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Hosea 11:6

Finnish: Pyhä Raamattu (1933/1938)         

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6 Miekka on riehuva hänen kaupungeissansa, on hävittävä hänen salpansa, on syövä syötävänsä, heidän neuvonpiteittensä takia.

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Main explanations:

The Inner Meaning of the Prophets and Psalms 194

Other references to this verse:

Arcana Coelestia 2799, 9496

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Word/Phrase Explanations

A 'sword,' in the Word, signifies the truth of faith combating and the vastation of truth. In an opposite sense, it signifies falsity combating and...

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Arcana Coelestia #2799

Arcana Coelestia (Elliott translation)      

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2799. 'And he took in his hand the fire and the knife' means the good of love and the truth of faith. This is clear from the meaning of 'the fire' as the good of love, dealt with in 934, and from the meaning of 'the knife' as the truth of faith. As regards 'the knife' used on the victims in sacrifices meaning the truth of faith, this may be seen from the meaning of 'a sword' or 'a small sword' in the Word, for the expression 'small sword' is used instead of 'knife'. Both have the same meaning, the only difference being that 'a knife' which was used on sacrificial victims meant the truth of faith, whereas 'a sword' meant truth engaged in conflict. Now since the word 'knife' occurs but rarely in the Word, for a hidden reason given below, 1 let the meaning of 'a sword' be shown. In the internal sense 'a sword' means the truth of faith engaged in conflict, and also the vastation of truth; and in the contrary sense it means falsity engaged in conflict and the punishment of falsity.

[2] A sword means the truth of faith engaged in conflict This becomes clear from the following places: In David,

Gird Your sword on Your thigh, O Mighty One; prosper in Your glory and honour, ride on the word of truth, and Your right hand will teach You marvellous things. Psalms 45:3-4.

This refers to the Lord. 'Sword' stands for truth engaged in conflict. In the same author,

The merciful will exalt in glory, they will sing on their beds. The high praises of God will be in their throats and an extremely sharp sword in their hand. Psalms 149:5-6.

In Isaiah,

Jehovah called Me from the womb, from My mother's body 2 He made mention of My name, and made My mouth like a sharp sword, and made Me into a polished arrow. Isaiah 49:1-2.

'A sharp sword' stands for truth engaged in conflict, 'a polished arrow' for the truth of doctrine, see 2686, 2709. In the same prophet,

Asshur will fall by a sword, not of man (vir); a sword, not of man (homo), will devour him; and he will flee before the sword, and his young men will become tributary. Isaiah 31:8.

'Asshur' stands for reasoning in Divine things, 119, 1186, 'a sword, not of man (vir)' and 'not of man (homo)' stand for falsity, 'the sword before which he will flee' stands for truth engaged in conflict.

[3] In Zechariah,

Turn to the stronghold, O prisoners of hope; even today I declare I will render double to you - I who have bent for Myself Judah as a bow, I have filled Ephraim, and have roused your sons, O Zion, against your sons, O Javan; and I will set you as the sword of one who is mighty, and Jehovah will appear over them, and His arrow will go forth like lightning. Zechariah 9:12-14.

'The sword of one who is mighty' stands for truth engaged in conflict. In John,

In the midst of the seven lampstands one like the Son of Man was holding in His right hand seven stars; out of His mouth a sharp two-edged sword was going forth, and His countenance was like the sun shining in full strength. Revelation 1:13, 16.

And further on,

These things says He who has the sharp two-edged sword, I will come to you quickly and engage in conflict with them with the sword of My mouth. Revelation 2:12, 16.

'A sharp two-edged sword' plainly stands for truth engaged in conflict, which was therefore represented as 'a sword going out of His mouth'.

[4] In the same book,

Out of the mouth of Him who sat on the white horse went forth a sharp sword, and with it He is to smite the nations. And they were slain by the sword of Him sitting on the horse, which went out of His mouth. Revelation 19:15, 21.

Here it is plain that 'a sword going out of His mouth' means truth engaged in conflict. The one 'sitting on the white horse' is the Word, and thus the Lord who is the Word; see above 2760-2763. This explains what the Lord says in Matthew,

Do not think that I have come to bring peace on to the earth; I have not come to bring peace, but a sword. Matthew 10:34.

