740. Called the devil and Satan, signifies because interiorly they were in evils and in falsities that are from hell. This is evident from the signification of "the devil and as being hell in respect to evils and falsities (of which presently). It means those who were interiorly in evils and the falsities thence, since those who are here meant by "the dragon" and are called "the devil and Satan," are not exteriorly such, but interiorly; for exteriorly 1
they speak like men of the church, and some like angels of heaven, about God, the Lord, faith in Him and love to Him, and about heaven and hell, and they gather many things from the Word by which they confirm their dogmas; thus by these exteriors they are conjoined to heaven; and yet interiorly they are not affected by them, much less delighted with them, but are affected and delighted only with bodily and worldly things, even so that they regard heavenly things as comparatively of no account. In a word, they love above all things the things of the body and of the world, and heavenly things only as things serviceable; thus they make the things of the body and of the world the head, and heavenly things the feet. They are such because they make the life to be of no account, saying that faith alone saves, and not any good of life. Therefore they are devils and satans, for man is such as he is interiorly, and not such as he is merely exteriorly, except when he speaks and acts outwardly from the interior. Moreover, a man continues such after death; for such as a man is interiorly, such he is in respect to the spirit, and the spirit of man is the affection from which is the will and the life therefrom. From this it follows that those who make no account of the life are interiorly devils and satans, and they also become devils and satans when their life in the world is ended and they become spirits.
 They are called "the devil and Satan" because both "the devil" and "Satan" signify hell; "the devil" signifying the hell from which are evils, and "Satan" the hell from which are falsities; this hell is called "Satan" because all who are in it are called satans, and the other hell is called "the devil" because all who are in it are called devils. Before the creation of the world there was no devil or Satan who had been an angel of light and was afterwards cast down with his crew into hell, as can be seen from what has been said in the work on Heaven and Hell 311-316, under the head, "Heaven and Hell Are from the Human Race").
 It is to be known that there are two kingdoms into which the heavens are divided, namely, a celestial kingdom and a spiritual kingdom (on which see in the work on Heaven and Hell 20-28). To these two kingdoms correspond by opposition the two kingdoms into which the hells are divided; to the celestial kingdom corresponds by opposition the infernal kingdom that consists of devils and is therefore called "the devil," and to the spiritual kingdom corresponds by opposition the infernal kingdom that consists of satans and is therefore called "Satan. " And as the celestial kingdom consists of angels who are in love to the Lord, so the infernal kingdom corresponding by opposition to the celestial kingdom consists of devils, who are in the love of self; consequently from that hell evils of every kind flow forth. And as the spiritual kingdom consists of the angels who are in charity towards the neighbor, so the infernal kingdom that corresponds by opposition to the spiritual kingdom consists of satans, who are in falsities from love of the world, consequently from that hell falsities of every kind flow forth.
 From this it is clear what "the devil" and "Satan" signify in the following passages. In the Gospels:
Jesus was led into the wilderness to be tempted by the devil (Matthew 4:1, seq.; Luke 4:1-13).
What is signified by the "wilderness," and by the Lord's "temptations" for forty days and forty nights, has been shown above n. 730. He is said to have been tempted "by the devil" to signify that He was tempted by the hells from which are evils, thus by the worst of the hells, for these were the hells that chiefly fought against the Lord's Divine love, since the love that reigned in those hells was the love of self, and this love is the opposite of the Lord's love, thus of the love that is from the Lord.
Luke 4:2-13; The Apocalypse Explained 730)
 In Matthew:
The tares are the sons of the evil one; the enemy that soweth is the devil (Matthew 13:38, 39).
"Tares" signify the falsities of doctrine, of religion, and of worship, which are from evil, therefore they are also called "the sons of the evil one;" and as evil brings them forth it is said that it is "the devil that soweth them."
 In Luke:
Those upon the way are they that hear; then cometh the devil and taketh away the word from their heart, that they may not believe and be saved (Luke 8:12).
And in Mark:
These are they upon the way, where the word is sown; and when they have heard, straightway cometh Satan and taketh away the word which hath been sown in their hearts (Mark 4:15).
Respecting this the term "devil" is used in Luke, and "Satan" in Mark, for the reason that "the seed that fell upon the way" signifies truth from the Word that is received in the memory only and not in the life, and as this is taken away both by evil and by falsity, therefore both "the devil" and "Satan" are mentioned; and therefore in Luke it is said that "the devil cometh and taketh away the word from their heart, that they may not believe and be saved;" and in Mark that "Satan cometh and taketh away the word which hath been sown in their hearts."
 In Matthew:
The king shall say to them on the left hand, Depart from Me, ye cursed, into the eternal fire prepared for the devil 2
and his angels (Matthew 25:41).
