696. And to those that fear thy name, the small and the great.- That this signifies, and to all those, of whatever religion, who worship the Lord, is evident from the signification of fearing the name of the Lord God, as denoting to worship the Lord (of which presently); and from the signification of the small and the great, as denoting of whatever religion; for the small mean those who know little of the truths and goods of the church, and the great, those who know much, thus those who worship the Lord little and much. For so far as a man knows the truths of faith, and lives according to them, in so far does he worship the Lord, for worship is not from man, but from the truths from good that are in man, since these are from the Lord, and the Lord is in them. Those that fear Thy name, the small and the great, mean all who worship the Lord of whatever religion, because, just previously, mention is made of servants, prophets, and saints, by whom are meant all those within the church who are in truths of doctrine, and in a life according to them. Therefore by those that fear Thy name, the small and the great, are meant all those without the church who worship the Lord according to their religion; for those who worship the Lord, and live in any kind of faith and charity, according to their religion, also fear God's name. In fact, this verse treats of the Last Judgment upon all, both the evil and the good. A last judgment takes place upon all, both those within and those without the church, and then all those who, from their religion, fear God, and live in mutual love, in uprightness of heart and sincerity, are saved; for all such by all intuitive faith in God, and by a life of charity, are associated as to their souls with the angels of heaven, and are thus conjoined with the Lord and saved. For every one after death comes to his own in the spiritual world, with whom he was associated as to his spirit during his life in the natural world.
(References: Revelation 11:18)
 The small and the great signify less or more, that is, those who worship the Lord less or more, thus those who are less or more in truths from good, because the spiritual sense of the Word has no reference to persons, having regard to nothing but the thing signified; and the expression the small and the great there does imply persons, for it means men who worship God. For this reason, instead of the small and the great, less or more are meant in the spiritual sense, thus those who worship less or more from genuine truths and goods. It is similar in respect to the servants, prophets, and saints, treated of just above, by whom, in the spiritual sense, are not meant prophets and saints, but, apart from persons, truths of doctrine and a life according to them. While these are meant, also all those who are in truths of doctrine and in a life according to them are included, for these things are in angels and men as their subjects. But in such case to think only of angels and men is natural, while to think of truths of doctrine and of life - these being the things that make angels and men - is spiritual. It is therefore evident how the spiritual sense, in which angels are, differs from the natural sense, in which men are, that is, in every particular which a man thinks, there inheres something of person, space, time, and matter, while angels think of things apart from these. For this reason, the speech of angels is incomprehensible to man, because it flows from intuition of the thing, and thus from wisdom separated from such things as are proper to the natural world, and thus respectively indeterminate in regard to such things.
 To fear Thy name signifies to worship the Lord, because to fear signifies to worship, and Thy name signifies the Lord; for in the preceding verse it is said, that the twenty-four elders gave thanks to the Lord God, Who is, and Who was, and Who is to come, therefore to fear Thy name means to worship the Lord. In the Word, both that of the Old and that of the New Testament, the expressions the name of Jehovah, the name of the Lord, the name of God, and the name of Jesus Christ are used, and in such cases name means all those things whereby He is worshipped, thus all things of love and of faith; and, in the highest sense, the Lord Himself is meant, because where He is, there also are all things of love and faith. That such is the signification of the name of Jehovah, of the Lord God, and of Jesus Christ, may be seen above (n. 102, 135, 224), and it is also evident from these words of the Lord:
"If two of you shall agree on earth in my name, as touching any thing that they shall ask, it shall be done for them by my Father, who is in the heavens; for where two or three are gathered together in my name, there am I in the midst of them" (Matt. xviii. 19, 20).
Here to agree together in the name of the Lord, and to be gathered together in His name, does not mean in the name alone, but in those things that belong to the Lord, which are truths of faith and goods of love, by means of which He is worshipped.