And in Luke,

Now he who has a purse, let him take it, and likewise a bag. But he who has none, let him sell his garments and buy a sword. They said to Him, Behold, Lord, here are two swords. And Jesus said, It is enough. Luke 22:36-38.

'A sword' here is used to mean nothing else than the truth, from which and for which they were to engage in conflict.

[5] In Hosea,

I will make for them a covenant on that day with the wild animals of the field, and with the birds of the air, and the creeping things of the ground. And I will abolish 3 the bow, and the sword, and war from the land, and I will make them lie down in safety. Hosea 2:18.

Here the subject is the Lord's kingdom. 'Abolishing the bow, the sword, and war' means the absence of any conflict there over doctrine and truth. In Joshua,

Joshua lifted up his eyes and saw, and behold, a man was standing before him, with a sword drawn in his hand. He said to Joshua, I am the Prince of the army of Jehovah; and Joshua fell on his face to the earth. Joshua 5:13-14.

These words, which refer to the time when Joshua together with the children of Israel entered the land of Canaan, are used to mean the entry - of those who have faith - into the Lord's kingdom. Truth engaged in conflict, which is the Church's, is 'the sword drawn in the hand of the Prince of the army of Jehovah'.

[6] But as for 'small swords' or 'knives' meaning the truth of faith, this becomes clear from the fact that they were used not only in sacrifices but also in circumcision. Those used in circumcision were made of flint and were called 'small swords of flint', as is evident in Joshua,

Jehovah said to Joshua, Make small swords of flint for yourself; and again, circumcise the children of Israel a second time. And Joshua made small swords of flint for himself, and circumcised the children of Israel on the hill of the foreskins. Joshua 5:2-3.

'Circumcision' was a representative of purification from self-love and love of the world, see 2039, 2632. And because such purification is achieved by means of the truths of faith, 'small swords of flint' were therefore used, 2039 (end), 2046 (end).

[7] II A sword means the vastation of truth This is clear from the following places: In Isaiah,

These two will happen to you; who is to condole with you? Vastation and demolition, and famine and sword; who is to comfort you? Your sons fainted, they lay at the head of every street. Isaiah 51:19-20.

'Famine' stands for vastation of good, and 'sword' for vastation of truth. 'Lying at the head of every street' stands for being deprived of all truth. 'Street' means truth, 2336; and for what vastation is, see 301-304, 407, 408, 410, 411. In the same prophet,

I will destine 4 you for the sword, and all of you will bow down to the slaughter, because I called but you did not answer, I spoke but you did not listen. Isaiah 65:12.

(References: Arcana Coelestia 407-408, 410-411)

[8] In the same prophet,

By fire Jehovah will judge, and by sword, all flesh; and the slain of Jehovah will be many. Isaiah 66:16.

'The slain of Jehovah' stands for those who have undergone vastation. In Jeremiah,

On all the hills in the wilderness those who cause devastation have come, for the sword of Jehovah is devouring from one end of the land even to the other end of the land. There is no peace for any flesh. They have sown wheat and reaped thorns. Jeremiah 12:12-13.

'The sword of Jehovah' plainly stands for the vastation of truth. In the same prophet,

They have lied against Jehovah and said, It is not He; and no evil will come upon us; neither shall we see sword and famine. And the prophets will become wind, and there is no utterance in them. Jeremiah 5:12-13.

[9] In the same prophet,

I am visiting them; the young men will die by the sword; their sons and their daughters will die by famine. Jeremiah 11:22.

In the same prophet,

When they offer burnt offering and minchah I will not accept them, for I am consuming them by sword and by famine and by pestilence. And I said, Ah, Lord Jehovih, behold, the prophets say to them, You will not see the sword, nor will you have famine. Jeremiah 14:12-13.

In the same prophet,

The city has been given into the hand of the Chaldeans fighting against it, in face of the sword, and famine, and pestilence. Jeremiah 32:24, 36.

In the same prophet,

I will send sword, famine, and pestilence upon them, until they are consumed from the ground which I gave to them and their fathers. Jeremiah 24:10.

