The Word Explained #0

The Word Explained (Acton translation)      

Go to section / 8263  

Next →

THE WORD OF THE OLD TESTAMENT EXPLAINED

A POSTHUMOUS WORK BY EMANUEL SWEDENBORG

Now for the first time translated from a phototyped copy of the original manuscript preserved in the Royal Academy of Sciences. Sweden

BY ALFRED ACTON, M.A., D. Th.
DEAN OF THE THEOLOGICAL SCHOOL OF THE ACADEMY OF THE NEW CHURCH
ACADEMY OF THE NEW CHURCH
BRYN ATHYN, PA.
1928

LANCASTER PRESS, INC.
LANCASTER, PA.

GENERAL TABLE OF CONTENTS

NUMBERS

Author's Unfinished Table of Contents to THE WORD EXPLAINED

The History of Creation 1-42

The Word of the Old Testament Explained:

THE HISTORICAL WORD
Genesis 1-3193
Exodus (chapters 1-36) 3194-5872
Joshua 5873-5994
Judges (chapters 1-8, 11, 13, 18-21) 5995-6076
Ruth (chapter 2:20) 6077-6078
1 Samuel (chapters 1-4, 6-19, 16-19, 25-28, 30, 31) 6079-6165
2 Samuel (chapters 1-3, 22, 23) 6166-6243
1 Kings (chapters 6-8, 10, 11, 13, 17-19) 6244-6309
2 Kings (chapters 19:21-fin., 23) 6310-6328
1 Chronicles (chapters 21, 22, 28) 6329-6333
2 Chronicles (chapters 5:10, 6, 18) 6334-6339
Leviticus 6340-6710
Numbers 6711-7462
Deuteronomy (chapters 1, 4, 14, 16-18, 20-25, 32-34) 7463-7566

THE PROPHETICAL WORD
Isaiah (chapters 1-35, 37-38, 40-66) 7567-8051
Jeremiah (chapters 1-32, 49-50) 8052-8263

Concerning the Messiah About to Come

General Index

Index of Scripture Passages

TABLE OF CONTENTS
[This unfinished Table of Contents to The Word Explained was written by the author on the last pages of the first volume of the autograph, following no. 1713.]

NUMBERS

That the creation of all things in the heavens and on earth, and all the things that were instituted afterwards, are for the sake of the kingdom of God, and this for the sake of the King or Messiah, and so for the sake of the glory of the Creator. 1

That creation commenced from chaos, both the universal chaos of the mundane system and the particular chaos of the earth, and afterwards from light; thus from evening and morning. And that by the days from evening and morning are meant intervals of many days, that is, the times of creation. 3

That all things were created by Speech or the Word. And that many Persons of the Divinity concurred to the work of creation. 4

That there is nothing in the history of Creation, and afterwards in the Sacred Scripture, which does not have regard to the kingdom of God as the ultimate end. 5

That as all and single things in the creation itself commenced from chaos and thus from evening, so after creation all and single things must arise from an ovum and seed. So likewise in the new creation of heaven and earth; commencing from the fall of the first parent, this also commenced as it were from evening and; chaos. 6

What was created on the several days, is explained from the text of Scripture and the sense thereof; and so, how all things proceeded from evening to their morning. 8

The works of the several days as thus explained are recounted. 9

To the end that it may be understood what the likeness and image of God is, it must be known what order is, and what is the nature of the state of life which flowed from the order observed by Adam before the fall and after it. 10

That most perfect order of life is described, which was instituted by God; and also the state of integrity arising therefrom. 11

That two ways open into our intellectual mind, one which is called the prior or superior way and the other which is called the posterior or inferior way. These two ways are described. 12

That the image of God rested in that order and the state arising therefrom which obtained in the first parent and in the universe. 13, 14

That to Adam was also granted dominion over the devil, who is everywhere signified by beasts. 14

That an image of the kingdom of God was set forth in representative form in the life of Adam before the fall. That in that kingdom there will be a like order and state, and indeed more perfect. 15

That an accurate distinction is made between creation and production. Since creation is a representation in the Divine Mind of all things from eternity, the actuality or production follows this representation necessarily. 17

That in the series of productions or of actual creation, the antecedents ever served the consequents as means; thus that there was a continuous series of mediations even to man who was the last divine work. That man contained in himself a type of the universe. 18

That in the new creation of heaven and earth by the Messiah, six great days have also passed by. And that the seventh and holy day is at hand when heaven and earth will enter into the kingdom of the Messiah and thus into their rest. 19

That in the history of creation, after the works of the several days previously recited, the subject next passes on to the use of air and earth in the production of vegetables and animals, and also of man himself, who thus arose from the dust of the earth. 21

That by the vital spirit or soul of lives (Gen. 2:7) is meant the air admitted into the opened lungs, from which comes respiration and thus the life of the body. 22

That spiritual things are represented in natural, the heavenly paradise in the earthly, the Messiah in the tree of life, the devil in the tree of knowledge, and so forth; and that by reason of this, we meet with a double meaning both here and everywhere else in the Sacred Scripture. 23

That by the four rivers also, which ran together in paradise, something spiritual is understood. 25

That to the work of creation many Persons of the Divinity concurred, who are called Jehovah God. 26

The life of Adam is described when he was led by the Love of heaven, the only begotten Son of God; and then his life when he was led by the loves of the world and self, that is, by their prince; consequently, first his spiritual life and then his natural. 27

The wisdom and intelligence of Adam in the state of his integrity is described as being such that the uses and ends of all things then flowed into his mind from heaven by the superior way. Also his deplorable state after the fall and the state of his descendants when it was necessary to acquire the knowledges of all things by the experience of the senses and by sciences. 29

It was also a sign of Adam's intelligence and of the perfect state of his life that he at once knew the origin of his bride or wife, at first sight of her. 30

It is explained what the rib is from which Adam's wife came; thus that she also was taken and created from the dust. 31

The first precept of marriage is explained, as to why a man leaving his paternal home should cleave unto his wife, to wit, that thence should exist societies lesser and greater, and finally the Great Society. 33

And why it was added to this precept that they would coalesce into one flesh, to wit, that this great society was to be the body of the Messiah himself, and the Messiah to be the Soul and Life of that body; thus they were to coalesce into one. 34

The state of that society, that is, of the kingdom of God, is effigied in the state of the life of the first parents, and indeed in the state of their innocence when they were not ashamed of nakedness. 35

That by the serpent is signified the devil, and more properly prudence, and afterwards the subtlety thereof. 37, 53

That the speech between the woman and the serpent was a speech representative of things by means of animal forms, etc., such as is the speech of heavenly spirits. 38

That the devil appeared under the garb of an angel of light; that is, he built up deceits under the appearance of prudence, and lies under the appearance of truths. 39

The loves of the world and self arising from the life of the devil are described; and also that they are wholly contrary to the Love of heaven, and flow into human minds from an opposite source. 40

That by their influx these loves invert the order of human life, and thus pervert its state; hence the shade and darkness of the understanding, and hence also hatred from which comes spiritual death. 41

That it was also permitted the devil to inject into the woman the persuasion that he spoke the truth, and at the same time the desire of feeding on the fruit of that tree; and this to the end that man might undergo temptation and thus might learn what evil is and what the devil. 42

That beneath this persuasion and desire which induce shade on the understanding, the woman clearly beheld the truth. And thus there was left her the opportunity of choosing good above evil; from which circumstances the nature of their free decision is clearly apparent. 43

The reason why the devil was made, namely, that he might serve as a bond between heaven and the world. And the necessity that this bond, which had been broken by the devil, should be restored by the only begotten Son of God, the Love of heaven. 44

That immediately after the fall, Adam and his wife beheld truth in its own light, and so their eyes were opened. From this comes the reason why they were ashamed, why they perceived that they were naked, and why they clothed themselves with fig leaves--all which circumstances are explained. 46, 50

That immediately after the fall, Adam and his wife began to live the life of the devil, and thus became his images. 47

This life is described, and it is shown that it is the same in quality in the smallest particulars as in the general, and that it flows into the least point of the blood just as into its mass; hence original sin was derived into their descendants. 48

That when truth was seen in its own light, they wished to betake themselves to the tree of life in the midst of the garden, that is, to the one only Son of the Supreme Being. 50

That in their state of life according to order, and also whenever it was pleasing to God, there were manifest communications of thoughts and speeches between spirits and human minds; and that thus the first-born clearly heard the voice of God; when he spoke. 51

That the devil under the form of a serpent was cursed by God, and at the same time also his angels, though not with such direful curses. 53

That the loves of the world and self and the cupidities and appetencies, etc., arising therefrom are represented in the heavens by animal and ferine forms. 54

That the devil was condemned to the earth, that is, was condemned to eat dust; thus from an angel of light he was turned into an angel of shade and death. 55

That by the woman between whom and the serpent were to be enmities, is meant the bride of the Messiah, or that divine society which was to constitute the kingdom of God. 57

That by the serpent here is meant that other society which will live a natural or animal life under the leadership of the devil. 58

By the seed of the woman is meant the Messiah, the Son of Man and at the same time of God. 59

By the head of the serpent which was to be trampled by the Messiah, is meant the daring attempts and the forces of the devil. 60

By the heel which the devil was to bruise is meant nature, both the nature of the world and that of the body, which is to be put as a footstool, under the feet of the Messiah sitting upon his throne. 61

That after the fall the advent of the Messiah was at once predicted and promised, who would restore the order instituted by God, and which in the first parents was now inverted; and thus, despite all, would establish in Adam's posterity the kingdom of God, the end of creation. 62

That from the loves of the world and self, there arise in the mind and thus also in the body, perpetual combats and oppositions which rend all things; hence the tribulations and pains with which the woman was to be affected. 64

That like tribulations are propagated to their offspring; and that the pain of birth is a sign of this also. 65

What is involved in the precept of marriage after the fall, namely, that the wife should depend on her man; unlike the precept of marriage before the fall which was that the man should cleave to his wife. 66

That from this precept shines out to some extent the future quality of the marriage between the Messiah and his bride. 67

As in the woman the body is cursed and its nature, so in the man the world is cursed and its nature; and this because of the influx of the one into the other. 69

Consequently, as the body would beget tribulations and pains, so the earth would beget thorns and briars. 70

And this for the reason that, as the state of heaven flows into the world, so the state of the mind flows into the body. 71

Hence it follows that as heavenly food or bread is to be sought by struggles and temptations, so earthly food is to be sought by labor and sweating, or the reverse. 72

That from these discords arising both in the mind and in the body from inverted order or a perverted state, exist perpetual causes of death both spiritual and natural; hence finally comes death itself as the effect of its causes. 73

That, in order that a new creation may exist, or a new creature, man by means of humility must be reduced into nothingness, which here also is signified by his return to dust. 74

That in his wife Adam still beheld the kingdom of God which was to exist in his posterity, follows from the fact that he called her the mother of all living beings. 76

That the speech of the lips was indeed derived from the speech of the mind, that is, from spiritual speech, which was a speech representative of objects by means of forms; but yet, after the fall, becoming natural, it also emulates inverted order, as does the mind itself. 77

That after the fall the first parents were covered about with a new skin or tunic, over{1} the epidermis. 78

{1 See no. 78 note.}

That Jehovah God is one in essence and trine in persons; or, that by Jehovah God are meant all three Persons of the Divinity. 80

That immediately after the fall, Adam was the most intelligent of his posterity, and thus was like God, as; it were, knowing good and evil. 81

If Adam, immediately after his guilt, had eaten of the fruit of the tree of life, he would then have eaten spiritual death, and so would have lived cursed to eternity; therefore he was cast out of paradise. 82

Hence also the conclusion follows, that the Messiah was to come who would again admit man into paradise and to the eating of His tree. 83

That Adam was cast out to till the ground, that, like the prince of the loves of the world, he also might live a mundane, natural or animal life outside paradise. 85

That by the cherubs are meant guards around the throne or seat of Jehovah God. 86

And that by the flaming sword is meant the radiation proceeding from the Sun of justice, wisdom and love, and which, like a sharp sword, strikes those who, without the Savior of the world, prepare for themselves a way to His tree. 87

For the elucidation of the above, the order is explained in which the faculties of life in our body, from the first of them to the last, follow one after the other, and mutually act into each other. And that we are passive potencies; so that it is spiritual essences outside us that excite and rule all the faculties of our life; consequently, it is either the only begotten Son of God, the Prince of heaven, or the devil, the prince of the world; the head of the latter, however, will be trampled on by the only begotten Son and Love of God. 88

That the prince of the world or the devil, was represented in Cain. 90, 91

That the devil was driven from heaven like Cain from the soil of the earth; and that he bears the most relentless hatred against the Prince of heaven, that is, the Messiah, and exercises the same. 92

That the infernal crew was represented in the posterity of Cain, and especially in the offspring of Lamech. 93

That the Prince of heaven, that is, Christ the Savior of the world, was represented in Abel whom He led, and thus by Abel. That it was first of all in Abel that the Messiah offered himself a victim for the transgressions of the human race. 94, 96

That the death of the Messiah in the body or flesh was foretold by Lamech. 95

That Adam's guilt was derived into Cain his first-born; but the latter was condemned to spiritual death because he himself was at fault. 97

That it was represented in Abel, that the Messiah became justice and took away the sins of the world. That when Abel was slain, Seth, from whom came the Messiah, was born in his stead. 98

That in Adam, when he conceived and begat Seth from whom came the Messiah, the image of God was again raised up; but raised up such as it was in the new man after the fall, that is to say, by faith in the Messiah and his justice. 99

As the death of the Messiah is signified in Abel, so his ascent into the heavens is signified in Enoch, the sixth generation from Adam. 100

The first creation was accomplished in six days, and each of these days commenced from evening. The seventh day was holy. So also will it be in the new creation. 102 {2}

{2. This is the last entry of the author's formal Table of Contents. It is followed by three blank pages, doubtless reserved for the continuation. Then, on a slip of paper pasted on the inside of the back cover, are a few "Notes" and "Observations." Similar Notes are found on the cover pages of volumes II and III. These are simply entries of passages which the author wished to note. All these entries have been gathered together and included in the present Table of Contents. We have also added entries of all those sections of The Word Explained which have special headings or which clearly deal with special subjects.