 To fear, when spoken of the Lord, signifies to worship and to reverence, because in worship, and in all things pertaining to it, there is a holy and reverential fear, which leads one to feel that He is to be honoured, and in no way to be grieved. For it is as with children towards their parents, parents towards their children, wives towards their husbands, and husbands towards their wives, similarly as with friends towards friends, in whom there is respect and a fear of giving offence; such fear and respect are in all love and in all friendship, so that love and friendship without such fear and respect are like unsalted food which is insipid. This now is the reason why to fear the Lord means to worship Him from such love.
 It is said that to fear Thy name signifies to worship the Lord, and yet those who fear Him mean, here, those who are without the church, to whom the Lord is unknown, because they do not possess the Word. Nevertheless all such as have, in regard to God, an idea of a Human, are accepted by the Lord, for God under the Human form is the Lord; but those, whether within or without the church, who do not think of God as a Man, on their coming into their spiritual life, which takes place after their departure out of this world, are not accepted by the Lord, because they have no determinate idea concerning God, but only an indeterminate one, which is no idea at all, or if it be it is nevertheless dissipated. This is the reason why all who come from the earths (e terris) into the spiritual world, are first explored in regard to what idea of God they have held and have brought with them. If they have no idea of Him as a Man, they are sent to places of instruction, and are taught that the Lord is the God of heaven and earth, and that, when they think of God, they must think of the Lord, and that otherwise there can be no conjunction with God, nor consequently any association with angels. Then all those who have lived a life of charity receive instruction, and worship the Lord; but all those who declare that they have had faith, but who have not been in the life of faith, which is charity, do not receive instruction; they are therefore separated, and sent away into places below the heavens, some into the hells, and some into that part (terra) which is called in the Word "the lower earth," where they suffer severely. Still, however, the Gentiles, to whom the laws of religion are laws of life, receive doctrine concerning the Lord more readily than Christians, and they do so especially because their only idea of God has been that of a Divine Man. We have said these things in order that it may be known why it is that to fear Thy name means to worship the Lord.
 In many places in the Word the expression to fear Jehovah God is used, by which worship is meant; it therefore shall be explained in a few words what worship in particular is meant by fearing God. All worship of Jehovah God must be from the good of love by means of truths. Worship from the good of love alone is not worship, neither is that worship which is from truths alone without the good of love; but both are necessary. For the essential of worship is the good of love, but good exists and is formed by means of truths, and therefore all worship must be by means of truths from good. Because this is so, therefore in many passages in the Word, where it is said "to fear Jehovah God," it is also said "to keep " and "do His words and commandments." In these places therefore to fear signifies worship by means of truths, and to keep and do signifies worship from the good of love; for doing is of the will, thus of love and of good, and fearing is of the understanding, thus of faith and of truth, for all truth which is of faith belongs properly to the understanding, and all good which is of love belongs properly to the will. From this it can be seen, that the fear of Jehovah God has reference to worship by means of truths of doctrine, which are called also truths of faith. Such worship is meant by the fear of Jehovah God, because Divine Truth causes fear, for it condemns the evil to hell; but not so Divine Good, for so far as this is received by means of truths by men and angels, it takes away condemnation. It is consequently evident that so far as man is in the good of love there is the fear of God; and that in proportion as dread and terror pass away, and become a holy fear attended with reverence, so far man is in the good of love and in truths therefrom, that is, so far as there is good in his truths. It consequently follows, that fear in worship is varied with every one, according to the state of his life, and also that the sanctity attended with reverence that is in the fear of those who are in good, is also varied according to the reception of good in the will, and according to the reception of truth in the understanding, that is, according to the reception of good in the heart and the reception of truth in the soul.
 But what has just been stated will be more evident from the following passages in the Word.
"What doth Jehovah God require of thee, but to fear Jehovah thy God, to walk in all his ways, and to love him, and to serve Jehovah thy God from thy whole heart, and from thy whole soul" (Deut. x. 12, 20).