[10] In these places vastation is described as 'sword, famine, and pestilence'. 'Sword' describes the vastation of truth, 'famine' the vastation of good, and 'pestilence' preying upon even to destruction. In Ezekiel,

Son of man, Take a sharp sword, use it as a barber's razor and pass it over your head and over your beard. And you are to take balances and you are to divide the hair. A third part you are to burn with fire in the midst of the city; a third part you are to strike with the sword round about it; and a third part you are to scatter to the wind, and I will unsheathe the sword after them. A third part will die of pestilence, and be consumed with famine in the midst [of you], and a third part will fall by the sword round about [you], and a third part I will scatter to every wind; and I will unsheathe the sword after them. Ezekiel 5:1-2, 12, 17.

This refers to the vastation of natural truth, which is described in this fashion. In the same prophet,

The sword is without, and pestilence and famine within; he that is in the field will die by the sword, and him that is in the city famine and pestilence will devour. Ezekiel 7:15.

[11] In the same prophet,

Say to the land of Israel, Thus said Jehovah, Behold, I am against you, and will draw My sword out of its sheath, and will cut off from you the righteous and the wicked. Because I will cut off from you the righteous and the wicked, therefore My sword will go out of its sheath against all flesh from south to north; and all flesh will know that I Jehovah have drawn My sword out of its sheath, and it will not return any more. The word of Jehovah came to me, saying, Son of man, prophesy and say, Thus said Jehovah, Say: A sword, a sword has been sharpened and also polished, sharpened, for great slaughter, so that it is polished to flash like lightning! Son of man, prophesy and say, Thus said the Lord Jehovih against the children of Ammon, and against their reproach, Say: A sword, a sword is bared for the slaughter, and polished to consume because [polished to shine like] lightning - while they see vanity for you, while they divine a lie for you. Ezekiel 21:3-5, 8-20, 28-29.

Here 'a sword' means nothing other than vastation, as is evident in the internal sense from each detail included here.

(References: Ezekiel 21:8-10)

[12] In the same prophet,

The king of Babel will destroy your towers with his swords. By reason of the abundance of horses their dust will cover you; by reason of the noise of horsemen, and wheels, and chariots, your walls will be shaken. With the hoofs of his horses he will trample all your streets. Ezekiel 26:9-11.

What 'Babel' is, see 1326, and that it causes vastation, 1327. In David, If he does not turn back God will whet His sword, bend His bow, and make it ready. Psalms 7:12.

In Jeremiah,

I said, Ah, Lord, truly You have utterly deceived this people and Jerusalem, saying, You will have peace; but the sword has reached even to the soul. Jeremiah 4:10.

[13] In the same prophet,

Declare in Egypt, and cause it to be heard in Migdol, Stand up and prepare yourself, for the sword will devour round about you. Jeremiah 46:14.

In the same prophet,

A sword over the Chaldeans and against the inhabitants of Babel, and against her rulers, and against her wise men! A sword against the boasters, and they will become insane! A sword against her mighty men, and they will be dismayed! A sword against her horses, and against her chariots, and against the whole mingled crowd in her midst, and they will become as women! A sword against her treasures, and they will be plundered! A drought on her waters, and they will dry up! Jeremiah 50:35-38.

'A sword' plainly stands for the vastation of truth, for it is said to be 'a sword against the wise men, against the boasters, against the mighty men, against the horses and chariots, against the treasures', and that there will be 'a drought on the waters and they will dry up'.

[14] In the same prophet,

We have given the hand to Egypt, to Asshur to be satisfied with bread. Slaves have had dominion over us; there is nobody to free us from their hand. In [peril of] our souls we acquired our bread, in face of the sword of the wilderness. Lamentations 5:6, 8-9.

In Hosea,

He will not return to the land of Egypt, and Asshur will be his king, because they have refused to return to Me. And the sword will come down on his cities, and consume his bars, and devour because of their counsels. Hosea 11:5-6.

In Amos.

I have sent the pestilence upon you in the way of Egypt, I have slain your young men with the sword, along with your captured horses. 5 Amos 4:10.

'In the way of Egypt' stands for the facts which cause vastation when, on the basis of these, people reason in Divine things. 'Captured horses' stands for the understanding when stripped of its own inherent qualities.

[15] III A sword in the contrary sense means falsity engaged in conflict. This becomes clear in David,

As to my soul, I lie in the midst of lions setting on fire the children of men; their teeth are spear and arrows, and their tongues a sharp sword. Psalms 57:4.

In the same author,

Behold, they belch out with their mouths, swords are in their lips - for who hears? Psalms 59:7.