In indented paragraphs, we have also included the entries of the memorabilia of the spiritual world. With a few exceptions (distinguished by brackets), these entries are translations of all the references to The Word Explained which are found in Swedenborg's Index to his Spiritual Diary. In this Index he included nearly all the memorabilia recorded in the present work. Thus, so far as the entries of the memorabilia are concerned, the present Table of Contents presents what may be considered as the introductory or first part of The Spiritual Diary. The Index words from which our headings are taken will be found noted in the present work at the passages referred to.

The inclusion in the present work of these translations from the author's Index to his Spiritual Diary involves somewhat of an anachronism in regard to the use of the word "Lord" in place of "God Messiah." Throughout the present work, Swedenborg invariably speaks of "God Messiah," and this term is continued in the early part of the Spiritual Diary up to n. 498, written in January, 1748, after which date, Swedenborg speaks only of the "Lord."

The Index to the Spiritual Diary was made several months after January, 1748, and therefore in every reference, both to the present work and to the early part of the Spiritual Diary where the term "God Messiah" is used, this name is changed to "the Lord."]

That the image of God consists in order. 13, 14

That spiritual things are represented in natural things. 23

That purely spiritual essences see heavenly things in earthly, etc. 114

[On the distinction between the names "Jehovah," "God," and "Jehovah God." 122]

That God, its origin, [also sees heavenly things in earthly]. 124

The nature of the order of life in the universe. 88, 130

That it is the same in the blood, but simultaneous. 130, 130a

That the soul, the intellectual mind, the natural mind, etc., are distinct faculties. 130a

[Celebration of Jehovah God by the saints. 317]

That in ancient times, marriages outside the family were forbidden{3}. 459

{3. From the author's Index to his Spiritual Diary.

That infants dictated to me and directed my hand. 459

Concerning the kingdom of God, see the whole chapter. 472-4541

In general, concerning visions and speech with spirits; and that I was admitted into the world of spirits and spoke with many. 475

[Concerning unity and variety in the kingdom of God. 484-491]

That there are many senses in the Divine Word, and indeed four. 505

That God is the All in all. That the Messiah is in his own as in himself. 510

[Concerning form and harmony in the kingdom of God. 522]

That the kingdom of God, or heaven, was represented to me with the union, harmony, influx, and felicity of many; also the ladder of angels seen by Jacob, I 541; see III 356 [4539]. 561

The genealogies of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, and their relationships with the house of Terah, Nahor, Bethuel and Laban. 558

Concerning the kingdom of God, and at the same time, concerning the Old Creation or Paradise; and concerning the creation of the old man and of the new. 596{*}-627

{* The autograph has 594.}

Concerning order, from the first to the last; thus concerning the two creations and concerning the kingdom of God. 628-668

[Evil spirits, like men, think they are ruled by themselves. 650a]

Concerning the inverted state and order of man, and his being cast out of paradise. 664-668

Concerning representations of the church in trees and flowers. 732

[Concerning the Abrahamic Church. 749-750]

[Concerning the Jewish Church. 764]

[Concerning the four faculties in man. 810-817]

[Concerning the nature of love. 818-824]

[That in primitive times spiritual things were seen under natural objects. 876-878]

Concerning the kingdom of God, and at the same time, concerning the

Old Creation or Paradise; and concerning the creation of the old man and of the new. 879-890

[Concerning human philosophy and the Divine Word. 904-911]

Concerning the human understanding and its formation; concerning truths, goodnesses, affections, loves, etc., etc. 916-988

In general, that the thoughts, the will, the actions, the walking and the footsteps are ruled by the Lord in the smallest details, by means of angels and spirits; and that I was so led, and yet conversed with men as before, no one observing the leading; see III 4105 [8283]. 943

That affections or loves rule the rational and intellectual things of the mind, and produce falsities or truths corresponding thereto; and that the field of affections and truths extends from things opposite; which field is the better according as it is wider and extends more readily towards goods; [from experience]. 967

That there is but one Love and one Life which is the Lord's alone. 986

That evil genii and spirits are admitted into the world of spirits to sustain men's lives because they are natural; [from experience]. 986

[Concerning the human will. 989-904]

In general that I spoke with those who have died in the world. 1003

Concerning the kingdom of God, and at the same time concerning the Old

Creation or Paradise; and concerning the creation of the old man and of the new. 1005-1019

[Concerning the transmission of hereditary evil. 1039-1054]

[Concerning the gathering of the nations. 1076-1082]

[Concerning revelations by visions. 1144]

That angels and good spirits are not ruled by themselves, and do not will to be ruled by themselves; not so evil spirits; [from experience]. 1147

That there is not the least moment of thought and affection that does not flow in; [from experience]. 1147-[48]

In general that men are ruled by means of spirits; and that spirits manifestly ruled my steps and all the motions of my body, and how; and that they think themselves to will, to act, and to be men. 1149

That spirits wrote by my hand, and [for the sake of experience] wrote words of which I had not thought. 1150

[Concerning the Word as an image of creation. 1195-1199]

That Peter walked around like a poor spirit (genius); and other particulars respecting him. 1215

That the deceits of evil spirits were laid open to me, although they wished to hide them. 1269

What apparitions and visions were manifested to me, and what their nature. 1351, 1953

[Concerning the multitude and variety of nations. 1354-1366]

That the human race would perish unless the Lord ruled; the universe; [from experience] 1396

That I spoke truths which I did not understand but which were afterwards explained; thus that words are inspired in man which he does not understand. 1409

Concerning the tithes given to Esau. 1415

Concerning the wrestling of God with Jacob. 1452-1460

That the wrestling of the angel with Jacob signifies the wrestling of the Lord with Jacob's posterity. 1461

That it also signifies temptations; [from experience]. 1470

Continuation concerning Esau and Jacob. 1490 seq.

Jacob, being seen, is described as to his quality; and that by my hand he wrote the words that immediately precede concerning the Lord; see also 1527. 1511

That Jacob confessed that he had repented before his death. 1526

What was confessed by Abraham concerning the Lord, when he was in that state; and what was written by him and by Isaac through my hand. 1527-1530

What was confessed by Abraham concerning circumcision. 1644-1646

That among spirits there are a great many who wish to be worshiped as gods and who seduce men; [from experience]. 1656

[Concerning the speech of God] with men. 1695]

That Jacob and his posterity is the serpent who deceived

[Adam] and bruised the heel [of God Messiah]. 1712

That places signify degrees in the true church and in the kingdom of God Messiah, {4} II 39 and 40. 1752-1753

{4 Volumes I, II and III of the autograph each commence with n. 1, and volume IV has no numbering, all the author's references to it being by pages. In the translation, the work has been numbered consecutively throughout. To facilitate reference to the Latin text, we add the numbers of the autograph volumes. These also apply to the Latin edition, except that part of volume III of the autograph (from n. 4451 on) is printed in volume IV (or Pts. 2-3) of the Latin edition. See our Introduction, pp. 4-5.}

That by Ishmael, they are signified who sit at the Lord's right hand, and by Esau they who sit at his left; to sit at the right hand is to be the nearest; II 53, 54. 1766-1767

Concerning the house, the church, and the kingdom of God Messiah; their classes and distributions in general, II 60, and above in the same chapter. 1771, 1773

The hereditary nature received from the father unfolds itself more slowly, and that received from the mother more quickly, II 59. 1772

That every evil is bent by the Lord into good, and every good is turned by evil spirits and genii into evil; [from experience] II 88. 1801

[Concerning the representation of Joseph and his brethren, II 122-134. 1895-1847]

That spirits think themselves men; but not so when they were with me as often as reflection was given them, II 135. 1847

That spirits perceive and inspire affections and persuasions in a marvelous manner according to their nature; and that they thus turn good into evil; [from experience] II 135, see also 1654, 1683 [3323, 3346]. 1847

[Concerning the devil; why he was made prince of the world, II 136-147. 1848-1859 3

That there was a multitude of spirits about me; and that varieties of influxes produce effects in the rational mind and in the will, II 149. 1856

That there is nothing that is not a type of the kingdom of the Lord, II 145. 1857

That in ancient times there was much speech of spirits and angels with men; and that there were many modes of revelation; but that afterwards heaven was closed to men, II 181. 1892

That dreams are induced by spirits; and that they are principally of two kinds; [from experience] II 182-184. 1893-1895

How that in Jacob is represented the Messiah, and afterwards the devil, II 212. 1923

[That in the beginning I could never know whether a spirit were a good one or an evil II 217. 1928]

That the most minute and incomprehensible things in man's thought are ruled by the Lord alone; [from experience] II 356-357. 2067

Concerning the literal, historical, and other senses [of the Word]; that they regard the inmost sense; many particulars concerning this, II 363, 364, 365, 366, 367. 2073-2075

[The meaning being obscure is left for another time, II 411. 2120]

That marvelous things occur in relation to the speech of spirits; many spirits speak together both as many and as a single one; one spirit at once takes up the speech of another; and this in another place or in the same place; [from experience], II 514. 2211

[Concerning a conversation with Jews in the spiritual world, II 530. 2227]

[That I have not the least thing from myself, II 560. 2257]

That I could not be injured by evil spirits, although I was continually beset by them and they tried to bring upon me injuries and death; which they do to everyone who does not favor their cupidities, II 687. 2382

[When affections are excited, the words follow spontaneously, II 837. 2531]

That I perceived and learned that from first infancy the acts of my life were governed by the Lord alone, [that I might come] to this end: [that thus by the knowledges of natural things I might serve as an instrument for opening the things that lie more interiorly concealed in the Divine Word], II 839. 2532

That angels perceive not the literal sense of the Word but its interior or spiritual sense; [from experience], II 927. 2619

Concerning the years of plenty and of famine, II 1044-1050. 2736-2742

[Concerning the representation of Jacob and that of Israel, II 1067-1077 2759-2768 1

That human philosophy leads minds into such blindness and ignorance concerning their own internal faculties and concerning their soul and life, that at last they know not how to discriminate the human from the brute animal, II 1076. 2767

[That in ancient times they spoke as the mouth of God Messiah, II 1091. 2782]

[That certain gestures of the body flow spontaneously from affection, II 1115. 2806]

That spirits did not understand what they spoke by the prophets, II 1133. 2823

[Concerning the character of the Dutch, II 1257. 2947]

That human philosophy cannot enter into things spiritual and heavenly; but when it enters and tries to enter, the man falls backwards; [from experience], II 1282, 1285. 2971, 2973

Concerning the knowledges of spiritual things from natural; thus concerning the new paradise, II 1298 2986

[That felicity comes from harmony, II 1344. 3032]

[That in heaven spirits and angels in their speech and actions present such things as look to the kingdom of God Messiah, II 1352-1353. 3040]

[That by death man loses nothing except the body, II 1374-1377. 3058-3061]

Further concerning death and resurrection, II 1404-8. 3089-3092

How absurd is that Judaism which wills to approach Jehovah apart from the Lord; [from experience], II 1425-1426. 3110

[That Peter was cast out of the company of the other apostles, II 1433. 3116]

[That Solomon still retains his manner of speaking in proverbs, II 1434. 3117]

[That those who are now admitted are not those who are to be admitted into the kingdom of God Messiah, II 1434-1435. 3117]

[That in heaven there exist continual types of the last judgment. From the life of those who are there, it cannot be concluded that they will be among those who will enter into the kingdom of God Messiah, II 1462. 3142]

[That there is no admission into heaven without preparation, II 1478-1480. 3158-3159]

[What was told me] concerning Judas Iscariot, II 1479. 3158

That evil is bent to good and falsity to truth, II 1483; also 1659, 1683 [3323, 3346]. 3161

[That words were brought in to me from heaven, though not dictated, II 1485. 3163]

[Concerning the persecutions of the church, II 1521-1530. 3199-3120. 8]

That the deceits and furies of evil spirits could do nothing against me; which they also confessed, II 1558. 3230

[Concerning the three periods of the reformation of the human race and the six days of the new creation, II 1565-1576. 3237-3248]

The horrible attempts of the Jews against the Lord still continue as they had been before, in the way of plotting the same thing in their heart; this I have frequently seen with horror, II 1603. 3274

The malignity of the Jews is further described; I spoke with them concerning this, and also concerning the rest of Abraham's seed which is scattered through all countries of the world, and not one of whom is of such a nature as this one tribe, II 1605. 3274

That the speech of spirits with me was heard as distinctly and as plainly as if uttered by a man, II 1659, 1685 [3347].3323

That men, spirits, and angels are merely organic substances; and the evil also, for they turn good into evil according to their nature, II 1654, 1683 [3346]. 3323

[Concerning the washing of feet, II 1660. 3327]

That Moses confessed that during his life he had not believed; many things concerning Moses, II 1676, 1779, 1865 [3483] 3340, 3407

[A sign that I have been sent; and how far the mission extends, II 1681. 3345]

That we are nothing but mere instruments or organs, II 1683; see 1654 [3323]. 3346

That the speech of spirits with me was heard as distinctly as human speech [although I was in the company of men talking just like any other man, so that no one could distinguish me from my former self], II 1685; see 1654 [3323]. 3347

Concerning Babel, II 1705-1722. 3363-3366

[That man thinks and understands nothing from himself, II 1761. 3390]

That a marvelous light was poured into my mind; and also shade, so that I understood nothing, and even perceived the matter in another sense and with another sight, II 1763. 3391

That Moses [and many others] confessed [that all that I had written was true], II 1779; see 1676 [3340]. 3407

[That I was in obscurity, II 1788, 1890. 3416, 3445]

Concerning representations by means of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, etc., II 1825 seq. 3449-3451

Why in former times and now, the kingdom of God is first offered to the Jews, II 1858-1853 3470-3471

[It was heard by me why God; Messiah was wroth with Moses, II 1861. 3479]