It is here said to fear Jehovah God, to walk in His ways, to love Him, and to serve Him, and by all these expressions worship by means of truths from good is described, worship by means of truths is meant by fearing Jehovah God and serving Him, and worship from good by walking in His ways and loving Him. Therefore it is also said, from the whole heart, and from the whole soul, heart signifying the good of love and of charity which pertains to the will, and soul the truth of doctrine, and of faith which pertains to the understanding. The heart corresponds to the good of love, and in man to his will; and soul corresponds to the truth of faith, and in man to his understanding; for soul (anima) means the animation or respiration of man, which is also called his spirit. That soul in the Word signifies the life of faith, and heart the life of love, may be seen in the Arcana Coelestia (n. 2930, 9050, 9281).
 In the same:
"Ye shall go after Jehovah your God, and shall fear him, that ye may keep his precepts, and hear his voice and serve him, and cleave to him" (Deut. xiii. 4).
To go after Jehovah God, to keep His precepts, and to cleave to him, signify the good of life, thus the good of love, from which is worship; and to fear Jehovah God, to hear His voice, and to serve Him, signify the truths of doctrine, thus the truths of faith by means of which there is worship. Since all worship of the Lord must be by means of truths from good, and not by means of truths without good, nor by means of good without truths, therefore in every particular of the Word there is a marriage of good and truth, as in the passages already cited, and also in the following. (Concerning the marriage of good and truth in the particulars of the Word, see above n. 238 at the end, 288, 660).
 In the same:
"Thou shalt fear Jehovah thy God, him thou shalt serve, and to him shalt thou cleave, and in his name thou shalt swear" (Deut. x. 20).
Here also to fear Jehovah God, and to serve Him, involve truths of worship, and to cleave to Jehovah God, and to swear in His name, involve the good of worship. For to cleave to is an expression relating to the good of love, since he who loves also cleaves to; to swear in the name of Jehovah has a similar meaning, for what is about to be done is confirmed by that means. To serve involves truths of worship, because servants, in the Word, mean those who are in truths, and this for the reason that truths serve good, as may be seen above (n. 6, 409).
 In the same:
"That thou mayest fear Jehovah thy God, to keep all his statutes and his commandments; thou shalt fear Jehovah thy God, and him shalt thou serve, and in his name shalt thou swear, ye shall not go after other gods; Jehovah hath commanded us to do all these statutes, to fear Jehovah our God" (Deut. vi. 2, 13, 14, 24).
Worship by means of truths from good, or by means of faith from love, is also described here. To fear Jehovah God and to serve Him, means worship, by means of truths of faith, and to keep and do his statutes and commandments, and to swear in the name of Jehovah, means worship from the good of love. For to keep and to do statutes and commandments is the good of life, which is the same as the good of love, since he who loves also lives. To swear in the name of Jehovah has a similar meaning, for to swear denotes to confirm by life. That to fear Jehovah and to serve Him, denotes worship according to truths of doctrine, has been shown above. For there are two things which constitute worship, namely, doctrine and life; doctrine without life does not constitute it, neither life without doctrine.
 Similarly in the following passages.
"Assemble the people that they may hear, and that they may learn and may fear Jehovah your God, and may observe to do all the words of the law" (Deut. xxxi. 12).
In the same:
"If thou wilt not observe to do all the commandments of this law, to fear this glorious and venerable name, Jehovah thy God" (Deut. xxviii. 58).
In the same:
The king "shall write for himself a copy of the law, and he shall read in it all the days of his life, wherein he may learn to fear Jehovah his God, to keep all the words of the law, and the statutes to do them" (Deut. xvii. 18, 19).
In the same:
"Thou shalt keep the commandments of Jehovah thy God, to go in his ways, and to fear him" (Deut. viii. 6).
And in the same:
"Who will give that they may have a heart to fear me, and to keep my commandments all the days?" (v. 29).
In these passages fearing Jehovah God is connected with keeping and doing the commandments of the law, also with going in his ways, because as stated, all internal spiritual worship of God, consisting in the good of life, must be performed according to truths of doctrine, since these must teach. Worship according to truths of doctrine is signified by fearing Jehovah, and worship from the good of life by keeping His commandments and going in His ways, to go in the ways of Jehovah denoting to live according to truths of doctrine; and because worship according to truths of doctrine is meant by fearing Jehovah, therefore it is said that the fear of Jehovah shall be learned from the law. But let it be observed, that the fear of Jehovah denotes internal spiritual worship, which must be in external natural worship; for internal spiritual worship consists in thinking and understanding truths, thus in thinking reverently and in a holy manner of God, which is to fear Him, while external natural worship consists in doing those truths, that is, in keeping the commandments and words of the law.