In Isaiah,

You are cast out from your sepulchre like an abominable stock, a garment of the slain pierced by the sword, who go down to the stones of the pit like a dead body trodden underfoot. Isaiah 14:19

This refers to Lucifer. In Jeremiah,

In vain have I smitten your sons, they took no correction Your own sword is devouring your prophets, like a ravaging lion. O generation, observe the Word of Jehovah, Have I been a wilderness to Israel? Jeremiah 2:30-31.

[16] In the same prophet,

Do not go out into the field, and do not walk on the road, for the enemy has a sword, terror is all around. Jeremiah 6:25-26.

In the same prophet,

Take the cup of the wine of wrath and make all the nations to which I send you drink it. And they will drink and reel, and go mad in face of the sword which I am sending among them. Drink and get drunk, and vomit, and fall, and do not get up again in face of the sword. Jeremiah 25:15-16, 27.

In the same prophet,

Go up, O horses; rage, O chariots; let the mighty men go forth, Cush and Put, that handle the shield, and the Ludim that handle and bend the bow. And that day is to the Lord Jehovih of hosts a day of vengeance. And the sword will devour, and be sated, and become drunk on their blood. Jeremiah 46:9-10.

[17] In Ezekiel,

They will strip you of your garments, and take the jewels 6 of your glory, and leave you naked and bare. And they will bring up an assembly upon you, and they will stone you with stones; they will run you through with their swords. Ezekiel 16:39-40.

This refers to the abominations of Jerusalem. In Zechariah,

Woe to the worthless shepherd, the deserter of the flock! The sword will fall upon his arm and upon his right eye. His arm will be wholly withered, and his right eye utterly darkened. Zechariah 11:17.

In Hosea,

They thought what was evil against Me. Their princes will fall by the sword for the rage of their tongue. This will be their derision in the land of Egypt. Hosea 7:15-16.

[18] In Luke,

There will be great distress over the earth, and wrath on that people; for they will fall by the edge of the sword, and will be led captive among all the gentiles; 7 at length Jerusalem will be trodden down by the gentiles. 7 Luke 21:23-24.

Here the Lord was referring to the close of the age - in the sense of the letter to the dispersion of the Jews and the destruction of Jerusalem, but in the internal sense to the final state of the Church. 'Falling by the edge of the sword' means that there was no truth any longer, but merely falsity. 'All the gentiles' means every kind of evil among which 'they will be led captive'. 'The gentiles' - or 'the nations' - means evils, see 1259, 1260, 1849, 1868, and 'Jerusalem' means the Church, 2117, which will be so 'trodden down' by them.

(References: Arcana Coelestia 1259-1260)

[19] IV A sword also means the punishment of falsity

This is clear in Isaiah,

On that day Jehovah will make a visitation with His hard and great and strong sword upon Leviathan the full-length serpent, 8 and upon Leviathan the twisting serpent, and He will slay the monsters that are in the sea. Isaiah 27:1.

This refers to those who by means of reasonings based on sensory evidence and factual knowledge enter into the mysteries of faith. 'The hard, great, and strong sword' stands for the punishments of the falsity that results from those reasonings.

[20] When one reads about people being put to, and being slain by, the edge of the sword, sometimes including 'both men and women, young people and old, oxen, sheep, and asses', the meaning in the internal sense is punishment consisting in the condemnation of falsity, as in Joshua 6:21; 8:24-25; 10:28, 30, 37, 39; 11:10-12, 14; 13:22; 19:47; Judges 1:8, 25; 4:15-16; 18:27; 20:37; 1 Samuel 15:8; 2 Kings 10:25; and elsewhere. This also explains why it was commanded to put to the sword any city which worshipped other gods, and to destroy it utterly and to burn it with fire, and to let it remain a heap for ever, Deuteronomy 13:12-18. 'The sword' stands for the punishment of falsity, 'fire' for the punishment of evil. The angel of Jehovah with a drawn sword who stood in the path against Balaam, Numbers 22:22, 31, meant the truth which stood in the way of the falsity which possessed Balaam. For that reason also he was slain with a sword, Numbers 31:8.