Here the term "devil" is used because this was said of those who did not do good works, and therefore did evil works; for those who do not do good works do evil works; for the works they did not do are recounted in the preceding verses, and when goods are lightly esteemed evils are loved.
 The Lord calls Judas Iscariot:
A devil (John 6:70);
And it is said that the devil put into his heart (John 13:2);
And that after he had taken the sop satan entered into him (John 13:27; Luke 22:3).
It is so said because Judas Iscariot represented the Jews, who were in falsities from evil, and therefore from evil he is called a "devil," and from falsities a "Satan. " Wherefore it is said that "the devil put into his heart," "to put into the heart" meaning into the love that is of his will. Also it is said that "after he had taken the sop Satan entered into him;" "to enter into him with the sop" meaning into the belly, which signifies into the thought, and falsities from evil belong to the thought.
 In John:
Jesus said to the Jews, Ye are of your father the devil, and the desires of your father ye will to do; he was a murderer from the beginning, and stood not in the truth because there is no truth in him; when he speaketh a lie he speaketh from his own (John 8:44).
This describes the Jewish nation, such as it had been from the beginning, namely, that it was in evil and in falsities therefrom. "Their father the devil" means evil from hell, in which their fathers were in Egypt and afterwards in the desert; that they willed to remain in the evils of their cupidities is signified by "the desires of your father ye will to do;" that they destroyed every truth of the understanding is signified by "he was a murderer from the beginning, and stood not in the truth because there was no truth in him;" as "man" signifies the truth of intelligence, so "murderer" signifies its destroyer. Their falsities from evil are signified by "when he speaketh a lie he speaketh from his own;" "his own" signifying the evil of the will, and "lie" the falsity therefrom.
 In Matthew:
The Pharisees said of Jesus, He doth not cast out demons but by Beelzebub the prince of the demons. Jesus, knowing their thoughts, said unto them, If Satan casteth out satan he is divided against himself; how then shall his kingdom stand? But if I in the spirit of God cast out demons, then is the kingdom of God come unto you (Matthew 12:24-26, 28).
Here the term "Satan," and not devil is used, because "Beelzebub," who was the god of Ekron, means the god of all falsities, for "Beelzebub" by derivation means the god of flies, and "flies" signify the falsities of the sensual man, thus falsities of every kind. This is why Beelzebub is called Satan. So, too, the Lord said, "If I in the spirit of God cast out demons, then is the kingdom of God come unto you;" "the spirit of God" meaning Divine truth proceeding from the Lord, and "the kingdom of God" thence signifying heaven and the church that are in Divine truths.
 In the Gospels:
Peter rebuking Jesus because He was willing to suffer, Jesus turned and said unto Peter, Get thee behind Me, Satan, thou art a stumbling-block, because thou savorest not the things which are of God, but the things which are of men (Matthew 16:22, 23; Mark 8:32, 33).
The Lord said this to Peter because in a representative sense "Peter" signified faith; and as faith is of truth, and also, as here, of falsity, Peter is called Satan, for as has been said "Satan" means the hell that is the source of falsities. "Peter" represented faith in both senses, namely, faith from charity, and faith without charity; and faith without charity is the faith of falsity.
Moreover, those who are in faith without charity find a stumbling-block in the Lord's suffering Himself to be crucified; therefore this is called a "stumbling-block." As the passion of the cross was the Lord's last temptation and complete victory over all the hells, and also the complete union of His Divine with the Divine Human, and this is unknown to those who are in the faith of falsity, the Lord said "thou savorest not the things which are of God, but the things which are of men. "
Mark 8:32-33; Matthew 16:22-23)
 In Luke:
Jesus said to Simon, Behold Satan demanded you that he might sift you as wheat. But I prayed for thee that thy faith fail not; when, therefore, thou shalt be converted, strengthen thou thy brethren (Luke 22:31, 32).
Here, too, "Peter" represents faith without charity, which faith is the faith of falsity, for this was said to him by the Lord just before he thrice denied Him. Because he represented faith therefore the Lord says, "I prayed for thee that thy faith fail not;" that he represented the faith of falsity is evident from the Lord's saying to him, "when, therefore, thou shalt be converted, strengthen thou thy brethren. " As the faith of falsity is like chaff before the wind, it is said that "Satan demanded them that he might sift them as wheat," "wheat" meaning the good of charity separated from chaff. From this it is clear why the name "Satan" is here used.
 In the same:
I beheld Satan as lightning falling from heaven (Luke 10:18).