Concerning Moses, that he lamented when he perceived what had now been written], II 1865; see 1676 [3340]. 3483

[That God Messiah spoke with men by means of angels; as was the case with me, II 1889. 3500]

Concerning the hardening of Pharaoh's heart, II 1912-1919. 3525-3530

A vision at the table; in a vapor exuding from the body, worms were seen, which were gathered into a unit and, by a fire which was seen by me, were burst asunder with a noise; they signified the appetite of eating, II 1957. 3557

[That stagnant pools are the dwelling places of those who are rejected, II 1975. 3571]

[That a stench as from unclean things in nature corresponds to unclean spirits, II 1980. 3574]

[On the savage cruelty of evil spirits; from experience, II 2001. 3594]

That anger appeared to spirits like a fire flashing around the head, II 2055. 3641

[That evil is turned: into good, II 2088. 3671]

[That the people of Jacob were saved by the representation of the Passion of the Messiah, II 2164-2169. 3741-3746]

Concerning times in a summary, II 2172. 3749

[Concerning the first-bow, II 2340-2356. 3884-3894]

Concerning the speech of the heavenly ones, III prin. 4002

[Concerning the style of the Word of the old church, III prin. 4003-4]

Why the Jewish people was so often tempted in the wilderness, III prin. 4005

[The answer given to Jewish spirits concerning their temptation, III prin. 4005]

That the speech of spirits is rhythmical and falls into a unity, III 23. 4023

That evil spirits think that they pursue another when they extort consent, as it were, to their persuasion, III 43-48.4038

That the natural things with man are spiritual with good spirits and angels, such being the correspondence, III 87. 4070

[The things which [occurred] in the garden, May 2, 1746, III 135. 4106]

[What being sent into the wilderness is; from experience, III 138. 4108]

That the memory of past things, and the foreseeing of future, bring grief to man; and that there is no such thing with angels; hence their felicity, III 145. 4111

That after death souls, although they acknowledge truth and strive to do good, yet relapse into their pristine nature, III 209. 4160

As the inner love is, such are the gestures of the body, III 278-279. 4207

That good spirits consult the Lord and receive answers, III 337. 4251

Words came to me from on high by means of intermediate spirits, III 356. 4260

That when the Jews were striving to do unspeakable crimes, Abram favored with consent as one who does not himself act but in whom nevertheless there is the same blame as if he had acted, III 613, 4807 [6058]. 4355

That the Jews despise all in comparison with themselves, and hardly wish to admit others even to the meanest tasks; [from experience], III 659 [660]. 4387

That the essences of things within which is life, and thus the interior senses, are poured in by the Lord; hence come the words of speech; therefore the words are not perceived by angels, but the things. The contrary is the case with man; [from experience], III 678; see 681 [4402]. 4400

That the sound of speech with spirits is like that of speech with man, flowing, as it were, through the ear; [from experience], III 679-680. 4401

This was evidenced to me from praying the Lord's Prayer; that the interior and more interior things therein then flowed into the words with variety, III 681; see 678 [4400]. 4402

Concerning the fear of those who are not sons of Israel, III 700, 701, 702, 703, 704. 4413

On the nature of holy fear; [from experience], III 707-8. 4415

That man does not receive what he desires from himself if it is well that he should not have it, III 748. 4431 fin.

[That I was snatched away to servitude, III 811. 4455]

[Concerning Abraham and Jacob, III 821. 4461]

That evil spirits induce shade; so that I was unable to grasp in my thought what is the truth, and to be persuaded of it, and unable to be affected by what is useful and good, III 866. 4477

[There is no servitude in liberty, III 869. 4479]

Concerning theft, III 986 seq. 4528 seq.

[That the deceits of spirits come from their nature, III 1101. 4575]

That oaths and profanities greatly hurt my mind, III 1129. 4586

[Why God Messiah speaks through angels, III 1202-3. 4605]

[How evil is turned into good, III 1138 [bis]-39 [bis]. 4620]

That when evil has been rejected by me, it has sometimes been recalled, III 1141[bis], 1146[bis]. 4621, 4624

[Evils must never be united with goods, III 1149 [bis], 1151[bis]. 4625-4626]

That the affections of the animus are acquired as the bodies of heavenly affections, III 1165 [bis]. 4630

[A response to objecting spirits, III 1176 [bis]. 4635]

[How Moses and the Elders saw God in Mt. Sinai, III 1210 [bis]-11 [bis] 4646]

[Concerning the Tables of the Law, III 1221. 4649]

[Concerning Moses, III 1249. 4658]

[Profane things were said to me in a dream, III 1250. 4659]

That the presence of the Lord with me was manifested in various ways; respecting which in general, III 1262-1263 4663

The color cerulean blue is loved in heaven, but not so much green; [from experience], III 1287-1288. 4670

[Externals are nothing unless they flow from internals, III 1399. 4708]

[Concerning the essentials of the Word in its different senses, III 1589-1589. 4772]

That various representations were seen by me in a long series, signifying things which are of the kingdom of God; such as pyramids variously adorned, III 1626; see also 1632, 2040, 2052 [4782, 4907, 4917] 4779

That representations, visions and natural things thought out in a series, are perceived in heaven spiritually; [from experience], III 1632; see 1626 [4779]. 4782

Angelic speech heard and perceived in a dream, but not in wakefulness, because it was inexpressible, III 1660. 4793

[On the signification of a girdle, III 1730. 4812]

[Things that could be understood by me from the idea of the viscera and their coverings, III 1783. 4824]

Concerning the Breastplate of Judgment and the Urim and Thummin, III 1807 seq. 4832 seq.

In general concerning the colors that are loved, what they are and what they signify; such as golden yellow verging to purple; what shining white signifies; what cerulean blue; [from experience], III 1830. 4839

[Light seen as in midday when my eyes were closed, III 1888. 4865]

Concerning Aaron's robe, III 1914 seq. 4870 seq.

Concerning the Mitre and Tunic, etc., III 1965 seq. 4887 seq.

Concerning representations in heaven arising from those which were instituted; in the Jewish Church, {5} III 2038-2057. 4907-4921

{5 The author emphasizes this entry by the word "Observe." He adds "This should perhaps be premised in its proper place" (Cod. 61 ad fin.)}

Representations seen by me, III 2040, 2052; see 1626 [477]. 4907, 4917

That when I was in interior sight, those who were in exterior sight did not know what [I saw; it was a pyramid marvelously adorned], III [2052] 2053; see 1626 [4779]. 4917-4918

He who is not in order does not perceive interior things, still less things more interior; he who is in order perceives interior things and things more interior howsoever dissentient the exteriors, III 2056. 4920

That the ordinations of angels and spirits by the Lord are accomplished and varied: in accordance with every effect, III 2057. 4921

[In heaven each class supposes that it serves God Messiah immediately; why, III 2066. 4926]

That infants are educated and instructed in heaven, III 2086. 4934

[And also those who were not born in Christendom, III 4937]

Concerning the washing of feet, III 2121. 4949

[I spoke with those who knew no mediations except the one God Messiah, III 2171. 4964]

That natural things thought out in a series are perceived in heaven spiritually; as when the thought was concerning the liver and its structure, III 2221. 4983

[Representations are familiar to evil spirits, III 2231. 4985]

[Wonderful representations; that the left side of man is held to be holier than the right, III 2288. 5004]

[Experience concerning the toe of the right foot, III 2292-2293. 5006]

[If heavenly things were revealed, no one who trusts in the understanding would believe, III 2296-2297. 5008]

That the shoulder signifies one who excels in the doctrine of faith; [revealed to me in a dream] III 2308. 5012

That there was noticed a certain waving, an undulation, as it were, or a general respiration of many, III 2351. 5027

That there was a creeping motion in the cerebrum, almost according to the [undulatory] creeping of the cortical substance, in which were represented the things which flowed in from many spirits, III 2361. 5030

That the waving signifies the concordance of the individual with the community; what respiration is, III 2361 ad fin. 5030 fin.

Concerning the Therumah (heave-offering), III 2371-2389. 5035-5043

Offerings were sent me; a bundle of letters, a basket of apples and citrons, III 2390. 5044

Concerning the Millennium, III 2408. 5051

[That heavenly things and worldly cannot be mingled, III 2443. 5067]

[Every part of the rites of Moses involved infinite things; from experience, III 2458. 5075]

[Genii suppose they are furnished with a body and members; their form is induced by representation, III 2471-2472. 5081]

[Representations seen in series and for a long time, III 2477. 5083]

That I spoke by representations, III 2479. 5084

What eating with Abraham, Isaac and Jacob is, III 2485-2491. 5088-5093

Many think they are in inmosts and are not; they know no otherwise; and why, III 2488. 5090

That everyone's nature is derived from his life in the body; if they should act from this nature in the other life, they could never be in any society and least of all in a heavenly society, unless the Lord ruled the universe, III 2492. 5094

Concerning the Continual Sacrifice, III 2533 seq. 5107 seq.

That I spoke with the Jews in sleep, they thinking me awake; which they noticed when I awoke; hence that they spoke with me in sleep, being themselves in sleep, III 2632. 5141

[That man's life is a sleep, III 2654-2655. 5150-5151]

Concerning the Altar of Incense, III 2656 seq. 5152 seq.

[Speech with spirits concerning spheres, III 2732. 5172]

[Angels do not reach to the ultimate of order, except by means of man, III 2759. 5180]

That the activities of angels are effected by volutions or gyres which are reciprocated according to heavenly forms; therefore they are represented by rings, III 2767-2768. 5185

Concerning the Shekel of Holiness, III 2950 seq. 5216 seq.

Concerning the Laver, III 2996 seq. 5242 seq.

[How affections induce persuasions, and how these affections are broken up by the Lord, III 2999. 5245]

Concerning the Oil of Anointing, III 3013 seq. 5253 seq.

[Concerning the Seventh and Holy Day, III 3049 seq. 5265 seq.]

Concerning the two Tables, III 3060 seq. 5270 seq.

[Concerning the Worship of the Golden Calf, III 3078 seq. 5276 seq.]

That in the other life the Jews planned to do similar things as in the life of the body; [written in their presence], III 3102-3. 5292-5293

[That spirits about me answered, We cannot. They were not able to weaken what was written concerning them, III 3144, 3147. 5311-5312]

Abraham said that I should write, that in heaven nothing whatever is done except through God Messiah whom they adore, III 3149. 5314

Speech with the Jews concerning the fall of man and concerning temptations, III 3173. 5325

What Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob are in the mystical sense; see the notes to Exodus 32:13 5363 seq.

What the Tables of the Law are which were laid down in Mount Sinai; see the notes to Exodus 32:15. 5384 seq.

[Wonderful things happened to me when I wrote concerning the Law laid down in Sinai, III 3360. 5386]

Concerning the proximate, interior, more interior, and inmost senses in the Word of God Messiah; and concerning the likenesses of

Himself;{6} see notes to Exodus 38:17. 5392 seq.

{6 The author emphasizes this entry by the word "Observe" (Cod. 61 fin.)}

They in the other life who put justice in works, turn all good into evil; they who put justice in the law turn all evil into good, III 3373. 5401

They who stand for works, or for the external law are continually attacking those who stand for the internal law, nor do they desist; therefore, to the latter are given the means of protecting themselves, III 3377, 3381-3382. 5402-4

[On the last day the devil will know that he is conquered, III 3383. 5405]

[Evil spirits who led: the choir were singing; for the devil desires to imitate the things that regard God Messiah, III 3385-3387. 5407-5481

[In heaven man is not seen as a man but only his spiritual and heavenly part which makes the man, III 3400. 5416]

That all that man thinks and does flows into him; [from experience], III 3403. 5417

[It was given those in heaven to perceive all the thoughts of my heart, III 3486. 5432]

That men may be among angels, there must be a correspondence of interiors with exteriors; [from experience], III 3339. 5433

[External and internal sanctity; from experience, III 3443-3444. 5437]

[Whence holiness comes, III 3447-3448 5439]

That no conclusion can be made concerning anyone as to his quality, whether good or evil, when he is in a state of fear and of humiliation from fear; for after the fear he goes back [to his own state; from experience], II 3496-3497. 5460

[Combats were represented to me for a long time, III 3519. 5466]

[Punishment of the wicked is not effected by means of angels, for these never punish, but only defend themselves, III 3525-3527. 5468-5469]

That in the representative Jewish Church, spirits were so ordinated that they comprehended only externals and were ignorant of internals; thus they served for representing things holy, III 3535. 5474

When holy things were represented by them in externals, then heavenly and spiritual things were represented in heaven, III 3536. 5475

[Concerning the difference between the Jewish Church and the truly Christian Church, III 3537-3541. 5476-5479]

That by any one single thing, innumerable and various things are represented; this was made evident to me from the Lord's Prayer; as in the single word Bread, III 3537, 3539; see 3959 [5678]. 5476, 5478

[On the disposition of angels into choirs, III 3589, 3696. 5496, 5527]

Things which were inspired, when the words were written concerning Abraham, that justice was not imputed to him because he believed that Isaac was to be born but because he believed that the Lord was represented; therefore by Abraham, saving faith is merely represented. Other particulars concerning which I spoke with Abraham, III 3762-3765. 5586-5588

[That spirits perceive rest in self-justification by their own works, was shown by a living example, III 3771. 5592]

That it was Abraham, Isaac and Jacob with whom I spoke; and here concerning the representative church, III 3772. 5593

[How internal hearing and sight are effected, and their similarity to external hearing and sight, III 3783-3784. 5602-3]

[Speech with Jacob, III 3809. 5617]

That in the other life those who put justice in the external law are tormented when they hear the internal law explained, III 3892-3893. 5650-5651

That sometimes writing has been sensibly done by spirits by means of my hand, III 3895; see also 5393-5394 [6327]. 5652

[A spirit expelled from a house in heaven, III 3906. 5658]

[The punishment of the evil by turning the face away from them, represented in a wonderful manner, III 3909. 5660]