(References: 1 Samuel 15:11; Deuteronomy 13:12-16, 13:12-17, Deuteronomy 13:13, 13:15-17; Numbers 31:1-8)

[21] The meaning of 'a sword' in the genuine sense as truth engaged in conflict, and in the contrary sense as falsity engaged in it, also the vastation of truth and the punishment of falsity, has its origin in the representatives that occur in the next life. For in that life, when anyone utters that which he knows to be false, daggers so to speak instantly come down over his head and strike terror, while truth engaged in conflict is represented there as well by objects which have sharp points like the tips of swords; for such is the nature of truth if it is devoid of good, but if it exists together with good it is rounded and gentle. Such being the origin of the meaning of a sword, therefore with angels, whenever a knife, spear, small sword, or sword is mentioned in the Word, truth engaged in conflict comes to mind.

[22] The reason why a knife is hardly mentioned at all in the Word is that in the next life there are evil spirits who are called 'knifers'. They seem to have knives hanging by their sides, and the reason for this is that they possess so brutal a nature that they wish to cut everyone's throat with their knife. This is why knives are not mentioned, but small swords and swords, for the latter being implements normally used in battle give rise to the idea of war and so of truth engaged in conflict.

[23] Because it was well known to the ancients that a small sword, a lance, and a knife meant truth, the gentiles, who received the practice through tradition, were therefore accustomed during sacrifices to stab and slash themselves, even until they bled, with small swords, lances, or knives, as one reads of the priests of Baal,

The priests of Baal cried out with a loud voice and cut themselves after their custom with swords and lances, until blood gushed out. 1 Kings 18:28.

As regards all weapons of war in the Word meaning things that have to do with spiritual conflict, each one having some specific meaning, see 2686.


1. i.e. in subsection 22 of this passage.

2. literally, viscera.

3. literally, break

4. literally, Number

5. literally, the captivity of your horses

6. literally, the vessels

7. or the nations

8. i.e. a serpent that is on the move and not coiled up


(References: Deuteronomy 13:12-17; Genesis 22:6)

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Inbound References:

Arcana Coelestia 2817, 3021, 3601, 3696, 3727, 3941, 4135, 4496, 4499, 4843, 5044, 5120, 5694, 6306, 6353, 6767, 7044, 7102, 7162, 7225, 7456, 7918, 8185, 8294, 8593, 8595, 8617, 8653, 8813, 8902, 9050, 9088, 9164, 9182, 9193, 9205, 9231, 9327, ...

Apocalypse Revealed 161

The New Jerusalem and its Heavenly Doctrine 22, 24, 186

References from Swedenborg's unpublished works:

Apocalypse Explained 73, 235, 240, 701

Other New Christian Commentary

Thanks to the Swedenborg Society for the permission to use this translation.

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Arcana Coelestia #10406

Arcana Coelestia (Elliott translation)      

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10406. 'And fashioned it with a chisel' means a product of their own intelligence. This is clear from the meaning of 'fashioning with a chisel', when an idol is the subject, as producing false teachings by the use of one's own intelligence, which happens when the literal sense of the Word is used in support of self-love and love of the world. When these rule a person he does not have any enlightenment from heaven. Instead his own intelligence is what he draws on for all the ideas he acquires; and these he substantiates by means of the literal sense of the Word, which he falsifies by using it in a wrong way and interpreting it in a perverted manner. And after this he favours those ideas because he is the author of them.

[2] Various places throughout the Word contain references to graven images and molded images. People who take the Word entirely literally suppose that no more than idols should be understood by them in those places. Not idols however should be understood but false matters of doctrine upheld by the Church, such as are fashioned by a person himself when guided by some love of his own. Falsities when fashioned in such a way that they may hang together and look like truths are meant by 'a graven image'; and falsities when fused together in support of external kinds of love in such a way that evils look like forms of good are meant by 'a molded image'. And since 'the golden calf' is used to mean both types of falsities it says here that Aaron fashioned it with a chisel, by which the fashioning of falsities to look like truths should be understood; then immediately after it says that he made the gold into a calf of molded [metal], and in verse 24 that he threw it into the fire and the calf came out, by which the fusing together of falsities in support of external kinds of love in order that evils may look like forms of good should be understood. This is also what every matter of doctrine is like that is forged by a person and not by the Lord. Matters of doctrine are forged by the person when that person has his own glory and gain as the end in view; but they are forged by the Lord when the good of the neighbour and the good of the Lord's kingdom are regarded as the end in view.

