves, when yet such things are done by faith from the Lord, thus by the Lord, as is also evident in Matthew (xvii. 19, 20), where similar things are said.

(References: Mark 11:22-23, Mark 11:24-26; Matthew 17:19-20, 17:20)


[54] Because mountains signified the goods of celestial love, and hills, the goods of spiritual love, therefore the ancients, with whom the church was representative, had their Divine worship upon mountains and hills, and therefore Zion was upon a mountain, and Jerusalem upon mountainous places below it. Lest, therefore, the Jews and Israelites, who were given to idolatry, should turn Divine worship into idolatrous worship, it was commanded them that they should perform worship in Jerusalem only, and not elsewhere; but because they were idolaters in heart, they were not content to perform worship in Jerusalem, but, according to the custom of the nations, derived from the ancients, they everywhere performed worship upon mountains and hills, and sacrificed and burnt incense thereon; wherefore because this was idolatrous with them, by their worship upon other mountains and hills is signified worship from evils and falsities; as in the following passages.

In Isaiah:

"Upon a high and lofty mountain hast thou set thy bed; thither also wentest thou up to sacrifice sacrifices" (lvii. 7).

In Hosea:

"They sacrifice upon the tops of the mountains, and burn incense upon the hills" (iv. 13).

In Jeremiah:

"Estranged Israel is gone up upon every high mountain and under every green tree, and there hath played the harlot" (iii. 6).

By playing the harlot is signified to falsify worship; that this was idolatrous, is evident from these words in Moses:

"Ye shall destroy the places, wherein the nations served their gods, upon the mountains, and upon the hills, and under every green tree" (Deut. xii. 2).

In these passages, therefore, by worship upon mountains and hills is signified worship from evils and falsities. From this, also, it came that the Gentiles in Greece fixed Helicon on a high mountain, and Parnassus on a hill below it, and believed that the gods and their goddesses dwelt there; this was derived from the ancients in Asia, and especially in the land of Canaan, not remote thence, with whom all worship consisted of representatives.

(References: Deuteronomy 12:2; Hosea 4:13; Isaiah 57:7; Jeremiah 3:6)


[55] It is said in the Evangelists that:

the devil took Jesus up into a high mountain, and shewed him all the kingdoms of the world, and their glory, and he tempted him there (Matt. iv. 8; Luke iv. 5).

By this is signified, that the devil tempted the Lord by the love of self, for this is signified by a high mountain; for the three temptations described in those passages signify and involve all the temptations that the Lord sustained when He was in the world; for the Lord by temptations admitted into Himself from the hells, and by victories at the time, reduced all things in the hells to order, and also glorified His Human, that is, made it Divine. The reason that all the Lord's temptations were described in so few words, is, because He has not otherwise revealed them; but yet they are amply described in the internal sense of the Word (but concerning the Lord's temptations see what has been adduced in the Doctrine of the New Jerusalem, n. 201, 293, 302).

(References: Ezekiel 36:8; Isaiah 63:19; Luke 4:5; Mark 11:22-26, Mark 13:14-15; Matthew 4:8; Micah 4:1-2; Obadiah 1:16-17; Psalms 46:1-3, Psalms 121:2; Revelation 6:14; The New Jerusalem and its Heavenly Doctrine 201, 293, 302; Zechariah 14:3-7)

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From Swedenborg's Works

References from Swedenborg's unpublished works:

Apocalypse Explained 398, 406, 410, 411, 418, 422, 433, 448, 510, 513, 514, 518, 612, 625, 638, 657, 700, 706, 741, 811, 815, 850, 946, 1025, 1029, 1062

Other New Christian Commentary

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Roof 1

Flint 1

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Declare, to 1

Flee 1

God of Jacob 1

Glory and wisdom 1

Lake 1

Precious things of heaven, the dew and the abyss lying beneath 1

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Villages 1

Incorporating the New 1


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