 In David:
"Teach me, Jehovah, thy way, teach it me in truth, unite my heart to the fear of thy name" (Psalm lxxxvi. 11).
To teach the way signifies to teach the truth in agreement with which the life ought to be lived, therefore it is said, teach it in truth. That good of love must be conjoined with truths of faith is signified by, unite my heart to the fear of Thy name, the heart signifying love, and fear the holiness of faith, which must be united, that is, must be together, in worship.
(References: Psalms 86:11)
"Blessed is every one that feareth Jehovah, that walketh in his ways" (Psalm cxxviii. 1).
To fear Jehovah here also denotes to think of God in a reverent and holy manner, and to walk in His ways denotes to live according to Divine truths. There is worship by means of both of these; but in external worship, which consists in living according to Divine truths, there must be internal worship, which is to fear Jehovah, therefore it is said that he feareth Jehovah who walketh in His ways.
"Blessed is the man who feareth Jehovah, who delighteth greatly in His commandments" (Psalm cxii. 1).
The signification here is similar to that of the verse above; for to delight greatly in the commandments of Jehovah is to love them, consequently to will and to do them.
 In Jeremiah:
"They feared not, neither walked they in my law, nor in my statutes" (xliv. 10).
Not to fear denotes not to think of God from the truths of the Word, thus not reverently and in a holy manner; not to walk in the law of God, nor in His statutes, denotes not to live them, commandments denoting the laws of internal worship, and statutes the laws of external worship.
(References: Jeremiah 44:10)
 In Malachi:
"If I be a Father, where is my honour; if I be Lord, where is the fear of me?" (i. 6).
The terms honour and fear are used, because honour is said of worship from good, and fear of worship by means of truths. (That honour is used in reference to good, may be seen above, n. 200, 345); therefore also honour is said of Father, and fear of Lord, for Jehovah is called Father from Divine Good, and Lord, in this place, from Divine Truth.
 In the same prophet:
"My covenant was with" Levi, "of life and of peace, which I gave him with fear; and he feared me" (ii. 5).
Levi here means the Lord as to the Divine Human, and the covenant of life and of peace signifies the union of His Divine with Himself (cum Ipso), and fear and fearing signify holy truth, with which there is union.
(References: Malachi 2:5)
 In Isaiah:
"The spirit of Jehovah shall rest upon him, the spirit of wisdom and understanding; the spirit of counsel and might, the spirit of knowledge and of the fear of Jehovah, whence his offering of incense shall be in the fear of Jehovah" (xi. 2, 3).
These words are also said of the Lord, and they describe the Divine Truth, in which and from which are all wisdom and all understanding. The Divine Truth that was in the Lord, when He was in the world, and which since the glorification of His Human goes forth from Him, is meant by the spirit of Jehovah, which rested upon Him; that He has Divine Wisdom and Divine Power therefrom, is meant by the spirit of wisdom and understanding, and by the spirit of counsel and might. That thence He has omniscience and essential holiness in worship, is meant by the spirit of knowledge and of the fear of Jehovah; and because fear signifies holiness of worship from Divine Truth, therefore it is said, whence His offering of incense shall be in the fear of Jehovah; for to offer incense signifies worship from the spiritual-Divine which is Divine Truth. That this is the signification of offering incense may be seen above (n. 324, 491, 492, 494, 567). It is said, the spirit of wisdom, understanding, knowledge and fear, for spirit means the proceeding Divine, the spirit of wisdom the celestial Divine, which is the proceeding Divine received by the angels of the inmost or third heaven; the spirit of understanding the spiritual Divine, which is the proceeding Divine received by the angels of the middle or second heaven; the spirit of knowledge the natural Divine, which is the proceeding Divine received by the angels of the ultimate or first heaven and the spirit of the fear of Jehovah means all the holiness of worship from these Divines.