[3] These kinds of things are meant by 'graven images' and 'molded images' in the following places: In Isaiah,

You will judge unclean the covering of the graven images of your silver, and the clothing of the molded image of your gold. Isaiah 30:22.

'The covering of the graven images of silver' means the appearance presented by falsities, as though they were truths, and 'the clothing of the molded image of gold' means the appearance presented by evils, as though they were forms of good; for 'the covering' and 'the clothing' mean the outward appearances with which they are endued or coated over. 'Silver' means truth, and 'gold' good, and this is why 'the graven images' are said to be 'of silver' and 'the molded image' to be 'of gold'. For the meaning of 'silver' as truth and of 'gold' as good, see 1551, 1552, 5658, 6914, 6917, 9874, 9881.

(References: Arcana Coelestia 1551-1552)

[4] In the same prophet,

The craftsman casts a graven image, and a goldsmith overlays it with gold, and casts silver chains for it. He seeks for himself a skilled 1 craftsman to make ready a graven image which is immovable. Isaiah 40:19-20.

This describes a fashioning of falsities so that they may hang together and look as though they were truths. 'A graven image' means such falsity, 'the craftsman' means the person who fashions it by the use of self-intelligence, 'a goldsmith overlays it with gold' means when he makes it to look like what is good, 'casts silver chains for it' means by making it all hang together, 'which is immovable' means which cannot therefore be weakened and destroyed.

(References: Isaiah 44:9-13)

[5] In the same prophet,

Makers of the graven image, [all are] vanity; and their most desirable things are profitless. Who has fashioned a god, and cast a molded image, that it may not profit him? All his companions will be ashamed, and the workmen themselves. He fashions the iron with tongs, and works it with the coals, and forms it with sharp hammers; so he makes it with his strong arm 2 . He fashions wood, stretches out a cord, and marks it off with a ruler. He makes it into its angles, and marks it out with a ring, and makes it into the form of a man (vir), according to the beauty of a human being, to dwell in the house. Isaiah 44:9-14.

This too describes how false teachings are fashioned so that they may hang together and look like truths and forms of good. Every detail here serves to describe how this is brought about by a person using self-intelligence under the guidance of his own wishes, desire, and love. The truth of this may be seen by those who know that all things in the Word have an inner meaning by means of which they must be understood in a spiritual way. Why else should such a description of fashioning a graven image be given? To the end that it may look like truth and good is the meaning when it says that 'he makes it in the form of a man, according to the beauty of a human being'; for in the internal sense 'a man' means truth and 'a human being' the good of that truth.

(References: Isaiah 44:9-13)

[6] In Jeremiah,

Every person has been made stupid by knowledge; every metal-caster has been filled with shame by his graven image, for his molded image is a lie; and there is no spirit in those things. Jeremiah 10:14; 51:17.

Here 'graven image' means that which is the product of self-intelligence, and 'molded image' that which accords with the person's love. This meaning is plainly evident, for it says that a person has been made stupid by knowledge, and every metal-caster has been filled with shame by his graven image, and that his molded image is a lie, 'knowledge' here being self-intelligence, and 'a lie' the falsity of evil; and since those objects have nothing of God within them it says that there is no spirit in those things.

[7] In the same prophet,

O sword against its horses and against its chariots, against its treasures, in order that they may be looted! A drought on its waters, in order that they may dry up! For it is the land of graven images. Jeremiah 50:37-38.

'The land of graven images' means a Church in which falsities reign. This too is perfectly clear from the details of these verses when understood in the spiritual sense. Without that sense what would a sword against horses, against chariots, against treasures, and a drought on waters be but words or sounds that have no spirit within them? But from those details when understood in the internal sense it is evident that these verses describe the destruction of the Church's truths and so the subsequent reign of falsities there, meant by 'the land of graven images'. For 'sword' means falsity engaged in conflict with and destroying truths, 'horses' an enlightened power of understanding, 'chariots' matters of doctrine, 'treasures' cognitions or knowledge of truth and good, 'waters on which there is a drought' the non-existence of truths any longer, and 'the land' the Church.

'Sword' means truth engaged in conflict against falsity, and in the contrary sense falsity engaged in conflict against truths and destroying them, see 2799, 6353, 7102, 8294.

'Horses' means an enlightened power of understanding, 2760-2762, 3217, 6534.