Here "Satan" has a similar signification as "the dragon" who was also seen in heaven and was cast out of heaven; but properly it is the "dragon" that is meant by the "devil," and "his angels" that are meant by "Satan. " That "the angels of the dragon" mean the falsities of evil will be seen in a subsequent paragraph. "Satan falling down from heaven" signifies that the Lord by Divine truth, which He then was, thrust all falsities out of heaven and subjugated those hells that are called "Satan," like as Michael cast down "the dragon and his angels" (of which above, n. 737).
The Apocalypse Explained 737)
 In Job:
There was a day when the sons of God came to stand by Jehovah, and Satan came in the midst of them. And Jehovah said unto Satan, Whence comest thou? And Satan answered Jehovah and said, From going to and fro in the earth, and from walking through it. And Jehovah gave into the hand of Satan all things belonging to Job, but he was not to put forth his hand upon Job; also afterwards that he might touch his bone and his flesh (Job 1:6-12; 2:1-7).
That this is a composed history is evident from many things in this book. The book of Job is a book of the Ancient Church, full of correspondences, according to the mode of writing at that time, but yet it is an excellent and useful book. The angels at that time were called "sons of God," because "sons of God," the same as "angels," mean Divine truths, and "Satan" infernal falsities. And as the hells tempt men by falsities, as Job was afterwards tempted, and as infernal falsities are dispersed by Divine truths, it is said that "Satan stood in the midst of the sons of God." What the rest signifies will not be explained here, since it must be made clear in its series.
Acts of the Apostles 1:6-12, 2:1-7)
 In David:
They put upon me evil for good, and hatred for my love; appoint Thou a wicked one over him, and let Satan stand at his right hand (Psalms 109:5-6).
This, like most things in the Psalms of David, is a prophecy respecting the Lord and His temptations; for He above all others endured the most frightful temptations; and as He in His temptations fought from Divine love against the hells, which were most hostile to Him, it is said "they put upon me evil for good, and hatred for my love;" and as infernal evil and falsity prevail with them it is said "appoint thou a wicked one over him, and let Satan stand at his right hand;" "to stand at the right hand" signifying to be wholly possessed, and "Satan" signifying infernal falsity with which he was possessed.
 In Zechariah:
Afterwards he showed me Joshua the great priest standing before the angel of Jehovah, and Satan standing at his right hand to be his adversary; and Jehovah said unto Satan, Jehovah rebuke thee, even He who chooseth Jerusalem; is not this a brand delivered out of the fire? And Joshua was clothed in filthy garments, and thus stood before the angel (Zechariah 3:1-3).
What this involves can be seen only from the series of things that precede and follow; from these it can be seen that this represented how the Word was falsified. "Joshua the great priest" signifies here the law or the Word; and "he stood before the angel clothed in filthy garments" signifies its falsification. This shows that "Satan" here means the falsity of doctrine from the Word when it is falsified; and as this began to prevail at that time, Zechariah saw "Satan standing at his right hand;" "to stand at the right hand" signifying to fight against Divine truth. Because it is the sense of the letter of the Word only that can be falsified, for the reason that the things in that sense are truths in appearance only, and those who interpret the Word according to the letter cannot easily be convinced of falsities, so Joshua 3
said, "Jehovah rebuke thee," as above n. 735, where is explained what is signified by "Michael disputed with the devil about the body of Moses, and Michael said to the devil, The Lord rebuke thee" (Jude 1:9). Because the truth of doctrine from the Word which has been falsified is here meant, it is said, "Jehovah who chooseth Jerusalem; is not this a brand delivered out of the fire?" "Jerusalem" signifying the doctrine of the church, and "a brand delivered out of the fire" that there was but little of truth left.
Romans 1:9; The Apocalypse Explained 735)
 In these passages in the Old Testament "Satan" only is mentioned, and in no place the devil, but instead of the devil the terms "foe," "enemy," "hater," "adversary," "accuser," "demon," also "death" and "hell," are made use of. From this it may be clear that "the devil" signifies the hell from which are evils, and "Satan" the hell from which are falsities; as also in the following passages in Revelation:
Afterwards I saw an angel coming down out of heaven having the key of the abyss and a great chain upon his hand, and he laid hold on the dragon, the old serpent, which is the devil and Satan, and bound him a thousand years. And when the thousand years are finished, Satan shall be loosed out of his prison, and shall lead the nations astray. And the devil that led them astray was cast into the lake of fire and brimstone (Revelation 20:1, 2, 7, 8, 10).
But what "demon" and "spirit of a demon" signify may be seen above n. 586.
1. The Latin has "interiorly."
2. The Greek has "devil," as is also found in 504.
3. The Latin here has "Jehovah," but cf. The text as given above.
Revelation 12:9, 20:1-2, 20:7-8; The Apocalypse Explained 586)