That in humiliation, as in every affection, there are indefinite varieties, III 3959; see also 3537, 3539 [5476, 5478] 5678

That Moses still worships the law in externals, and that he is held in no esteem, III 3963. 5679

[Concerning the Tables of the Law, III 3998-4016. 5697-5705]

That the motions of many members of my body were manifestly ruled by spirits, III 4105; see also I 943. 5741

Certain ancestors of the Jews [of the stock of Eber] could give no answer when asked, Whom did Melchizedek represent? what the sacrifices? whom Isaac when he was a victim? III 4160. 5763

That in the other life the truths of faith torment the evil, III 4163. 5764

[How light is perceived in the intellectual mind; from experience, III 4171. 5768]

A veil was drawn away from my eyes and I saw more keenly, III 4185 [4193] 5779, 5777

[A dispute among spirits respecting the signification of the Therumah (heave-offering), III 4228 5789]

[Few can understand what freedom is, III 4252 5797]

That in the Lord's Prayer is the whole of order; and in its single parts is an archetype of creation, III 4297 5817

[Choirs of angels were seen, and also wonderful representations by variations of form, III 4327-4328 5826-5827]

[These motions produce corresponding motions in the internal man, III 4330 5828]

Representations whereby evil is turned into good, and what is profane is taken away so that it becomes holy, III 4339, [4340]; see 5025, 5190-5191, 5227 [6157, 6246, 6259] 5833

[Evil spirits are restrained from disturbing these representations, III 4343-4345 5835-5836]

[Things seen in a dream concerning which I spoke with spirits and angels when I awoke, III 4418 5857]

[Speech with spirits is more full than speech with men, III 4419 5858]

That the angels await the last day, or the liberation of the pious from the wicked, III 4445 5868

That in the other life the Jews wish that inheriting the land signified inheriting heaven, III 4455 5876

The mystical sense of the circumstance that the Reubenites and Gaddites remained and went in front both on this side Jordan and on the other, III 4460-4463 5879

That no other than he might have the merit of being supreme, Abram presented himself by means of a representation, as slaying his son, III 4511 5905

The horrible plots against the Lord by Abraham and Jacob, who are called their fathers (not by Isaac); from which may be concluded that they had been such in the life of the body, III 4512-4513 5906-7

[Concerning Abraham, III 4571 5922]

[The conviction of the Jews, whence they had torment of conscience, was represented to me, III 4536 5924]

[Concerning the Anakim, III 4571 5952]

Briefly concerning the nature of the gods of those who lay claim to the Lord's kingdom from their own justice, III 4632; see 4700 [4701 (6022) 5991

[That truth penetrates to inmosts, and torments, III 4642 5999]

[Some of the Jewish people were with me, but not of the same character, III 4649 6005]

[It has been granted me to learn the arcana of the Word by the mercy of God Messiah, III 4682 6010]

The character of those who lay claim to the Lord's kingdom; and the nature of their obstinacy which leads them to occupy the Lord's kingdom, III 4684 6011

Briefly concerning the nature of the gods of those who lay claim to the Lord's kingdom from their own justice, III 4700 [4701]; see 4632 [5991] 6022

[The same nature remains after death, III 4700-4701, 6022]

[The spirits of God Messiah promptly present themselves to fight with the evil, III 4728-4729 6040]

When good spirits speak, they skillfully put forth words which contain many things suitable to the subject, III 4737 6042

I spoke and understood something in a dream, which I could not understand when I awoke, III 4785 6051

[Evil spirits understand not the least of this speech, III 4786 6051]

That evil spirits are not in the least persuaded concerning the truth, III 4797 6054

[An angel of God Messiah spoke through Deborah, III 4801-4802 6056]

That some evil spirits look at horrible things and it seems that they do not wish to be among them; and yet they favor them in their heart, III 4807; see 613 [4355] 6058

[On those who confide in themselves, III 4813 6060]

[How truth perishes was represented, III 4817 6061]

[Many combats sere represented to me, III 5016 6152]

That spirits can bring to a man the presence of any person who has been known to him, and can persuade all that it is the same person, when yet it is another, III 5081 6155

[An evil spirit was represented instead of Samuel, III 5023 6156]

That evil spirits can be held to speak the truth, III 5025; see 4339 [5833] 6157

David's song when he was liberated from the hand of his enemies, III 5073 seq. 6187 seq.

Concerning Solomon's Temple, III 5181 seq. 6244 seq.

That external spirits comprehend only external things and are affected by them; the things which are in heaven are spiritual and heavenly, and these they know not, III 5190-5191; see 4339 [5833] 6246

That in the Word of the Lord I saw scarcely any but internal things, III 5192 6247

That the windows of a house signify sight, III 5805 6251

The character of Solomon when he was first represented to me; also the nature of his wisdom, III 5225-5226 6257-6258

That exterior spirits are ignorant of the correspondence of spiritual things with natural, being altogether of the opinion that they are men, III 5227 [5228]; see 4339 [5833] 6259

The Prophecy of Isaiah, a Kings 19(21) seq. III 5316 seq. 6310 seq.

[Evil spirits or their concupiscences are coerced so that they cannot speak the least thing, III 5365 6319]

It was inspired in me what is meant by the remnant from

Jerusalem; and what by the root being turned and bearing fruit upwards [1 Kings 19(30-31)]; thus concerning the external and internal man and concerning the regeneration of the latter, III 5393-5394; see 3895 [5652] 6327

That King Josiah was loved by the Lord; this was evidenced by tears from my eyes [when I read this chapter (2 Kings 23)], III 5395-5396 6928

[That the more interior and inmost senses were comprehended by means of representations, III 5406 6336]

[Concerning the cruel wars of the people of Jacob, III 5407-8 6937-6938]

[Concerning the representation of Solomon, III 6409 6339]

Concerning the Pillar of Cloud and Fire, III 5410 seq. 6340 seq.

That the Jews, though instructed, still confessed that they did not wish to understand what their rites and sacrifices signified; therefore if they had been instructed during their life they would have profaned all things, III 5420 6348

That in man is nothing but evil; therefore if the Lord should leave him for a moment, every sort of evil would break forth, III 5445 [5546] 6356

That the externals should be as nothing, in order that the interiors might be with things spiritual and heavenly, III 5481 6378

[Representations terminated in animals and birds, III 5541 6409]

That spirits can inflict diseases and pains on the body, III 5558 6418

That the leaders of evil spirits attempt to occupy the

Lord's kingdom, III 5620 6438

Concerning the Kingdom of God Messiah, III 6026 seq. 6581

Concerning the unspeakable deeds of the Jews, III 6183 6625

Concerning the Kingdom of God Messiah, III 6204 seq. 6634

[Spirits have no knowledge of time, and no care for the future, III 6292-6293 6652-6653]

Concerning the unspeakable deeds of the Jews, III 6350 6665

[I have often been separated from the body, III 6378-6373 6671]

If the Lord looses the reins even a very little, evil spirits at once rush to the destruction of all, and even of infants, III 6392-6393 6674

That some seek to become justice, and thus to become lords of the universe, III 6465-6466 6701

That the Jews wish to arrogate heaven to themselves, III 6545 6725

That every evil and every cupidity is exerted by evil spirits, III 6666 6765

When exteriors are operative, interiors appear to do nothing, and vice verse, III 6795-6796 6814-6815

Concerning the Blessing, III 6887 seq. 6852 seq.

That peace is the complex of all felicities, together with the most complete life without the life of the concupiscences of the body, III 6925 6863

[That holy things come from above; from experience; III 6958 6879]

That things spiritual and heavenly are incomprehensible; things natural and corporeal are like weights; III 6960-6963 6880-6882

That there is an inspiration of prophets, and what its nature, III 6965 6884

The speech of spirits with men, its nature and varieties; it does not enter by the ear, III 6966 6885

[Things represented abstractly which fall into words, III 6981 6898]

That various kinds of flames were seen, III 7012 6905

[Concerning the Advent of the Lord, Psalm 132, III 7120 seq. 6985]

Inspiration, its nature and varieties; how those who were inspired like the prophets, seem to have written, III 7176 7006

That many speak together as one person; and that societies of many are according to heavenly forms, and thus represent the kingdom of the Lord, III 7186-7187 7024-7025

The ordinations of spirits are in accordance with every effect; therefore, if the Lord should loose the reins for a moment the universe would perish, III [7194], 7195 7032

[That in a certain state spirits believe, and then relapse, III 7269 7105]

That certain spirits and genii are deceitful; they snatch away thoughts and affections in a moment and in a moment turn them into evil, III 7289 7121

[Evil spirits rush on each other at the least opportunity, III 7899 7128]

[Spirits who terrify are represented as giants, III 7300-7301, 7129]

That in the other life the Jews lay claim to heaven and think it their's only, III 7359-7360, 7368 7183-7185

That if rein were given to the Jews, one would hold: the other in murderous hatred, and there would be nothing that was not discordant both within them and among them, III 7365 7187 [When the devil and evil spirits are admitted into heaven, truly rational minds may be excited as to various cupidities, III 7440-7441 7262] [That angelic contemplation consists in representations, III 7483 7303]

That evil and unclean spirits take away the evil and unclean things that are with others; and how, III 7985 7304

That the Lord alone sustains temptations in man and conquers, III 7509, 7529 [7347] 7327

That the deceits and machinations of evil spirits are so malignant that they can never be believed, III 7529; see 7509 [7327] 7347

That spirits speaking with men are heard like horses' hoofs, hinnyings, hammer blows. [Concerning Balaam's ass; from experience], III 7535 7352 [It was often told me by spirits that I was condemned and without hope of salvation, III 7544 7360]

That evil spirits infuse falses and evils, and at once accuse and condemn the man from the things that are their's, although they know this, III 7565 7381

That evil spirits are such that if they knew from experience thousands of times that they can do nothing at all of themselves, yet they would not desist from the phantasy that they can do all things, III 7567 7382

That there are many species of visions; these are treated of, III 7572 7387

The character of Moses; that he is also the head of those who worship the law in externals and thus succumb in temptations, III 7612; see 7694 [7507] 7427

That the state of infancy is seen in the life of man, if he has lived in a state of integrity, III 7651 7465 [On those who worship the devil, III 7691 7504]

The character of Moses [that he commingles holy things with profane] III 7694; see 7612 [7427] 7507

When the spirits of the Lord speak, then far more things are contained in an idea than fall or can possibly fall into words; as is the case everywhere in the Word of the Lord, III 7705; see IV p. 33 [7769] 7517

That infernal spirits and genii have their leaders who call themselves lords of the universe, gods and also Jehovah; therefore they hate those who adore the Lord;7 IV p. 16 [p. 30, 31]; see p. 34. 7666

7 The references from this point on, are to volume IV of the autograph; and since the paragraphs of this volume are not numbered, the references are by pages. To these we have added in brackets the pages in the Latin edition.

[That the Jews are still in doubt respecting the things of the internal law, IV p. 20. [p. 37] 7687]

That they who are imbued with principles and with a nature therefrom, and also with the love of self and with justice therefrom, cannot make supplication to the Lord, IV p. 21 [p. 39] 7699

[Abraham, Moses, and others, are frequently removed from their places, IV p. 30 [p. 57] 7743]

That the nature of heavenly joy can never be believed; these joys are of thousands of varieties; [from experience], IV p. 32 [p. 62] 7758

[Concerning my temptations, IV p. 32 [p. 62] 7759]

That thousands of things are contained in a single word in the Prophets; so that a single idea requires a complete exposition; therefore, the style is of this nature, IV p. 39 [p. 68] 7769

That evil spirits attribute all power to themselves which by permission of the Lord they seem to have as their own; and they seem the more to have this as their own, according as the reins are loosed to them; but they are merely instrumental causes, and are permitted to think in this way for various reasons, IV p. 39 [p. 68] 7776

The leaders of infernal spirits and genii are for the most part those whom they adored in the life of the body; these leaders call themselves lords of the universe and also; Jehovah, but in the other life the end of those who love to be worshiped as gods is a sad one, IV p. 34 [p. 69] 7777

That temptations are brought to their height even until no hope of salvation seems to be left, IV p. 34 [p. 69] 7780

They who are in heaven have no time, no recalling of the past, and no solicitude for the future, which things bring anxiety; hence their state is a state of utmost felicity; IV p. 35 [p. 71] 7784

That the Lord's spirits are intent on doing good to all, even the worst; while the evil are intent on killing all, even the innocent; [from experience], IV p. 42 [p. 87] 7828

That the Lord alone is wisdom, He alone [has] power in the heavens and on earth, He alone is the life of faith; IV p. 48 [p. 100] 7863

That spirits know that they have nothing of power but do not acknowledge it; thus they know it outside themselves.