'Chariots' means matters of doctrine, 5321, 8146, 8148, 8215.

'Treasures' means cognitions of truth and good, 10227.

'Waters' means truths, 2702, 3058, 3424, 4976, 5668, 8137, 8138, 8568, 9323, 10238.

'The land' means the Church, see in the places referred to in 9325.

From all this it is evident what 'a drought on the waters, that they may dry up' and what 'the land of graven images' mean.

(References: Arcana Coelestia 8137-8138)

[8] In Habakkuk,

What profit is a graven image since its image-maker has graven it, and a molded image and a teacher of lies, since the image-maker trusts in the thing he himself has made? Habakkuk 2:18.

From these words too it is evident that 'a graven image' and 'a molded image' are not used to mean a graven image and a molded image but falsity that is being made up and the evil to which the falsity lends support; for it speaks of 'the image-maker' and 'a teacher of lies'.

[9] 'Graven image' and 'molded image' have similar meanings in the following places: In Isaiah,

Babel has fallen, and all the graven images of her gods he has broken 3 to the earth. Isaiah 21:9.

In the same prophet,

They will be greatly ashamed, those trusting in a graven image, saying to a molded image, You are our gods. Isaiah 42:17.

In the same prophet,

I told you, and caused you to hear, lest you should say, My idol has done this; my graven image and my molded image has commanded these things. Isaiah 48:5.

In Hosea,

They have called themselves, and gone from their presence 4 . They sacrificed to the baals, and burned incense to graven images. Hosea 11:2.

In Micah,

All the graven images of Samaria will be pounded to pieces, and all her pay as a prostitute will be burned with fire; and all her idols I will make a waste. Micah 1:7.

[10] Since falsities and evils upheld by religious teaching, which are meant by 'graven images and molded images', are forged by a person's self-intelligence under the guidance of his love, the Word also calls them 'the work of human hands', 'the work of the hands of a craftsman', and 'the work of the hands of a workman', as in the following places: In Hosea,

Now they sin more and more, they make for themselves a molded image from their silver, idols by their own intelligence, completely the work of craftsmen. Hosea 13:2.

In Moses,

Cursed is the man who makes a graven or a molded image, an abomination to Jehovah, the work of the hands of the craftsman. Deuteronomy 27:15.

In David,

Their idols are silver and gold, the work of human hands. Psalms 115:4; 135:15.

In Jeremiah,

They burned incense to other gods, and bowed down to the works of their own hands. Jeremiah 1:16.

In the same prophet,

The children of Israel provoked Me to anger through the work of their hands. Jeremiah 32:30; 44:8.

And in the same prophet,

One cuts out wood from the forest, the work of the hands of the workman using an axe. They decorate it with silver and gold; they make it firm with pegs and hammers. Jeremiah 10:3-4.

[11] 'The work of the hands' means that which is a product of the human proprium or self, thus that which is a product of a person's own understanding and a product of his own will; and those things are a product of the self - of both that understanding and that will - that exist as a result of self-love. And this is the origin of all falsities in the Church. Because all falsities are the product of the human self, and 'the work of the hands' means that which originates there, it was forbidden to move an iron tool, axe, or chisel over the stones 5 from which an altar and also the temple were built, as is evident in Moses,

If you make for Me an altar of stones, you shall not build it with hewn ones; for if you move your chisel over it you will profane it. Exodus 20:25.

Also in another place,

If you build an altar of stones to Jehovah you shall not move an iron tool over them. Deuteronomy 27:5.

And in the first Book of Kings,

The house was built of whole stone, as it had been brought [there]; for not a hammer or axe, [nor] any tool of iron, was heard in the house while it was being built. 1 Kings 6:7.

These places have been introduced to enable people to know what they should understand by Aaron's fashioning the gold with a chisel and making a calf of molded [metal] out of it.


1. literally, wise

2. literally, the arm of his strength

3. The Latin means hurled but the Hebrew means broken, which Swedenborg has in another place where he quotes this verse.

4. literally, from their faces

5. i.e. it was forbidden to hew the stones


(References: Exodus 32:4)

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From Swedenborg's Works

Inbound References:

Arcana Coelestia 10407, 10653

References from Swedenborg's unpublished works:

Apocalypse Explained 355, 386, 433

Thanks to the Swedenborg Society for the permission to use this translation.