 In Jeremiah:
"I will give them one heart and one way, to fear me all their days for good to them; and I will make with them the covenant of an age; and my fear will I put in their heart, that they may not depart from me" (xxxii. 39, 40).
I will give them one heart and one way to fear Me, signifies one will and one understanding to worship the Lord, the heart signifying the good of the will, way the truth of the understanding which leads, and fear the holy worship therefrom. I will make with them the covenant of an age, and My fear will I put in their heart, signifies conjunction by means of the good of love, and by means of the truth of that good in worship, covenant denoting conjunction, and fear in the heart, the holiness of worship from truth in the good of love; that they may not depart from Me, signifies for the sake of conjunction. Since conjunction with the Lord is effected by means of truths from good, and not by means of truths without good, nor by means of good without truths, therefore both are here mentioned.
(References: Jeremiah 32:39-40)
 In David:
"O house of Aaron, trust ye in Jehovah, ye that fear Jehovah, trust in Jehovah" (Psalm cxv. 10, 11).
The house of Aaron signifies all those who are in the good of love, and those that fear Jehovah signify all those who are in truth from that good.
In the Apocalypse:
"The angel who had the eternal gospel said, Fear God, and give glory; adore him" (xiv. 7).
To fear God and give glory to Him signifies to worship the Lord from holy truths; and to adore Him signifies from the good of love.
"Let all the earth fear before Jehovah; let all the inhabitants of the world stand in awe of him. Behold the eye of Jehovah is upon them that fear him, that wait for his mercy" (Psalm xxxiii. 8, 18).
In the same:
"The good pleasure of Jehovah is in them that fear him, in them that wait for his mercy" (Psalm cxlvii. 11).
Because the fear of Jehovah signifies the reception of Divine Truth, and mercy the reception of Divine Good, it is therefore said that the eye and the good pleasure of Jehovah are upon them that fear Him, upon them that wait for His mercy.
 In Isaiah:
"The mighty people shall honour thee, the city of the strong nations shall fear thee" (xxv. 3).
Here also to honour signifies worship from good, for honour is said of the good of love; and worship from truths is signified by fearing the Lord, as said above. By mighty people are signified the men of the church who are in truths from good, for all power is therefrom; the city of the strong nations signifies those who are in truths of doctrine, and by means of these in the good of love; and as all spiritual power is from that source, therefore they are called strong nations. From these words also it is clear that there is a marriage of good and truth in every particular of the Word; for to honour is said of good, and to fear of truth, both of them in worship. The term people is used of those who are in truths, and by means of these in good, but nations of those who are in good, and from that in truths. And because all power in the spiritual world is from the conjunction of good and truth, therefore the people are called mighty, and the nations strong.
(References: Isaiah 25:3)
 The fear of Jehovah also in the following passages signifies worship in which there is holiness by means of truths.
"The heart" of the people "hath departed far from me, and their fear toward me hath become a commandment taught of men" (xxix. 13).
In the same:
"Who among you feareth Jehovah, hearing the voice of his servant? He that walketh in darkness, and hath no brightness; that trusteth in the name of Jehovah, and leaneth upon his God" (l. 10).
"They shall bear all the good which I do unto them, that they may fear and be moved for all the good, and for all the peace which I will do unto it" (xxxiii. 9).
"The angel of Jehovah encampeth round about them that fear him, to deliver them. Fear Jehovah, ye his saints, for there is no want to them that fear him" (Psalm xxxiv. 7, 9).
In the same:
"Who have no changes, neither fear they God" (Psalm lv. 19).
In the same:
"The fear of Jehovah is the beginning of wisdom, a good understanding have all they that do them" (Psalm cxi. 10).
Because fear has reference to Divine Truth from which are holiness in worship, wisdom and intelligence, therefore it is said, the fear of Jehovah is the beginning of wisdom, a good understanding, that is, intelligence, have all they that do them.
In the same:
"They that fear Jehovah shall praise him; all the seed of Jacob shall honour him, and all the seed of Israel shall fear him" (Psalm xxii. 23).