Angels know and acknowledge and perceive it, and thus do this relatively within themselves; IV p. 49 [p. 102] 7868

They who enjoy a natural soul do not perceive the interior sense of the Word; they who enjoy a spiritual heavenly soul do not perceive the sense of the letter; IV p. 58 [p. 107] 7889

That prophetic speech contains the representations of spirits, and, interiorly, angelic representations; thus it is not understood by natural spirits; IV p. 59 [p. 119] 7924

That the Jews attribute heaven to themselves and are of such a mind that they wish to admit no one; for they hold all, even their own people, in deadly hatred, except when the subject in hand is the principality; IV p. 60 bis [p. 123] 7932

The Jews apply to themselves everything in the Word that is favorable, rejecting that which is not favorable, and paying no attention to it; nor do they wish to understand that the Lord is effigied in every instituted rite of the church; IV p. 60 [p. 123] 7939

When the prophecy concerning the Lord was read from Isaiah, chapter 53, the Jews maintained complete silence and could raise no objection; they were also afraid that it would be read before them a second time. Thus they were convicted; for, by reason of their shame and innate hostility, they did not wish to be convinced, as I manifestly perceived; IV p. 65 [p. 135]; see p. 95 [8203] 7968

That hereditary evils and other evils acquired by act, cannot condemn those who are the Lord's; [from experience] IV p. 75 [p. 158] 8037

That with a man of perverse faith or life, evil spirits pervert all and single things that are of true faith, until at last nothing of faith remains; this is still more the case in the learned of the world; IV p. 82-83 [p. 174-175] 8080

That evil spirits are averse to the least ray of truth, and so extinguish it; IV p. 83 [p. 176] 8084

That in the faithful the Lord lifts the thoughts and the contents of the thoughts upwards to Himself; and as soon as they are let down they fall backwards into the world; [from experience], IV p. 87 [p. 183] 8110

What it was granted me to perceive and learn concerning the arrival and departure of spirits; concerning their sensible attraction whence comes shade; and concerning liberation from them; IV p. 88 [p.186] 8120

That birds like many other creatures represent the kingdom of the Lord; and that, without a representation of the Lord's kingdom, nothing in the world can subsist; IV p. 88 [p. 187] 8121

That evil spirits ascribe all things to themselves and their own prudence and counsel; and although they are manifestly convinced that the case is otherwise, they still return to the same phantasies; IV p. 89-90 [p. 191] 8134

That evil spirits were permitted to extinguish all light with me, so that I understood nothing at all of what I was reading; IV p. 93 [p. 198-199] 8178

That evil spirits also hold the faithful captive; IV p. 95 [p. 199] 8182

The Jews could not but understand what was signified in Jeremiah 23(8), and one of them said so; therefore, they labored to draw my mind away, but could not; IV p. 95 [p. 204-5]; see p. 65 8203

That when I was brought into spiritual things by means of philosophy, I was blinded and fell into negations and doubts; IV p. 96 [p. 206-7] 8212

[Concerning Vastation, IV p. 98 [p. 210] 8222]

So far as man is left to himself he falls back, IV p. 101 [p. 216] 8236

It was shown me that there are cohorts of evil spirits, and genera and species of those who are called Babel, and who are Baalim; and that these strive to pour black poison into my thoughts; IV p. 106 [p. 225] 8263

MATTHEW VI: 33

Seek ye first the kingdom of the heavens and its righteousness, and all these things (which are recounted), shall be added unto you.

Comparison of the kingdom of God:

1. With the human body from inmosts to outmosts; and therefore concerning that society wherein the Messiah is the Soul, and which shall form one body as one man.

2. With the kindred in the house of Abraham and Nahor.

3. With the land of Canaan and its bordering countries.

4. With the Paradise of Eden.

5. With a marriage and a feast.

[For the above comparisons, see (1) n. 596 seq. (8) n. 567-568. (3) n. 477 seq. (4) n. 498 seq., (5) seq. (5) n. 586.]

Men are men only so far as they walk in the way of truth.

But so far as they turn aside therefrom, they approach to the nature of a beast.

1. IN THE NAME OF THE LORD

THE HISTORY OF CREATION AS GIVEN BY MOSES

GENESIS CHAPTER I

According to the versions of Schmidius and Castellio.

Verses [are in parentheses after the quote]

1.* In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth.

(1) Namely, in the beginning of time, when as yet there was no time. And the earth was waste and void,

(2) or, according to the interpretation of Castellio, was inert and unformed; that is, was an unordered mass, called by the Ancients, Chaos.1 And darkness was upon the faces of the abyss, or, as Castellio renders it, the deep was overspread with darkness. The universe without atmospheres is not a universe but a void, an abyss, and a deep, where is mere darkness. For it is the atmospheres, and especially the ethereal atmospheres, that transmit the solar rays, that is, light; wherefore, without these atmospheres there is a vacuity, a void, or, nothing natural; and hence mere darkness. And the spirit of God moved upon the faces of the waters, or, according to Castellio, moved to and fro over the waters. By the Divine Spirit is meant the ether, as may be evident from numerous passages in the Sacred Scripture.2 When these ethers had been produced, and were incumbent upon the earth, that is, upon its waters which they moved to and fro, or whose surface they reduced to a level by their pressure, God said, Let there be light; and there was light,

(3) or, as Castellio has it, and light existed. By this is signified that although the sun existed as the first creation of all, yet it was without light, because without atmospheres, which are the supports and vehicles of its rays; but as soon as atmospheres surrounded the earth, which was at first purely aqueous, that is, was fluid consisting of the elements of inert nature, then it began to be illumined, or to be suffused with light. And when God saw the light that it was good, God distinguished between the light and the darkness, or, He divided the light from, the darkness.

(4) This was done when the aqueous globe--now become a terraqueous globe, or an earth with its ether, or, now encompassed by the ethereal vortex--began to rotate on its axis; for then, as is well known, darkness and light succeeded each other. Wherefore, by this division of light from darkness, is signified that an axillary motion was impressed on the earth. (Concerning the days of creation, see below, n. 1445.) And God called the light Day and the darkness he called Night. And the evening and the morning were the first day.

(5) Before darkness came into existence by means of the circumvolution of the globe, no light could be predicated of the latter; and before night, no day. For nothing is known and distinguished except from its opposites or contraries. For this reason day is said to come into existence only after darkness or night has first been induced, together with the distinctions of light and shade. It commences, therefore, from the darkness of the deep, and then from light. But by Day here, and in the following verses of this chapter, is not meant one ordinary day, but the whole space of that time, or that whole time of creation during which the sun--the globe of the future earth--and also the ethereal atmospheres, came into existence. For in the Sacred Scriptures whole periods of time are frequently called a day, as will be seen even more clearly from what follows.

* In this introductory treatise the paragraphs have been numbered by the translator; in the main work they are numbered by the author.

1 The author marks this word "(a)," as though referring to a footnote; but no such note is found in the manuscript. See Worship and Love of God, n. 9 note.

2 Cf. Worship and Love of God, n. 38 note, where some of these passages are cited. See n. 15 below.

2. And God said, Let there be an expanse in the midst of the waters, and let it divide between the waters and the waters,

(6) or, as Castellio renders it, [God commanded] that a Liquid should exist between the waters, to disjoin water from water. By this Liquid is denoted the air, which is stretched out between the water of the earth, or, between the globe, then aqueous but afterwards terrestrial, and that ethereal fluid which also is called water. This is more fully explained by the words that follow, especially in verse 20 of Schmidius' version compared with Castellio's. And God made the expanse, and distinguished between the waters which were under the expanse and the waters which were above the expanse,

(7) or, according to Castellio, He made the Liquid that should divide the water which was underneath the Liquid from, that which was above it. No words were as yet in use to designate with distinctness ether, air, and water; therefore they were named from their fluidity, that is to say, were called Waters, Liquids, Expenses, etc.; wherefore, on account of the lack of words a single expression was used throughout this whole verse. When this was done, God called the expanse, or this Liquid, Heaven.

(8) All that is above us is called Heaven, and what is below, or under our feet, Earth. Heaven, properly speaking, is the region where live spirits, angels, and the souls of the blessed; and this, in whatsoever place it be, even near to the earth, in the atmosphere, in whose interior or purer parts the heavenly life is lived. Things superior are also interior, and things inferior are also exterior. Wherefore, as to our minds, we are inhabitants of heaven, even though as to our body we are inhabitants of earth. And from the evening and the morning came the second day, or, the second space of time--the space within which the aerial atmosphere was made. Here, as also above in verse 5, this space is called a day; for with God, who spake these words by Moses, a thousand years, that is, an exceeding great space of time, is only as a single day [Ps. 90(4)]. In order, however, that it may come to our understanding, this entire period is described as Evening and Morning.

3. And God said, Let the waters under the heaven be gathered together unto one place, and let the dry land appear;

(9) or, as Castellio renders it, [And God commanded] that the water flow together into one place that the dried land might appear. These words make it clearly evident that, on the first and second day or time of creation, the universal globe, which was to become terrestrial, was, as it were, purely aqueous; and that it finally superinduced on itself a crust. Thus the waters were gathered together under heaven, that is, under the proximate or aerial atmosphere (vs. 8), into one place; and the surface of this globe became Earth. When this was done, God called the dry land Earth, and the gathering together of the waters called he Seas,

(10) or, as Castellio renders it, He called the flowing together or conflux of the water, Sea. And God said, Let the earth bring forth grass, the herb yielding seed.

(11) The elementary particles which came up from the waters, or sank down to their surface and formed that crust, or that dry, or dried up land, could not as yet be such earthly particles as we now find in meadows, and which constitute soil; but they were mere seeds; for the dust of our earth is born of the ashes of withered or dead grasses, plants, and trees. And therefore, since the whole surface of the earth that had now come into existence was a seminary, no other result could follow than that, from its universal bosom, it should bring forth grass, or produce the vegetable kingdom, which would afterwards serve the winged fowl and the beast for nourishment. The productions follow each other in such order that, first were raised herbs, then shrubs or small trees, and then the larger trees. For God then said that the earth should bring forth fruit trees which should give fruit, each after its own kind, and in which should be its own seed, upon the earth. And the earth put forth shoots, that is, different kinds of fruitful herbs and fruit-bearing trees, in which was its own seed (Castellio).

(12) The time of creation, or the space of time, in which the dried up land appeared, or in which this globe came to view as an earth, and in which was produced the vegetable kingdom with its fruits, is called the third day; for when these things had been finished, from the evening and the morning came the third day.

(13) That this day was not an ordinary day is very clearly indicated by the words that follow.

4. And God said, Let there be luminaries in the expanse of the heaven to distinguish between the day and the night; and (in verse 18), to govern the day and the night, and to separate the light and the darkness (Castellio).

(14) It is indicated in verse 3, that these great luminaries, or the sun and moon, existed in fact from the beginning of creation; for it is by the mediation of the sun that the herb and the tree are produced. But before the axillary motion was impressed on the earth, and thence its circumvolutory motion in its orbit around the sun; that is to say, before the earth pursued its path according to the signs of the zodiac, there were as yet no regular times, or times duly divided into days and years. This regular distinction of times, both into days and into years, is signified by these great luminaries, which God commanded to exist, that they might divide day from night, and might also make signs and times, and days and years; and that, shining in the liquid heaven, they might give light to the earth [Castellio].

(15) That, for the production of these times, the sun does not go around this little globe of our earth, but the earth goes around the sun; in other words, that the sun stands immovable in the centre of its universe, while the terrestrial globe goes around it, is indicated: in the words that follow, namely, That God set, or placed these luminaries in the liquid heaven.

(17) Here no mention is made of its apparent circumgyration, but only that they were made, to govern the day and the night, and to divide the light from the darkness.

(18) To this work is attributed a space of time which is called the fourth day; far when it was accomplished, From the evening and the morning came the fourth day.

(19) In this same day also the moon and stars are said to have been produced, although they had existed before; but they could not become apparent, especially the stars, until the shades of night, and particularly of autumn and winter, had been first induced. And therefore on this fourth day, when regular times were introduced, it is said that the moon and stars also were created. This day therefore properly involves the production of times by the set alternations of the earth's circumvolution. For God made the lesser luminary to govern over the night; and the stars also. Therefore God here says, that He made luminaries (vs. 16), that they might give light to the earth (vs. 17). (16)

5. Then God commanded that the waters bring forth swimming creatures, and fowl that should fly through the air above the earth.

(20) Schmidius renders this differently: And God said, Let the waters make the creeping thing, the living soul to creep; and let the bird fly above the earth upon the faces of the expanse of the heavens. Now came forth little creatures of a more ignoble stock, such as worms, especially those sprung from damp and watery places, which first creep and then like butterflies, laying aside their exuviae, fly in the air about the flowers and bushes. This may be evident from the very words of the verse. Then came fishes, from the smaller even to the largest; and likewise birds. For God created great whales and every kind of water animal, and of winged fowl, every moving thing that hath, its rise in water.

(21) That the birds, however, did not have their rise in water is apparent from other translations of this passage. Thus Schmidius renders it: God created great whales, and every living soul that creepeth, which the waters made to creep, after their kind; and every winged bird after his kind.

(22) When God had blessed these creatures that they might be multiplied, then from the evening and the morning came the fifth day

(23)--a day which comprehended the creation of all water creatures and fowl.

6. Then God commanded that the earth bring forth different kinds of living creatures, namely, of cattle,3 and serpents, and wild beast of the earth, or, according to Schmidius, Let the earth bring forth the living soul after his kind, the beast and the creeping thing; and the wild beast of the earth, after his kind.

(24) That all this was done as commanded, see the following verse. The command that the earth should bring forth living creatures, refers to their corporeal texture from eggs, and not to their minds or souls, which were drawn not from the earth but from a purer or vital aura. But whether these bodies or eggs, as also those of the water creatures, or of the winged fowl, were produced immediately from the dust or slime of the earth, or whether they grew up mediately, through the fibres of subjects of the vegetable kingdom, it amounts to the same thing; for whether they sprang up immediately, or mediately in the way mentioned, they nevertheless arose from the earth or from the dust of the earth. And when God saw, that this was good, he spoke as follows: Let us make man after our image, a likeness of ourselves; or,

(26) according to Schmidius, Let us make man in our image, after our likeness. It is said, Let us make in the plural, and from this it is evident that all the persons of the Divinity, who were three, namely, Father, Son, and Holy Spirit, concurred in the work of creation; and that they perfected and completed it in man; also that the first-born of the human race, that is, Adam, was created into all the order of life and of nature, and hence in the divine image, and after the divine image; and because this image is within all order, he was thus created into a state of integrity, and into all perfection. What this order is will become evident from human life and its faculties when these are well examined. So God created man after His own, that is, after the Divine image, namely, male and female.

(27) Here we have only a summary presentation of the work of creation; for though woman came into existence afterwards, being drawn from the rib of man, yet here the origin of both is set forth as one event. And He then gave them fruitfulness, addressing them as follows: Be ye fruitful, multiply, replenish the earth and subdue it.

(28) From these words, however, it does not follow that the woman was as yet made fruitful or gravid in the state of the integrity of them both. And have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over all beasts that move upon the earth. Adam, like a heavenly spirit clothed with a body, was a native both of heaven and of earth, and he bore in himself the effigy or type of the divine kingdom. For his intellectual mind with its will was heavenly, or was a spirit, and by means of this mind his body was to be ruled at the bid of God; and thus all ends were to be derived into uses, and uses into effects, according to order. Therefore to him was granted dominion over the whole orb, yea, and also over the nature of the world, which, like a vicarious deity, was to rule on earth, and to dispose all things to the ends and uses foreseen by God.

3 In the Hebrew and Latin the word here translated Cattle, means all animals of the herd.

7. When these things were done, God noted that all the things that He had made were very good. (31) It is said of all these works, that is, of the works of each of these days, that they were good or perfect, that is, perfect in their own kind and degree; for the best is that which is supreme, or, is God himself with his Only-begotten and the Holy Spirit. All other things which follow each other in order are not best but are good; for from God nothing comes forth immediately except what is good and perfect. All imperfection exists from a cause in the created subject, and especially in man, who is gifted with free will, by the turning aside from order. Thus from the evening and the morning came the sixth day, or the sixth and last part of God's works, of which man was the complement. Works ever more perfect came into existence one after the other, and therefore the most perfect, or man, came last in the series of successive creation. In this day or time, terrestrial animals arose as well as man--a fact which again leads to the conclusion, that these days were numbered from their close (or from nature, which is likened to shade or evening) to a beginning, or to heaven, whence is the origin of all things; this is likened to morning, light, and day.

8. The words God commanded, or God said, and it was done, are repeatedly introduced in this chapter, as in verses 3, 6, 9, 11, 14, 89, 84, from which it is evident that it was Speech by which all things were made and created. For the divine decrees and mandates become actual by means of His only begotten Son, to whom Speech is attributed, and by the Holy Spirit. But to understand what Speech is, and what is meant by all things being created by Speech--this indeed is a deep arcanum. And yet, it is perceived to some little extent, and thus obscurely, by means of the representations of the ends of our own mind. For in our mind, the representations of all ends are what first exist; afterwards come decrees or mandates, which are the same as the Word or Speech wherein they are suitably dictated; and then follow the uses which are determined into acts. Every divine representation by Speech is necessarily followed by the act; for in God alone is life, and the order of the universe is obedient to Him.

* * *

9. The origin of the earth, and also paradise, the garden, and the birth of Adam, have been dealt with in the first part of my treatise On the Worship and Love of God, but under the guidance of the understanding, or according to the thread of reason. Since, however, no trust is to be placed in human intelligence unless it be inspired by God, it is to the interest of truth that we compare what has been set forth in the above mentioned little work with what is revealed in the Sacred Volume, and, in the present case, with the History of Creation as revealed by God to Moses; and that we thus examine how far they agree; for whatever does not absolutely agree with things revealed must be pronounced as wholly false, or as the raving of our rational mind. With this end in view, I have deemed it well to premise a very brief commentary on the first chapters of Genesis.

10. When I had made a diligent comparison with these chapters, I was amazed at the agreement. In our little work we first treated of the universal chaos, or of the great egg of the universe as containing in itself both heaven and earth--thus according to Genesis 1:1. Then we treated of the planets, and of our earth, namely, that in their beginnings they likewise were unformed bodies or unordered masses; that the ethereal atmospheres had not yet risen to transmit the solar rays; that therefore there was no universe but only a vacuity and void and hence mere darkness; and that then, with the rise of the ether, which, in the Scriptures, is everywhere called the Divine Spirit, these masses were surrounded therewith and turned into globes--according to verse 2. That they began to rotate about their axes and thus make days with their evenings, nights, and morning--according to verses 3, 4 and 5. That the aerial atmosphere was then produced--according to verses 6, 7 and 8. That our globe was first fluid, but that it superinduced on itself a crust and thus became an earth--according to verses 9 and 10; and that this terrestrial surface first produced the grass, and then lesser and greater trees--according to verses 9, 10, 11, 12 and 13. That seasons arose by the annual circumgyrations of the earth around the sun--according to verses 14, 15, 16, l7, 18 and 19. That afterwards, insects were brought forth, or little worms, that is, animalcules arose and also birds and fishes--according to verses 21, 22 and 23; then various kinds of living creatures--according to verses 24 and 25; and lastly man, after the divine image--according to verses 26 and 27. Besides many other particulars which have been brought forward in the preceding History of Creation and the commentary thereon.

11. CHAPTER II

The heavens and the earth were finished, and all the abundance, or host, of them: that is to say, the visible world. (1) The heavens are those expenses that contain the active forces of the world, as the auras or the ether and air; but the earth is a collection or congeries of passive or inert forces--in ordinary language, the elements of the kingdoms, especially of the mineral kingdom. By the copulation of these passive forces with active forces are produced the beginnings of things, that is, the beginnings of the kingdoms of the earth. The abundance or host4 of the heavens are the stars, planets, etc., which constitute the firmament. And on the seventh day God ended all the work that he had made; (2) that is to say: On the first day, chaos, the ether, light, and the diurnal motion of the earth, whence come the times of day. On the second, the aerial atmosphere. On the third, the crust of the earth, herbs, plants, and trees, or, the whole vegetable kingdom. On the fourth, times with their years and days arising from the circumgyration of the earth, whence come the apparent offices of the sun, moon, and stars. On the fifth, the more ignoble creatures, such as insects, fishes and birds. On the sixth, the more perfect, which are animals of the earth, called also cattle, beast, and wild beast; and lastly man of both sexes. From these works it is again evident that a day signifies an entire space of time; for in the present chapter it is related that woman was created afterwards from the rib of man.

4 Castellio has abundance and Schmidius host.

12. And on the seventh day he rested from, all the work which he had completed. Therefore he made the seventh day an auspicious and sacred day, because that in it he had rested from all the work which he had created and made. (3) God rested from the work of creating the things which he had made or produced, but not from their conservation which is perpetual creation, just as subsistence is perpetual existence. Therefore it is said that God rested from all the work which he had created and made, or, according to Schmidius, which God had created by making. Creation, properly speaking, is that which is foreseen and provided for from eternity, or before the beginning of times; for effects, which are denoted by the words he made, are necessary consequences, since all effects are present in God, and thus are already created; but they are made in time. What therefore God rested from on the seventh day was the production of effects from nothing. It is also worthy of mention that the production of effects proceeded in order up to Adam, from whom all the things which had been created returned again to the Creator; for Adam was created and made in order that he might refer all things to God, and to God's glory. To him therefore was given a soul and a heavenly mind; and therefore on the seventh day he was to engage in holy worship of God, and this also for the sake of the conservation of all things.

13. No earthly plant having yet arisen upon the earth, nor any herb (since Jova God had not sent rain upon the earth, neither was there a man to till the ground), there went up a mist front the earth which watered its whole soil. (5, 6) In the beginning of creation, after a crust had been superinduced upon the earth, there must necessarily have been a continual mist which watered the surface of the earth; for the earth, like a great body, was intersected not only with watery veins but also with streams, so that the newborn atmosphere itself was ever humid by reason of the vapors--a condition which was necessarily requisite for the rising up of herbs, shrubs, and trees. From these words it may also be clear that the production of terrestrial things, as, in the present case, the production of herbs and plants, was not an immediate process but mediate; that is to say, it was effected by means of a mist or humidity in place of rain, which latter could not as yet have been gathered into clouds or have existed as such. That at this time the earth was encompassed by a kind of vapory bath as it were, to the production of which perpetual spring conspired, has been shown elsewhere.5

5 Confer Worship and Love of God, n. 17.

14. Jehovah God formed [man], dust of the earth, or, as Castellio renders it, from the dust of the earth; (7) namely, formed his body, that is to say, his flesh and bones together with the embodiment of the blood; or all those parts which do not have active life but suffer themselves to be acted upon by life; for the soul was drawn from heaven. Whether man was formed immediately from the earth, and thus without passing through his periods from infancy to manhood; or whether he was formed mediately from an egg and so forth, may be left to the faith of the reader. Since, however, a single day signifies an entire space of time or a lapse of many years, he might also have been born from an egg, and the egg have been produced not immediately from the earth's ground but mediately by means of the fibres of some vegetable object or tree, whereby the essences that were to pass over into his blood might be rectified. If this be the case, he was nevertheless formed of the dust of the earth; for everything that passes through the roots or fibres of vegetables is from the earth. The fact that all things were brought forth according to ends, even intermediate ends, which were foreseen and provided for,--and thus were brought forth mediately and in their order--derogates nothing from, the divine omnipotence. For all things still followed on to the effect according to His bidding, that is, according to the foreseen and thus pre-established laws of His most wise order.

15. And he breathed indo his nostrils the soul6 of lives, or, according to Castellio, the vital spirit. That by this soul or spirit is meant the atmosphere admitted into the lungs, which were then opened up, may be concluded and confirmed from numerous passages in the Scripture; confer above, chapter 12 [n. 1], where the ethereal atmosphere is called the Divine Spirit; confer also Genesis 6:17, 7:15, 22; Exodus 15:8, 10; 2 Samuel 22:16; Job 27:3; Psalm 104:29, 30. The same may also be seen quite clearly from the inspiration or inbreathing effected through the nostrils; and also from the fact that the corporeal life commences from the inspiration or opening up of the lungs, and is absolutely dependent thereon. For infants do not live as to the body or as to sensation and motion until the lungs have been opened; nor are the superior lives able to actuate any life in the body, or in its ultimate natures, until this soul of lives, as it is called, has been admitted or inspired through the nostrils. Wherefore it was only after this had been done that man became a living soul, or, according to Castellio, from which spirit he was made a breathing man. A living soul is attributed also to every animal, as in Genesis 1:30 above, and also in 2:19; whence it follows that this soul or this inbreathed spirit was not the rational or heavenly soul.

6 Anima = soul, breath, life.

16. And God planted a garden eastward in Eden, and there he put the man whom he had formed; or, according to Castellio, he placed him in a fruit garden7 which he had sown eastward in Eden. (8) It appears from these words as if Adam had been created and born in some other place than the garden of Eden, and had afterwards been transferred thither by God. The same inference is also gathered from verse 15. But to believe that he was born in the garden itself, or born elsewhere, is not a matter of salvation.

7 The Latin word thus translated is Pomerarium, which means a fruit garden or orchard containing all manner of fruit trees. But see Worship and Love of God, n. 39, where the central tree in this pomerarium or paradise is called pomus--literally, a fruit tree--and is identified with the "tree of life." See below, n. 893, where Swedenborg plainly identifies pomus with "apple," and pomerarium with "apple tree." See also n. 1008 and the note there.

17. And out of the earth made God to grow trees of every kind, both, pleasant to the sight and suitable for eating; and also the tree of life in the midst of the fruit garden, and the tree of the knowledge of good and evil. (9) It is very clearly evident that the earthly paradise represented the heavenly paradise, or, that the type of the one stood forth in the other. For there is nothing on earth to which there is not some corresponding thing in heaven, since whatever is created or brought forth in the effect descends from heaven. Therefore there is not a thing on the earth that does not represent some type of its origin. For all uses are heavenly, and effects are so many uses sent forth into the circuit of nature. The ends of uses are Divine; and therefore all things that are produced are nothing but images of heaven, just as man or Adam was made an image of God himself. Representations of things heavenly are therefore effected by means of images of similar effects such as exist on earth; of which matter we shall treat at length in the following pages. Therefore this whole garden planted in Eden represented the heavenly paradise, into which Adam is said to be translated that he might enjoy the delights of nature or of the world together with the delights of heaven. Since, therefore, natural effects are symbols of things heavenly, the tree of life which was set in the midst of the garden, signified the wisdom which flowed into his mind from heaven, or by the superior way; while the tree of the knowledge of good and evil signified the intelligence which flowed into the same mind from the world and its nature, by the inferior way, or by way of the senses and animus. For there are two ways opening into the human mind, namely, from heaven through the soul, and from the world through the senses and the animus--of which ways we have treated fully elsewhere.8 The tree of wisdom or of life (for in wisdom is true life) is therefore said to be placed in the midst of the garden; as also the tree of intelligence by means of knowledges.

8 See Worship and Love of God, 64 note.

18. And from Eden there flowed a river to water the fruit garden; and it went out from thence divided into four heads. (10) From the fact of these streams, it may be evident that this garden was situated in the very center of the earth, and was of very wide extent; also that the rivers were like the sinuses or blood-spaces in the body which have arisen from a collection of veins, concerning which see above, verse 6 [n. 13]; and that their conflux in this garden is like the heart; for they there became four streams like four great arteries and veins. For, according to Schmidius, this river was there parted and became into four heads of rivers.

19. And he commanded him thus: Thou mayest take food of all the trees of the fruit garden except the tree of the knowledge of good and evil; for if thou take food of this thou shalt die; (16, 17) or, according to Schmidius, Jehovah God commanded the man saying, Of every tree of the garden eating thou mayest eat; but of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil, thou shalt not eat of it; for in the day that thou eatest thereof, dying thou shalt die. What is meant or signified by the tree of life and the tree of knowledge, I have already explained above [n. 17] in a few words. As is evident from the words themselves, Adam was prohibited from eating of the tree of knowledge, or from arriving at intelligence by the posterior or natural, that is, by the sensual way; but not from eating of the tree of life. For he was instructed respecting the several objects of the senses immediately by God, by means of inspiration, or by the superior, that is, the heavenly way, according to the most perfect order--an order established in and with creation. He was therefore forbidden to invert and pervert this order, and thus the state of his innocence and integrity. Eating from trees was only a kind of symbolic expression which came after order had been inverted and perverted. In the eating itself there was not so great a sin or guilt that, for this reason, he, with all his posterity, should die the death; but the sin was that he had not suffered himself to be led by God, by the internal or superior way, but had suffered himself to be led by the prince of the world and nature, by the external or inferior way. Wherefore it is said, eating thou mayest eat, and dying thou shalt die, where the one expression signifies the natural and the other the spiritual. But we, his descendants, being born and educated into the natural life, are profoundly ignorant of what the heavenly or superior way is, for which there is no affection and of which there is no knowledge. The heavenly way is that by which divine inspirations flaw in immediately.