 In Luke:
"The mercy" of God "is unto generation of generations to them that fear him" (i. 50).
That to fear Jehovah God means and therefore signifies to have a sense of holiness and reverence, consequently to worship him in a holy and reverent manner is also evident from these passages.
"Ye shall keep my Sabbaths, and my sanctuary shall ye fear" (Levit. xix. 30);
"Ye shall reverence" (xxvi. 2).
In the same:
"The work of Jehovah, how is that to be feared (reverenced), which I will do" (Exod. xxxiv. 10).
In the same:
"And Jacob was afraid, and said, How [greatly] to be feared (reverenced) is this place; this is none other but the house of God, and the gate of heaven" (Gen. xxviii. 17).
That to fear, when said of the Divine, and of the holiness of heaven and of the church, signifies to revere and to hold in reverence, is evident from the above passages, also from this fact, that the same word which in Hebrew signifies to fear, also signifies to revere and to venerate.
This is also evident from these words in Luke:
"There was a judge in a certain city who feared not God, neither reverenced man, who said within himself, Although I fear not God, nor reverence man" (xviii. 2, 4).
It is said to fear God, and to reverence man, because to fear signifies to reverence in a higher degree.
 In Matthew:
Jesus said, "Fear not them who are able to kill the body, but are not able to kill the soul; rather fear him who is able to destroy both soul and body in Gehenna" (x. 28; Luke xii. 4, 5, 7).
Here however to fear signifies to stand in fear of dying spiritually, consequently natural fear, which is fearfulness and dread; but spiritual fear is a holy fear, that abides interiorly in all spiritual love variously according to the quality and extent of the love. In this fear is the spiritual man; he knows also that the Lord does not do evil to any one, much less does He destroy any one, as to body and soul in Gehenna, but that He does good to all, and desires to raise up every one, as to body and soul, into heaven to Himself. This is why the fear of the spiritual man is a holy fear, lest through evil of life and falsity of doctrine man should turn away from and thus injure that Divine love in himself. But natural fear is a fearfulness, dread, and terror of dangers, and punishment, and thus of hell; this fear abides in all corporeal love, and also variously according to the quality and extent of that love. The natural man who is in such fear knows no otherwise than that the Lord inflicts evil upon the evil, condemns them, casts them into hell, and punishes them, and on this account such persons are in fear and dread of the Lord. Most of the Jewish and Israelitish nation were in this fear, because they were natural men; for this reason the expression "to be afraid and to tremble before Jehovah" is so frequently used, and also "they were in fear and trembling;" for the same reason it is said of the sons of Israel that "they were sore afraid" when the Divine Law or Divine Truth was promulgated from Mount Sinai (Exod. xx. 18-20; Deut. v. 23-25).
 It is this fear that is meant in part by "The dread of Isaac" by whom Jacob sware to Laban (Gen. xxxi. 42, 53); for Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, in the Word, mean the Lord; Abraham means the Lord as to the celestial Divine, Isaac, as to the spiritual Divine, and Jacob, as to the natural Divine. The spiritual Divine signified by Isaac is the Divine Truth, which terrifies natural men, and because Laban was a natural man, it is therefore said, Jacob sware to him, by the dread or terror of Isaac. An almost similar fear is meant in Isaiah:
"Ye shall sanctify Jehovah Zebaoth, for he is your fear and your dread" (viii. 13).
Here fear has reference to the spiritual man, and dread to the natural man. As the spiritual man should not be in such fear as the natural man is in, it is therefore said, "Fear not."
Jacob and Israel "Fear not, for I have redeemed thee, calling thee by thy name, thou art mine" (xliii. 1).
"Fear not, little flock, for it is your Father's good pleasure to give you the kingdom" (xii. 32);
and in Jeremiah:
"Fear not, Jacob my servant, and be not afraid, O Israel, for I will keep thee from afar; Jacob shall be tranquil and at rest, none making him afraid" (xxx. 9, 10)
and in many other passages. Moreover, that fear, terror, consternation, and similar expressions signify various disturbances of the feelings (animi), and changes of the state of the mind, may be seen above (n. 667, 677).