20. And Jehovah9 God said, It is not well that Adam should be alone; I will make him an help meet for him (18) (see also verse 20). From the state of utmost integrity, or most perfect order, in which and into which Adam was born, it can be concluded without doubt that the first-born had a certain kind of speech with the Divine Spirit and thus with God; that is to say, a heavenly speech; of this we speak elsewhere.1 For it was by such speech that he received all his answers and learned the uses and ends of all the objects of his world and universe. But it had not yet come to him to consociate these heavenly delights, and the earthly delights most deeply joined thereto, with any companion of the human race; for he was alone, or solitary. Without a companion, even the fullest delights grow cheap, as it were; for all delights have their flavor from the fact that we see our companion or companions, especially those bound to us by love, to be also affected by the same delights. Such is human nature. Moreover, it is said that it was not good for him to be alone because of the future unrest of his mind, when he should begin to be enkindled and to glow with conjugial love also; and this, especially, that from him might be born a posterity from which should be formed the kingdom of God, which was the end of creation. (19) That the first-born received answers from heaven and knew, from the mere perception of objects by the senses, the uses of each and the ends for which they were created; and that thus, inspired by the prior or superior way, he acquired a knowledge of all things; is sufficiently evident from the fact that he gave names to all cattle, birds, and beasts of the earth, which are said to have been brought to him. (20)

9 Here as elsewhere Castellio has Jova; but in quoting his version, Swedenborg, almost without exception, changes this to Jehovah.

1 See n. 24 below. The reference, however, is probably to Worship and Love of God; see that work, n. 57 note u.

21. Therefore Jehovah God brought a deep [sleep] upon him; and he drew, out one of his ribs; and when the body had been pressed together in its stead, he fashioned of this rib a woman, and brought her unto Adam, (21, 22) or, according to Schmidius, He took one of his ribs, and closed up the flesh instead thereof; and of the rib which Jehovah God had taken from man, he built up a woman, and brought her unto the man. That this tearing out of the rib and grafting flesh in its place was only a kind of dream, that is to say, that in a dream it appeared to him as if one of his ribs sprang out, as it were, and as if flesh were put in its place, does not seem an unreasonable supposition; for the fact that the woman was taken from him is sufficiently evident from the sacred words of the present verse, and also from verse 23: for Adam said, This is now bone of my bones, and flesh of my flesh; she shall be called Woman, because she was taken out of man (23) --thus, born from his blood, spirit, and soul. It can also be evident that this was done, not in Adam's own garden but elsewhere; for it is said that she was brought to him.

22. Therefore a man leaving his father and mother, shall cleave unto his wife. (24) That is to say, for the sake of establishing a new home he must emigrate from his paternal home, like one who is about to found a new colony; that, from this new home, a posterity may descend, or a new family be procreated. This cannot be done without the separation of the man, though not of the woman, from his native place. And they shall coalesce into one flesh; or, as Schmidius has it, they shall be one flesh. For it is according to all nature that a unit arises from two forces, an active and a passive, by means of conjunction, especially spiritual conjunction, that is, love. Moreover, nothing is produced e novo without the simultaneous co-operation of an agent and a patient.2 The active is indeed a unit by itself, and the passive a unit by itself; but by their coalition they become a closely bound unit, and thus an effect is produced. The man or husband is the agent and the woman is the patient--made so not only as to all the faculties of her body, but also as to the affections of her animus and of that mind which is called the intellectual; and this, how much soever it was otherwise in the perverted state, which succeeded after the loss of the state of integrity. From the coalescence of these two potencies, especially from their coalescence by love, arises one flesh, or, as it were, one blood and spirit, that is, a unit.

2 This word is used in its root meaning, as signifying that which suffers itself to be acted upon.

23. CHAPTER III

Though Adam and his consort were both naked, yet they were in, no wise ashamed; (1*) or, as Schmidius has it, had no cause for shame. Before their fall, nothing was regarded but end and use which flowed down from heaven into their intellectual mind. So long as nothing was intended in their actions except end and use, so long also nothing could exist in act except what was good; for every act is judged from the end. But afterwards, when various affections had insinuated themselves from the world and nature, by the posterior way, that is, by the doors of the senses, then mediate ends began to be substituted in place of ultimate ends; or, in place of the end which was the procreation of offspring and thus the establishment of the kingdom of God, came pleasure or self-glory, arising from their dominion over the earth--and this without the ultimate end, or in preference to it. Hence arose evil; for pleasure follows use and ought not to precede it. Hence the cause and origin of evil was at once perceived, and the perception could not but be accompanied by shame, or by an affection contrary to their nature. As in this conjugial love, so also in the other affections, which are so many loves of the body and the world. If these flow according to order from the end established in and with creation, they involve nothing. but good; not so, if they flow from means without any looking to the ultimate end err any direction thereby; for then comes evil, and it brings shame to him who knows or perceives the true end. This is sufficiently apparent from the shame felt by some in the presence of the wise, as in the present case; for Adam well knew that the great and wise3 God was most closely present.

* In the Hebrew and Schmidius, this is verse 25 of chapter 8; but Castellio, whom Swedenborg here cites, makes it a part of the first verse of chapter 3.

3 Ter optimus maximus. Among the Romans, optimus maximus was the predicate of Jupiter alone as the greatest of the gods. It may be translated "supremely good and supremely great"; ter (thrice) is here used as a term of supreme emphasis-"God, who is thrice the best and the greatest," i.e. who is good and great above all men.

24. The serpent, which was the most cunning of all the beasts of the earth that Jova God had made. It was pointed out above [n. 17], that there is nothing to be seen in the ultimates of nature and in the terrestrial globe that is not some type of that which exists in the heavens. Such was the case with the grasses, flowers, trees, and fruits of the whole of paradise, yea of the whole earth. Such likewise was the case with the living creatures, as with fish, fowl, and quadruped. Moreover, in heaven the very affections, inclinations, etc., are represented by different kinds of animals; for instance, thoughts by birds of different form; the understanding or intelligence by horses, etc.; but cunning and deceit by serpents. Such representations are so familiar to spirits and angels that there is nothing that is not exhibited, as it were to the very life, by similar forms. Adam, who was an inhabitant of heaven, or a spirit under It human form, that is, clothed with a body in order that he might at the same time be an inhabitant of the earth, had as yet learned no other kind of interior thought and speech than such as was representative and heavenly. Therefore it is said that the serpent, who was the most cunning of all animals, spoke with him; or, as the words read, approached the woman with these words; or, according to Schmidius, said unto the woman. But whether it was a real serpent, that is, the devil, the prince of this world, under the form of a serpent; or whether it was a representation of a serpent in Adam's mind--one may believe the one or the other, or even both, since it is not an article of faith. As regards SPEECH: The speech of the celestial,4 produced by wonderful gyres of the celestial form, is so universal that it corresponds to every single tongue in use at the present day. For the sense of each word forms some celestial gyre such as no mortal can know but he who has been introduced into heaven and has joined speech with spirits as though he were himself become a spirit. That this is the case I know, having, by the grace of God, experienced it. This speech first insinuates itself into the thought, or into the internal sight, and produces certain profound and hardly intelligible ideas; and then it puts itself forth into the speech familiar to man. The devil, therefore, under the form of a serpent, could speak in this way with the first-born, according to their connate ideas wherein they represented to themselves things heavenly and natural--things which penetrate not only to man's internal sight or thought, but also to his very hearing, a result that readily follows; on which matter, by the grace of God, I can speak from experience.

4 Celestial and Heavenly are expressed in Latin by the single word coelestis. Instead of "the speech of the celestial" the original might therefore be rendered "the speech of the heavenly ones." See p. P4, note 5.

25. And the woman said to him, (2) or, as Schmidius has it, And the woman said unto the serpent. From this it is evident that the woman gave an answer, or that she also spoke with him. For between spirits and men, especially men living in the state of the first- born, there is speech like the speech between companions and conversers on earth; but it is an internal speech, and yet is just as sonorous as if it were uttered by the tongue and mouth, though it does not go forth into sound. The nature of the reciprocal speech which passes between spirits and human minds shall, God willing, be treated of more fully elsewhere.

26. But God hath forbidden us to take food of the fruit of the tree which, is in the midst of the fruit garden, or to touch it; (3) or, as Schmidius renders it, But of the fruit of the tree which is in the midst of the garden, God hath said Ye shall not eat of it, neither shall ye touch it. That fruit was so sacred that it was forbidden not only to eat of it but even to touch it. The meaning is, that they should not draw anything from the memory that has been admitted thereto from the world and nature through the gates of the senses, by their own effort or choice; thus acquiring understanding for themselves by the posterior way, which is the way of the knowledge of good and evil; but that all such things, even those that have come in by the posterior way, should be called forth by God alone through the superior way; and that thus they would lead, in all respects, the life of heavenly spirits. For it is thus that heavenly spirits suffer themselves to be led by the Love and the Prince of heaven; and such also is the nature of all who are to come into the holy society, that is, into the kingdom of God. For in all things they were taught by divine inspiration.

27. But God knoweth that if ye eat thereof then your eyes will be opened, and so we will be as gods, knowing good and evil. (5) From what follows it is apparent that he spoke the truth; that is to say, that not only would their eyes be opened, but they would also be like God in the knowledge of good and evil; otherwise he could never have persuaded them. For whatever was true, this they at once perceived of themselves; as is the case also with heavenly spirits, who, by an inmost sense as it were, at once perceive truths connate with themselves, and give them their assent. But they could not yet be conscious of what the knowledge of evil would bring, since at that time they were swollen with the love of self, or with the affection of their own glory. For evil is then eagerly taken up in place of good and because falsity then begins to appear like truth, evil also begins to appear like good. The love of self carries this with it. Shade then follows in place of light, though the shade counterfeits the appearance of light. For in truth, and in the good concluded therefrom, is heavenly light and fire; but in falsity and evil is natural light and fire which, relatively, are nothing but the darkness and cold of the rational mind. Truth itself dictates that we are the soil and dust of the earth; and that we are potencies, who are able to do nothing of our own selves; and that thus it is by self-acknowledgment and consequently humility of state that we are rendered acceptable to God; and that to God alone belongs glory. If we are deprived of this truth, then, as we recede from truth to falsity, so we recede from good to evil; and thus are separated from heaven and embrace such things as give assent to that love, and which, therefore, are most utterly false. That this cunning serpent inspired that love, and indeed with affection, as is usually permitted by God for the sake of temptation, is evident from the fact that he promised them that they would be like God--they not knowing that afterwards they would no longer, like heavenly spirits, suffer themselves to be led by God, but, like infernal spirits, would be led by the prince of this world and his genii or spirits who, together with their leader the devil, inflated with the love of self, had in like manner revolted and had departed from light to darkness.

28. Then the woman, when she saw that the tree was suitable for food and pleasing to the eyes and desirable for acquiring learning; (6) or rather, as Schmidius has it, And the woman saw, that the tree was good for food and appetizing to the eyes, and especially desirable for the giving of understanding. From these words it is clear that it was permitted even to this infernal serpent to inspire in the woman's mind and also at the same time in Adam's, affection, desire, and appetite, as stated in the text; for it is said that the woman saw the tree, that it was suitable for food, appetizing, and desirable. For the sake of temptation, it is permitted that states of this kind be induced, which persuade against the truth of a thing; and desires of this kind, which excite the animus against its goodness; and this in order that, by the choice of good, men may deserve the palm of victory. Such are the exercises, or such the almost perpetual wrestlings of the sons of God. That such is the case I myself can confirm, having learned it, by the grace of God, from daily experience. But to resume. That this tree with its fruit signifies the understanding, or intelligence induced into human minds by the gates of the senses and thus by aid of knowledges, is sufficiently clear from the words of this text; for it was appetizing to the eyes, and especially desirable for the giving of understanding. To us, born and; educated to the natural life, that is, instructed by the posterior way and thus by the way of sciences, it may seem remarkable that there was so great a crime in the following of this desire; but when men carefully weigh the fact that the first-born had been led by the heavenly way, that is, by influx from the superior toward things inferior according to divine order, thus immediately by the only-begotten Son of God, and by the Holy Spirit; and that, when order was inverted, and the influx was from the inferior to things superior, they could not but be led by the prince of this world or the devil; it can then be quite evident how great was the guilt and crime in this endeavor and daring. For the whole order was then inverted, and with this inverted, they could not but live with their new leader, separated from heaven.

29. And moreover she gave also to her man, and he did eat. That is to say, she persuaded him also to recede from perpetual heavenly influx, and to open himself to influx through the sensations, and thus to admit only the allurements of the world and the body. Perhaps also she did this for the sake of consulting her own advantage, and that he might learn the causes of effects, the uses of objects, and the ends of means, from nature and his own experience and not from divine inspiration. The nature of that state in which we are ruled by heavenly influx, and this not only as to our thoughts but also as to the very actions or motions of our body; and that then it is not permitted to do the least thing from a judgment excited by the inferior faculties; this is known to me, who, by the grace of God, have experienced it.

30. Then their eyes being opened, they both perceived that they were naked; and weaving fig leaves they made for themselves breech-cloths. (6) That is, they perceived the evil, or the infirmity of their understanding. After the fall this infirmity was also represented by nakedness, just as before the fall innocence had been represented by the same thing. Nothing of evil is brought forth so long as they are led immediately by the Divine Spirit; for then nothing is called forth from the memory and comes into the thought or perception except what is good, that is, Divine; and this, as if by mediation, regards some further end. But when they come under their own jurisdiction, as it were, although they are not under their own but under the jurisdiction of the genii of [the prince of] the world who persuade them that they are under their own, then they are carried away by their senses, first external then internal, and by the delights thereof and the allurements of the animus; then also they are rendered as it were conscious of the fact that they are being led by themselves, because it is evident to their senses that they are being led corporeally. But I can firmly assure you that the case is wholly different. Thus now, with order inverted, they began to enter into a natural life, when before they had lived a heavenly life and, like potencies, had been led by the [Holy] Spirit and by the Only-begotten of God. They were ashamed, and made for themselves breech-cloths, that they might hide themselves from the divine face which now represented before their eyes the state of innocence and integrity, and at the same time the state of infirmity introduced by the fall; but in vain did they seek to conceal themselves from these things and from the truth which then shone in. Thus they well perceived, as with opened eyes, how much of impurity there is in conjugial love when men do not suffer themselves to be led by the Divine Spirit to most perfect ends.

31. And Jehovah God, calling to Adam, said, Where art thou, etc. (9) That it was a real voice and was also perceived by the hearing, but by Adam alone, no one can doubt, except one who is ignorant of this state. In the same way also did God speak with the prophets and finally with the apostles. But of these matters we shall treat more clearly elsewhere.

32. Then God spake unto the serpent as follows: Because thou hast done this, thou shalt be accursed above all the beasts of the earth, both, tame and wild; on thy belly shalt thou go and dust shalt thou eat as long as thou livest; (14) or, according to Schmidius, Because thou hast done this, be thou cursed above all beasts and above all the wild beasts of the field; upon thy belly shalt thou go, and dust shalt thou eat, all the days of thy life. This was followed, both spiritually and naturally, by its due effect. For if natural effects, such as the objects of the vegetable kingdom and also of the animal, be types of heavenly things that correspond to them; and if they be spiritual representations in things natural, and natural representations in things spiritual; then from the one must follow the other. The spiritual effect was that the devil with his genii or angels was cursed above all creatures or genii, and that he was to go upon his belly, that is, would look to things inferior, earthly, and mundane, and would not, as before, look up to things superior and heavenly. For he was so created, that by him heavenly things could be joined with earthly, or spiritual [and] superior things with natural, and vice versa; for he was a uniting medium or bond between heavenly things and earthly, or spiritual things and natural. But now that the order had been inverted, he was to go upon his belly and to be open only to things earthly and mundane. Moreover, from its cause in things spiritual, such a state could not but redound to every kind of serpent, and this by reason of the correspondence of the divine representation which, in the ultimates of nature, is in all respects actual, or which necessarily exists in actuality in the things that correspond.

33. And I will bring such enmities between thee and the woman, and between thy seed and hers, that it shall bruise thy head, and thou its heel; (15) or, according to Schmidius, And I will put enmity between thee and the woman, and between thy seed and her seed; it shall trample thy head (with its heel) and thou shalt bruise it (only in the) heel.5 This saying can never fall within a human understanding that has been acquired by a natural way, or by way of the sciences of the world; for to know what is here meant by the woman, what by her seed, and the seed of the serpent, and what by the trampling of the head, and the bruising of the heel, there is need of divine illumination. It seems to, be explained to same extent in the twelfth chapter of the Apocalypse, which treats of the woman and of this serpent, then cast down from the heavens. One thing is clearly apparent, namely, that here was the first promise of the advent of the Messiah, who was to destroy the powers of the devil, and who would restore the order inverted and perverted by the first-born, and would thus yet establish the kingdom of God which had been foreseen in Adam's posterity. By the head of the serpent are meant the powers, endeavors, and daring attempts of the devil; for endeavor and will descend from the head. These powers were to be wholly broken, so that he would no longer be able to exercise any power over heavenly genii. For the head is where man regards superior things, and when this has been thrust down to the earth and dust, or to the ultimate of nature, he will no longer look to superior things, that is, to heaven, but to inferior things, that is, to the earth. Wherefore it is said in the Apocalypse, Ch. 12:9, 10, 12: "And the great dragon was cast out, that old serpent called the devil and satan, which seduceth the whole world; he was cast down into the earth, and his angels with him. Then I heard a great voice in heaven saying, No is come salvation, and power, and the kingdom of our God, and the power of his Christ; for the accuser of our brethren is cast down. Woe to the inhabitants of the earth, and of the sea; for the devil is come down unto them, having great wrath."

5 In this quotation from Schmidius' version, Swedenborg departs from his invariable rule, never to quote the explanatory words added to the text by the translator.

34. By the heel is meant nature; therefore it is said that the serpent would bruise him, that is her seed, by this, namely, that under the active guidance and inspiration of the prince of this world, the greater part of Adam's posterity and of the gentiles would live a natural life; but he would not bruise him as to things superior, spiritual, or heavenly. For it is said of the Messiah that, when He sitteth on the throne, that is, in heaven, God will subdue under him the earth and all the enemies of heaven as His footstool [Ps. 110], that is, will put under His feet the devil and all his crew, and thus will trample on his head. On the other hand, the devil will bruise his heel in the manner already mentioned. The animus also, with its affections, which in us rules the bodily nature, will be subject, like a footstool, to the rational or intellectual mind which was made heavenly. And so, lest, with the inversion of order, the animus with its affections should rush into this heavenly mind; and, on the other hand, that this mind might flow into those affections of the animus and excite them according to divine order; therefore, all these passions of the animus, or the infernal genii by whom such passions are excited, are to be trampled upon by the coming Messiah, that they may look, not with head uplifted, but with head turned only downwards, that is, may look to nature. Yet nature, which flows in from beneath through the senses and then through the animus, will in many ways bruise the heel, that is, the lower part of that mind. But of this matter, under the divine auspices, we have treated elsewhere.6

6 See Worship and Love of God, n. 69. seq.

35. And to the woman he said; I will afflict thee with many pains and tribulations; (16) or, according to Schmidius, Multiplying I will multiply thy pain and thy conception. In place of a state of utmost happiness conjoined with supreme tranquillity of mind and animus, was now to come a troubled and restless state, such as necessarily follows when order has been inverted and perverted. For then the faculties wage war with each other, or the rational mind which was made heavenly wages war with the inferior mind which is natural. Thus the bodily nature, which is ruled by two mutually conflicting or inimical minds, must suffer; whence arise pains.

36. Therefore shalt thou bring forth children with pain; and thou shalt depend on thy man, and he shall rule over thee; or, according to Schmidius, Under thy man shall be thy desire, and he shall have dominion over thee. Here natural desire is signified, arising from the love of her own and her husband's body, and from the love of the world; while formerly the desire had been purely spiritual, arising solely from love of the ends and uses of the kingdom of God [which were to be accomplished] by means of a posterity yet to be born. Thus the one will have dominion over the other, while formerly there had been such concord and mutual love that they were profoundly ignorant of what dominion and discord meant. For one mind in two bodies, or two minds most closely conjoined by such love, must needs be ignorant of what is meant by the dominion of one over the other. In this state also "the man would cleave unto his wife and they would coalesce into one flesh" (Gen. 2:24); for concord such as this would simulate an absolute one, or a unit, since the love of minds is spiritual conjunction whereof natural conjunction is a consequence; far on the judgment and state of the mind depends the nature of the whole body. It was different afterwards, when they lived, not from a divine or unanimous spirit, but from discord, thus, as it were, separated; and then arose perpetual discords, these being necessary consequences when merely corporeal affections are excited by way of their senses and body and rush into the sphere of their mind.

37. And to Adam he said: The ground shall be unfruitful because of thee, and [with labor] shalt thou seek food therefrom all thy life; (17) or, according to Schmidius, Cursed be the land because of thee; in sorrow shalt thou eat of it all the days of thy life. Heaven and the world, with their natures, are so effigied in man that he is formed wholly after their type. In heaven and the world are active forces, but in man passive forces; which two mutually correspond to each other, like things that act and those that correspondingly suffer and react. For we are nothing but passive potencies formed after the nature of the active potencies of heaven and the world; so that like little walking universes, as it were, we represent little worlds or microcosms. When the order in this human microcosm has been inverted and perverted, or when its corporeal nature has invaded its heaven, then follows a similar state in the universe also; for the world is united to heaven by means of man, its correspondent effigy, and nowhere else. But when this bond has been cut asunder by an inversion and perversion of order induced by the prince of the world, or the devil, then universal nature also suffers; otherwise that prince with his discords and the torches of his loves would easily infest heaven itself and its inhabitants. This is the reason why, according to the words of the Apocalypse, that serpent was cast down from heaven [Apoc. 12:7-9]. All this scarcely falls within our understanding, even obscurely, unless we have a perception of order itself as instituted by God; and therefore this order has been treated of in a special little work.7 Hence the cursing of the earth, and afterwards of Adam's posterity, which likewise is meant by that earth; the curse, namely, that the earth should bring forth thorns and thistles, and the man himself should eat the herb; (18) or, according to Schmidius, the produce of the field; while formerly, as may be evident from the preceding verses, he had eaten only the most delicious and tasty fruits, that is, had perceived the uses of all things--which uses are compared to fruits.

7 The reference is probably to the Worship and Love of God. See Part 2 of that work, n. 87 seq.

38. With, the sweat of thy brow, shalt thou obtain food, till thou return to the ground from which thou art risen; for dust thou art, and unto dust shalt thou return. (19) These perpetual discords arising from the destruction of order are perpetual causes of pains and diseases both of the animus and of the body, the effect whereof is death itself; for an image of death lies in every single cause of death. Moreover, according to the quality of the general state, or of the state in the universal order of the body, such is the state in its single or most single parts, and thus in the thoughts, affections, actions; for the general or whole is constituted of its parts. Since now the love of self or ambition--so that he willed to become like God--was the true cause of the inversion of order, or of the state in which his inferiors aspired to superiors, that is, his nature to heaven, when yet nature can never enter heaven, therefore truth itself was actually assailed and thus the connection cut asunder. Therefore sentence was passed on him that he should return to the dust from which he was risen, and that thus, the spirit of his pride broken, he should be extinguished, and be reduced to the deepest humility and to nothingness. This also is the reason why prostration to the ground and the scattering of dust [on the head] was afterwards widely accepted as a token of humility before God.

39. And then he spoke as follows: Since man has become as one of us knowing good and evil; (22) or, according to Schmidius, Behold the man is become as one of us, knowing good and evil. That is, because he had acquired the knowledge of good in the state of his integrity, and the knowledge of evil in his state after the fall--for from heaven there flowed into his mind nothing but good, but, when order was inverted, from nature flowed nothing but evil--therefore he came to the knowledge of both, and in this was like the Persons of the Divinity. In these respects the devil spoke truths. On the other hand, because he chose evil and exercised: it in act, but neglected the good which he knew, and rejected it for the sake of ends terminated in nature, as is apparent in all his posterity, he became wholly unlike God and like the devil; but as to this, the devil had kept silence.

40. Wherefore there was danger8 that he reach forth his hand to the tree of life also, that by plucking and tasting its fruit, he may live to eternity. (23) Therefore he drove him out of the fruit garden of Eden, that he might till the ground whence he was risen. Because this is meant both spiritually and naturally, the effect also is meant both spiritually and naturally. Spiritually, in that the superior way into the intellectual mind, that is to say, the way from heaven through the soul--which is the way of the one only Love, or of the Only-begotten of God--was closed; and naturally, in that he was also expelled from the garden lest he touch the tree of life. For since the tree of life with its fruit signified intelligence flowing in immediately from heaven by the superior way, that is to say, true wisdom and verimost life such as the celestial have--a life which Adam also lived in the state of his integrity; and since the tree of the knowledge of good and evil signified the intelligence which was to be required by the posterior or natural way, in which intelligence there is nothing of light and life but only the image of shade and death; and since the earthly paradise signified heaven or the heavenly paradise; therefore the superior way into his mind, that is, into the heaven of his body, was closed, lest nature should strive to rush into it; and so he was expelled from paradise or heaven, and the posterior or natural way was opened. Thus, with the prince of this world his seducer and now his master, he was separated from heaven; and, with him, he was to cultivate the ground or nature from which he was risen. Because this was effigied or represented in a paradise and its fruits, therefore he was actually expelled from the earthly paradise as he had been from the heavenly, lest he put forth his hand to the tree of life and taste its fruit. Thus Adam was devoted to death both spiritual and natural; nor could he or his posterity return to his heaven or paradise until he had been rescued to heaven by means of the Messiah, who was to trample upon the head of the serpent, thus upon human minds that live a natural life with the prince of this world.

8 Castellio's words are, "there is danger," etc. These Swedenborg has altered to read as in the text.

41. And when the man had been cast out, he stationed cherubs at the eastern side of the fruit garden, and a flamy waving sword to guard the approach to the tree of life; (24) or rather, as Schmidius renders it, And when he had driven out the man, he made cherubim to dwell at the east of the garden, and the flame of a sword turning this way and that, to guard the way of the wood of life. By cherubs are meant the guards or the guardianship around the throne or seat of God, lest inferior things rush into superior, or natural into heavenly. Therefore also they were stationed at the eastern side where the sun of wisdom, or God, is always in his rising. By the flame of a sword turning itself this way and that, are meant the loves of self and the world, or cupidities, which are torches, or flames, or fires, as of firebrands or dried out wood, which turn and wave themselves, on the one side into the intellectual mind, that is, into the heaven of the human microcosm, and on the other into nature or the very body. As long as these fires are burning, man can never enter heaven; for it is vain for natural flames to endeavor to extinguish heavenly flames, however much they may consume the lowest part of the mind, and thus injure the heel of him that sitteth upon the throne. Thus the way to the wood or tree of life is guarded, and this, lest natural things should rush in by this way, which is the way of the prince of this world.

42. Moreover, that by the tree of life is meant the Prince of heaven, the one only Love, the Son of God, or the Messiah himself who is to establish the kingdom of God; and by paradise, his heaven, where are the choirs of the celestial; and by the tree of the knowledge of good and evil, the prince of the world; will come to be shown elsewhere; for the superior way is the way whereby the Prince of heaven enters into our minds, while the posterior way is the way whereby the prince of this world enters. And that Adam in the state of his integrity, had: been led like a heavenly spirit by the Prince of heaven, but afterwards was led by the prince of this world, will also clearly appear in what follows.

These things are premised

* * *

Go to section / 8263  

Next →


Translate: