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Ezekiel 1

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1 Now it happened in the thirtieth year, in the fourth [month], in the fifth [day] of the month, as I was among the captives by the river Chebar, that the heavens were opened, and I saw visions of God.

2 In the fifth [day] of the month, which was the fifth year of king Jehoiachin's captivity,

3 the word of Yahweh came expressly to Ezekiel the priest, the son of Buzi, in the land of the Chaldeans by the river Chebar; and the hand of Yahweh was there on him.

4 I looked, and behold, a stormy wind came out of the north, a great cloud, with flashing lightning, and a brightness around it, and out of its midst as it were glowing metal, out of the midst of the fire.

5 Out of its midst came the likeness of four living creatures. This was their appearance: they had the likeness of a man.

6 Everyone had four faces, and each one of them had four wings.

7 Their feet were straight feet; and the sole of their feet was like the sole of a calf's foot; and they sparkled like burnished brass.

8 They had the hands of a man under their wings on their four sides; and the four of them had their faces and their wings [thus]:

9 their wings were joined one to another; they didn't turn when they went; each one went straight forward.

10 As for the likeness of their faces, they had the face of a man; and the four of them had the face of a lion on the right side; and the four of them had the face of an ox on the left side; the four of them also had the face of an eagle.

11 Such were their faces. Their wings were spread out above. Two wings of each one touched another, and two covered their bodies.

12 Each one went straight forward: where the spirit was to go, they went; they didn't turn when they went.

13 As for the likeness of the living creatures, their appearance was like burning coals of fire, like the appearance of torches: [the fire] went up and down among the living creatures; and the fire was bright, and out of the fire went forth lightning.

14 The living creatures ran and returned as the appearance of a flash of lightning.

15 Now as I saw the living creatures, behold, one wheel on the earth beside the living creatures, for each of the four faces of it.

16 The appearance of the wheels and their work was like a beryl: and the four of them had one likeness; and their appearance and their work was as it were a wheel within a wheel.

17 When they went, they went in their four directions: they didn't turn when they went.

18 As for their rims, they were high and dreadful; and the four of them had their rims full of eyes all around.

19 When the living creatures went, the wheels went beside them; and when the living creatures were lifted up from the earth, the wheels were lifted up.

20 Wherever the spirit was to go, they went; there was the spirit to go: and the wheels were lifted up beside them; for the spirit of the living creature was in the wheels.

21 When those went, these went; and when those stood, these stood; and when those were lifted up from the earth, the wheels were lifted up beside them: for the spirit of the living creature was in the wheels.

22 Over the head of the living creature there was the likeness of an expanse, like the awesome crystal to look on, stretched forth over their heads above.

23 Under the expanse were their wings straight, the one toward the other: each one had two which covered on this side, and every one had two which covered on that side, their bodies.

24 When they went, I heard the noise of their wings like the noise of great waters, like the voice of the Almighty, a noise of tumult like the noise of an army: when they stood, they let down their wings.

25 There was a voice above the expanse that was over their heads: when they stood, they let down their wings.

26 Above the expanse that was over their heads was the likeness of a throne, as the appearance of a sapphire stone; and on the likeness of the throne was a likeness as the appearance of a man on it above.

27 I saw as it were glowing metal, as the appearance of fire within it all around, from the appearance of his waist and upward; and from the appearance of his waist and downward I saw as it were the appearance of fire, and there was brightness around him.

28 As the appearance of the rainbow that is in the cloud in the day of rain, so was the appearance of the brightness all around. This was the appearance of the likeness of the glory of Yahweh. When I saw it, I fell on my face, and I heard a voice of one that spoke.

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Swedenborg

Hlavní výklad ze Swedenborgových prací:

Arcana Coelestia 9457, 9509

Apocalypse Revealed 36, 322, 945

Conjugial Love 26

The Lord 52

Sacred Scripture 97

The Inner Meaning of the Prophets and Psalms 124


Další odkazy Swedenborga k této kapitole:

Arcana Coelestia 49, 425, 908, 934, 1042, 1992, 2162, ...

Apocalypse Revealed 14, 49, 239, 245, 466, 614, 629, ...

Divine Providence 134

The Lord 48

True Christian Religion 157, 260


References from Swedenborg's unpublished works:

Apocalypse Explained 69, 70, 77, 239, 253, 277, 279, ...

Coronis (An Appendix to True Christian Religion) 60

Spiritual Experiences 255

Scriptural Confirmations 2, 4, 22, 52

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Word/Phrase Explanations

thirtieth
'Thirty' has a twofold significance because it is is the product of five and six, and also three and ten. From five multiplied by six,...

fourth
'The fourth watch' signifies the first state of the church at break of day, when good begins to act by truth.

month
'A month' has respect to the state of truth in a person. 'A month' signifies a full state. Month,' as in Genesis 29, signifies the...

fifth
Five also signifies all things of one part.

river
'Rivers' signify truths in abundance serving the rational self, and so, the understanding, for the purpose of doctrine and life. 'Rivers' or 'floods' signify temptations....

heavens
Heavens are celestial and spiritual things. Consequently, they are inmost things, both of the Lord's kingdom in heaven the and in the earth. This also...

opened
To open,' as in Revelation 9, signifies communication and conjunction.

saw
To look,' as in Genesis 18:22, signifies thinking, because seeing denotes understanding. Look not back behind thee,' as in Genesis 19:17, means that Lot, who...

god
The Lord is love itself, expressed in the form of wisdom itself. Love, then, is His essence, His inmost. Wisdom - the loving understanding of...

the Word
In general, we tend to be very aware of how knowing what's true leads to doing what is good. That starts as children, with parents...

word
'Word,' as in Psalms 119:6-17, stands for doctrine in general. 'The Word,' as in Psalms 147:18, signifies divine good united with divine truth. 'Word,' as...

Yahweh
The Lord, in the simplest terms, is love itself expressed as wisdom itself. In philosophic terms, love is the Lord's substance and wisdom is His...

son
'A son,' as in Genesis 5:28, signifies the rise of a new church. 'Son,' as in Genesis 24:3, signifies the Lord’s rationality regarding good. 'A...

chaldeans
Chaldea was a land lying along the Euphrates river near its mouth, south of Babylon, part of what is now southern Iraq. It was a...

Stormy wind
'A stormy wind' and 'an overflowing shower,' as in Ezekiel 13:11-13, signify the desolation of falsity.

Wind
Because a nearer and stronger divine influx through the heavens disperses truths among the wicked, 'wind' signifies this dispersion of truth and the resulting conjunction...

came
As with common verbs in general, the meaning of “come” in the Bible is highly dependent on context – its meaning is determined largely by...

North
'North' signifies people who are in obscurity regarding truth. North,' in Isaiah 14:31, signifies hell. The North,' as in Jeremiah 3:12, signifies people who are...

great
The word "great" is used in the Bible to represent a state with a strong degree of love and affection, of the desire for good;...

cloud
In Isaiah 19:1, "Jehovah rides upon a light cloud, and comes into Egypt", signifies the visitation of the natural man from spiritual-natural Divine Truth, for...

midst
'Middle' denotes what is primary, principal, or inmost.

four
The number "four" in the Bible represents things being linked together or joined. This is partly because four is two times two, and two represents...

living
'Lives' is used in the plural, because of the will and understanding, and because these two lives make one.

living creatures
Animals in general represent our spiritual activity, the things we do on a spiritual level. This can mean forming thoughts, ideas, intellectual concepts; it can...

one
A company might have executives setting policy and strategy, engineers designing products, line workers building them, managers handling personnel and others handling various functions. They...

four wings
By the four wings, as of a fowl, on the back of the third beast, signifies confirmations of falsity.

wings
'Wings' signify spiritual truths. 'Wings,' when related to the Lord, signify the divine spiritual. In the opposite sense, 'wings' relate to falsities and rationalizations from...

feet
The foot, as in Deuteronomy 33:3, signifies an inferior principle. To set the right foot on the sea and the left on the earth, as...

calf
Calves of the lips (Hos 14:2) are confessions from the affection of truth.

brass
Brass and iron as in Isaiah 48:4 and Daniel 7:19 signify what is hard.

hands
Scientists believe that one of the most crucial developments in the evolution of humans was bipedalism – walking on two legs. That left our hands...

under
Generally speaking things that are seen as lower physically in the Bible represent things that are lower or more external spiritually. In some cases this...

turn
Swedenborg says that the Lord is the sun of heaven, and like the natural sun of our world shines on everyone, good or evil. What...

face
“The eyes are the windows of the soul.” That’s a sentiment with roots somewhere in murky antiquity, but one that has become hopelessly cliché because...

lion
'A lion' signifies the good of celestial love and the truth from that good.

side
'Side' signifies good or spiritual love.

eagle
Eagle wings, referred to in Daniel 7:3, signify rational principles grounded in man's proprium.

two
The number "two" has two different meanings in the Bible. In most cases "two" indicates a joining together or unification. This is easy to see...

touched
Imagine having your mother touch your cheek. Then imagine having your spouse or someone you love romantically touch your cheek. Then imagine having a baby...

covered
The "high mountains being covered " (Gen. 7:19) signifies that all the good things of charity were extin­guished.

go
In the physical world, the places we inhabit and the distances between them are physical realities, and we have to get our physical bodies through...

burning
Just as natural fire can be both comforting in keeping you warm or scary in burning down your house, so fire in the spiritual sense...

coals
Coals of fire being scattered over the cities (Ezek. 10:1, 7), signify that men were to be left to their wild lusts, rather than they...

lightning
'Lightning' is the radiance and brilliance of God's truth.

returned
Everyone knows the phrase "the natural order of things." It means that everything is in its proper place, occupying the niche it is meant to...

earth
'Lands' of different nations are used in the Word to signify the different kinds of love prevalent in the inhabitants.

wheels
'Wheels,' as in Exodus 14:25, signify the power of proceeding and divine intelligence. 'Wheels,' as in Isaiah 5:28, signify the doctrine of natural truth. 'Wheels,'...

work
'Works,' as in Genesis 46:33, denote goods, because they are from the will, and anything from the will is either good or evil, but anything...

Beryl
'Beryl,' as in Daniel 10:6, signifies the good of charity and faith. Beryl is a sparkling precious stone.

High
'Height' signifies what is inward, and also heaven.

Full
'To satiate' relates to the extent of a person's will, for good or evil.

eyes
'Pairs of hands, eyes, etc.' relate to the will and understanding, or to good and truth. The right side to the will or good, and...

lifted
The idea of "lifting" is used in a number of different ways in the Bible. In general, it means connecting with a higher spiritual state...

stood
'To stand,' and 'come forth' as in Daniel 7:10, refers to truth. In Genesis 24:13, it signifies a state of conjunction of divine truth with...

head
The head is the part of us that is highest, which means in a representative sense that it is what is closest to the Lord....

expanse
The firmament, as in Genesis 1, signifies the internal man. The firmament of heaven is mutual love.

stretched
The hand in the Bible represents power, which is easy to understand, so to reach out or stretch out the hand means to exercise power,...

heard
'To hearken to father and mother,' as mentioned in Genesis 28:7, signifies obedience from affection. 'To hearken,' as mentioned in Genesis 30:22, signifies providence. See...

noise
'A voice crying,' and 'the voice of a cry,' are common expressions in the Word, and are applied whenever there is a noise or disturbance,...

noise of their wings
'The voice of wings,' as in Revelation 9:9, signifies rationalizations, because 'to fly' signifies perceiving and instructing.

waters
'Waters,' 'rivers,' and 'depths,' as in Psalm 78:15-16, signify truths from the Lord.

voice
In Genesis 27:22, 'voice' relates to truth, and 'hand,' to good.

almighty
'Shaddai,' as in Genesis 43:14, signifies temptation, and consolation after temptation. This is because the ancients called the one and only God by various names...

throne
'The Lord's throne' signifies, in general, the whole heaven, and specifically, the spiritual heaven, and by extension, divine truth proceeding, and so, everything of heaven...

sapphire
'Precious stones,' in application to the Word, symbolizes the Divine truth of the Word in its literal sense which the Divine truth in its spiritual...

Sapphire stone
A sapphire stone is the quality of the literal sense of the Word, when the internal sense is perceived in it.

stone
Stones in the Bible in general represent truths, or things we know concerning the Lord and what He wants from us and for us in...

day
The expression 'even to this day' or 'today' sometimes appears in the Word, as in Genesis 19:37-38, 22:14, 26:33, 32:32, 35:20, and 47:26. In a...

day of
'Day of vengeance' signifies a state of damnation.

fell
Like other common verbs, the meaning of "fall" is highly dependent on context in regular language, and is highly dependent on context in a spiritual...

spoke
Like "say," the word "speak" refers to thoughts and feelings moving from our more internal spiritual levels to our more external ones – and ultimately...

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 Ezekiel's Vision
A New Church Bible story explanation for teaching Sunday school. Includes lesson materials for Primary (3-8 years), Junior (9-11 years), Intermediate (12-14 years), Senior (15-17 years) and Adults.
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 Ezekiel’s Vision (3-5 years)
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 Ezekiel’s Vision (6-8 years)
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 Ezekiel’s Vision (9-11 years)
Project | Ages 11 - 14

 Vision of the Prophet Ezekiel
Project | Ages 7 - 17

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Apocalypse Explained # 388

Apocalypse Explained (Whitehead translation)      

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388. And by the wild beasts of the earth, signifies the evils of life, which are lusts and falsities therefrom springing from the love of self and of the world, which devastate all things of the church with man. This is evident from the signification of "wild beasts," as being the lusts and falsities that spring from the love of self and the world; and because these are the evils of life themselves, since an evil life is a life of lusts and falsities, therefore these are here meant by "the wild beasts of the earth;" that this is the signification of "wild beasts" will be seen in what follows. Also from the signification of "the earth," as being the church (of which see above, n. 29, 304); and as "wild beasts" signify the evils of life, and these devastate the church with man, and "the earth" signifies the church, so the "wild beasts of the earth" signify the evils of life which devastate the church with man. It is said the church with man, because the church is in man; for the church is a church from charity and faith, and these are in man; and if these are not in him, the church is not with him. It is believed that the church is where the Word is, and where the Lord is known; but still the church consists of those only who from the heart acknowledge the Divine of the Lord, and who learn truths from the Lord by the Word and do them; others do not constitute the church. That "the wild beasts of the earth" here signify, in particular, the evils of life can be seen from the series of things in the internal sense. It is said that "there was given unto them power over the fourth part of the earth, to kill with sword, with famine, with death, and by the wild beasts of the earth," "sword" signifying falsity destroying truth, "famine," the deprivation of the knowledges of truth and good, "death" the extinction of spiritual life; therefore "the wild beasts of the earth" signify the evils of life, since these rule when spiritual life is extinct, for where there is no spiritual life there life is merely natural, and natural life apart from the spiritual is full of lusts from the love of self and the world, thus is infernal; therefore that life is meant by "the evil wild beast."

(Odkazy: Revelation 6:8; The Apocalypse Explained 29, The Apocalypse Explained 304)


[2] Moreover, in respect to the evil life that is signified by "the evil wild beast," such may be the life as well with those who lead a good moral life, if they have no spiritual life; for such do good and speak truth and practice sincerity and justice but only because of reputation, honor, gain, and the laws, thus for the sake of appearance, that they may emulate those who are spiritual, while inwardly they have no will of good and no thought of truth, and laugh at sincerity and justice, unless for the causes mentioned above; consequently they are infernal within. This is also clearly manifest when such persons become spirits, which takes place immediately after death; then the external bonds mentioned above are taken away from them, and they then rush without restraint into evils of every kind. But it is otherwise with those who have led a good moral life from a spiritual origin. (On this subject see further in the work on Heaven and Hell 484, 529-531, 534 and above, n. 182.) This has been said to make known what is meant by an evil life, namely, that it is not the external life that pertains to the body and has reference to the world where men are, which is called the natural world, but is the internal life that pertains to the spirit and has reference to the world where angels are, which is called the spiritual world. For in respect to his body, its gestures and speech, man is in the natural world, but in respect to his spirit, that is, in respect to thought and affection, man is in the spiritual world; in fact, as the bodily sight has extension into the natural world and sweeps about there, so the sight of the spirit, which is thought from affection, has extension into the spiritual world and sweeps about there. That this is so is known to few; and it is therefore supposed that thinking evil and willing evil is of no consequence if only one does not do evil and speak evil; and yet every thought and volition affects the spirit of man and makes up his life after death.

(Odkazy: The Apocalypse Explained 182)


[3] That "evil wild beasts" signify the lusts and the falsities from them springing from the love of self and the world, that devastate all things of the church with man, and in a contrary sense signify also the affections of truth that vivify all things of the church, can be seen from the following passages in the Word. In Jeremiah:

Go ye, gather together every wild beast of the field; come to eat. Many shepherds have destroyed My vineyard; they have trodden down My field, they have made the field of desire a wilderness of solitude (Jeremiah 12:9-10).

This treats of the vastation of the church in respect to its truths and its goods. Vastation is described by "the shepherds have destroyed the vineyard of the Lord," and "have trodden His field under foot;" "shepherds" mean those who teach truths, and by means of them lead to good of life; here those who teach falsities and by means of them lead to evil of life; "vineyard" means the church in respect to truths; and "field" the church in respect to good; its vastation is meant by "have destroyed" and "have trodden down," also by "they have made the field a wilderness of solitude." And as lusts and falsities springing from the love of self and the world devastate it, it is said, "Go ye, gather together every wild beast of the field; come to eat;" "every wild beast of the field" signifying the falsities and lusts springing from those loves, and "to eat" signifying to devastate and consume. "The wild beast of the field" does not mean evidently the wild beast of the field, for it is said "shepherds have destroyed the vineyard and trodden down the field;" and "shepherds" mean shepherds (pastors) of the church, and not shepherds of the flock.

(Odkazy: Jeremiah 12:9-11)


[4] In David:

Why doth the boar out of the forest tread under foot [thy vine], and the wild beast of the fields doth feed on it (Psalms 80:13)?

"Vine" here signifies the same as "vineyard" above, namely, the church in respect to truth, which is called the spiritual church; its vastation by the lusts and falsities of the natural man separated from the spiritual is meant by "the boar out of the forest treadeth it under foot; "the boar out of the forest" signifying the evil lusts of the natural man, and "the wild beast of the field" falsities.

(Odkazy: Psalms 80:8-9)


[5] In Hosea:

I will lay waste her vine and her fig-tree; and I will make them a forest, and the wild beast of the field shall eat them (Hosea 2:12).

"Vine" and "fig-tree" signify the church, "vine" the internal church which is of the spiritual man, and "fig-tree" the external church which is of the natural man; the vastation of both is signified by "I will lay them waste, and make them a forest; and the wild beast of the field shall eat them," "a forest" signifying the sensual man who is in mere fallacies and in falsities therefrom, and the "wild beast of the field" signifying falsities therefrom and evil lusts; for when the church with man is laid waste, that is, when the truth of the church is no longer believed, then man becomes sensual, believing nothing but what he can see with his eyes and touch with his hands; and such a man gives himself up wholly to the love of self and the love of the world, thus to lusts. That the church is here meant by "the vine" and "fig-tree" is evident from the second verse of the same chapter, where it is said that they should plead with their mother, "for she is not my wife, and I am not her husband," "mother" and "wife" in the Word signifying the church.

(Odkazy: Hosea 2:2)


[6] In Moses:

By little and little I will drive out the nations, lest the land become a waste, and the wild beast of the field be multiplied against thee (Exodus 23:29-30Deut. Deuteronomy 7:22).

What this signifies can be seen in the Arcana Coelestia 9333-9338), namely, that "nations" signify the evils that man has, even those from inheritance; and that these with man are removed "by little and little," since if they were removed suddenly, before good is formed in him by truths, falsities would enter which would destroy him. "The wild beasts of the field" signify the falsities springing from the delights of natural loves.

(Odkazy: Exodus 23:28-29)


[7] In the same:

If ye walk in My statutes and keep My commandments and do them, I will give peace in the land, so that ye may lie down securely, and none make afraid; and I will cause the evil wild beast to cease out of the land, and the sword shall not pass through your land. But if ye do not hearken unto Me and do all My commandments, I will send among you the wild beast of the field, which shall bereave you of your children, and cut off your cattle, and make you few in number, that your ways may be laid waste (Leviticus 26:3, 6, 14, 22).

This describes the state of life of those who are in charity, and of those who are not in charity. The life of charity is meant by "walking in the statutes and keeping the commandments and doing them," for this is charity; the state of their life is described by "peace," by "they shall lie down securely, and none make them afraid," which signifies blessedness of heart and soul arising from the conjunction of good and truth, whence there is no longer any combat of evil and falsity against good and truth. It is also described by "I will cause the evil beast to cease out of the land, and the sword shall not pass through it," which signifies that there will no longer be any lusts or falsities springing from the love of self and the world, "the evil wild beast" signifying the lusts that destroy good affections, and "the sword" signifying the falsities that destroy truths. That those who are not in charity are in a contrary state is described by "if ye do not hearken unto Me and do all My commandments, I will send among you the wild beast of the field, which shall bereave you of your children, and cut off your cattle, and make you few in number, that your ways may be laid waste," which signifies that by lusts and falsities from them they shall be deprived of every good and truth. The lusts and falsities therefrom that will deprive are signified by "the wild beasts of the field that shall bereave you of your children;" the good affections of which they will be deprived are signified by "the cattle that shall be destroyed," and the truths themselves therefrom by their "ways" that shall be laid waste, "ways" meaning the truths that lead to good.

[8] In Ezekiel:

Then I will make with them a covenant of peace, and will cause the evil wild beast to cease out of the land, that they may dwell securely in the wilderness, and sleep in the forests. They shall no more be a prey to the nations, and the wild beast of the field shall not devour them; but they shall dwell securely, and none shall make afraid (Ezekiel 34:25, 28).

This treats of the Lord's coming and His kingdom at that time; what is signified in the internal sense, can be seen from the passages just now explained, where many like words occur; the evil wild beast in the land" signifies lusts; and "the wild beast of the field" falsities.

[9] In Hosea:

I will meet them as a bear that is bereaved of her whelps, and I will rend the caul of their heart, and I will devour them like a fierce lion; the wild beast of the field shall cleave them asunder (Hosea 13:8).

This treats of the vastation of good by falsity, "a bear bereaved of her whelps" signifying the power of evil from falsity, and "a fierce lion" the power of falsity from evil, and "the wild beast of the field" lusts and falsities; destruction by these is signified by "the wild beast shall cleave them asunder;" the separation of truth from good by falsity and evil is signified by "rending the caul of their heart."

[10] In Isaiah:

No lion shall be there, and the ravenous of the wild beasts shall not go up thither (Isaiah 35:9).

This chapter treats of the Lord's coming, and the state of those who are in His kingdom. "No lion shall be there" signifies that there shall be no falsity destroying truth; "the ravenous of the wild beasts shall not go up thither" signifies that there shall be no lust of destroying; it is said "shall not go up thither," because this lust is from hell.

[11] In Zephaniah:

Jehovah will stretch out His hand over the north, and will destroy Assyria; that the droves may lie down in the midst of her, every wild beast of the nation; both the pelican and the bittern shall lodge in the chapiters thereof. Such is the city that dwelleth securely, saying in her heart, I, and none other beside me; how is she become a waste, a place for the wild beast to lie down in (Zephaniah 2:13-15).

This treats of self-intelligence, which confirms falsities and evils by reasonings from knowledges, and by applying to them things from the sense of the letter of the Word. "The north" signifies the natural and sensual man, and the knowing [faculty] that belongs to it; and "Assyria" signifies reasoning therefrom; and "saying in her heart, I, and none other beside me" signifies self-intelligence. This makes clear what is involved in these particulars, in series, namely, "Jehovah will stretch out His hand over the north, and will destroy Assyria" signifies that He will deprive such a natural man, and its power to understand and reason thence, of all perception of good and understanding of truth; "the droves shall lie down in the midst of her, every wild beast of the nation; both the pelican, and the bittern, shall lodge in the chapiters thereof" signifies that there shall be falsities of evil, and falsities of thought and perception in the knowledges from the Word everywhere therein, "the wild beast of the nation" meaning the falsity of evil, "pelican and bittern" the falsity of thought and perception, and "chapiters" the knowledges from the Word. "Such is the city that dwelleth securely, saying in her heart, I, and none other beside me" signifies that such intelligence trusts in itself and draws only from self, "city" signifying doctrine from such intelligence; "how is she become a waste, a place for the wild beast to lie down in" signifies that it has nothing of truth in it but is full of falsities.

[12] In Ezekiel:

Speak unto Pharaoh king of Egypt, and to his multitude, Asshur was a cedar in Lebanon, he has become high above all the trees of the field; but because he was lifted up in his height, and hath set his top among the thick boughs, therefore strangers shall cut him off, the violent of the nations, and they shall cast him down. Upon his ruin every fowl of the heavens shall dwell, and every wild beast of the field shall be upon his branches (Ezekiel 31:2-3, 5, 10, 12 - 31:12-13).

These things have a like signification as those above; "Pharaoh king of Egypt" meaning the like as "the north," namely, the natural man and the knowing [faculty] that belongs to it; "Asshur" reasoning from it; "he was lifted up in his height, and hath set his top among the thick boughs" signifies glorying in intelligence from reasoning, thus in self-intelligence. From this general idea of the contents it can be seen what the particulars here involve, namely, "Speak unto pharaoh king of Egypt, and to his multitude" signifies what pertains to the natural man, and its knowledges, "pharaoh king of Egypt" meaning the natural man, and "his multitude" the knowing faculty there; "Asshur, a cedar in Lebanon, has become high above all the trees of the field" signifies the rational increasing by knowledges "Asshur" meaning the rational, and "cedar" the intellectual, and "its becoming high above all the trees of the field" signifying immense increase from the knowledges of truth and good; "but because he was lifted up in his height, and hath set his top among the thick boughs" signifies because he gloried in his intelligence, and in the knowledge belonging to the natural man; and this glorying, which is an elation of mind from the love of self is from the selfhood; for the natural man separated from the spiritual exalts itself, because when separated from the spiritual it is in one's own, and attributes all things to itself and nothing to God; "to set his top" is exalting oneself; and "thick boughs" are the knowledges that belong to the natural man (see Arcana Coelestia (Arcana Coelestia 2831), n. 2831, 8133).

"Strangers shall cut him off, the violent of the nations, and they shall cast him down" signifies that falsities and evils therefrom shall destroy the rational, "strangers" meaning falsities, and "the violent of the nations" evils therefrom; whence "upon his ruin every fowl of the heavens shall dwell, and every wild beast of the field shall be upon his branches" signifies that then there will be the falsities of thought and the evils of affection;" "fowl" signifying the knowledges both of truth and of falsity, "wild beast" the evils of affection therefrom, and "field" the church, for no other falsities and evils are meant than those that are in the church. (That birds signify thoughts, ideas, and reasonings, in both senses, with a difference according to their genera and species, Arcana Coelestia 776, 778, 866, 988, 991, 3219, 5149, 7441

(Odkazy: Ezekiel 31:1-3)


[13] In the same:

I will abandon thee in the wilderness, thee and all the fish of thy rivers; upon the faces of the field shalt thou fall; thou shalt not be gathered nor brought together; I have given thee for food to the wild beast of the land and to the fowl of heaven (Ezekiel 29:5; 32:4).

This, too is said of Pharaoh and the Egyptian, who signify the natural man separate from the spiritual, and this, when separated is in mere falsities and evils, for it is then without the light of heaven, which gives all intelligence; therefore "I will abandon thee in the wilderness" signifies to be without truths and goods; "the fish of his rivers" signify the sensual knowing faculty [scientificum sensuale] (see above, n. 342; "upon the faces of the field shalt thou fall" signifies that for it everything of the church is to perish; "thou shalt not be gathered nor brought together" signifies that good and truth will not be seen, for the spiritual man sees these in the natural, for the natural brings together and gathers knowledges and forms conclusions; "I have given thee for food to the wild beast of the land and the fowl of heaven" signifies here as above, to be about to perish by the falsities of thought and the evils of affection therefrom. Because the natural man separated from the spiritual is carried away into falsities of every kind and becomes hurtful, therefore "Egypt" is to be:

A wild beast of the reed (Psalms 68:30).

(Odkazy: Psalms 68:31; The Apocalypse Explained 342)


[14] In Ezekiel:

Thou shalt fall upon the mountains of Israel, thou and all thy hordes, and the peoples that are with thee; I have given thee for food to the bird of prey, the bird of every wing, and to the wild beast of the field (Ezekiel 39:4).

This is said of Gog, which signifies external worship separated from internal, which in itself is no worship, for it is the worship of the natural man separated from the spiritual. "Thou shalt fall upon the mountains of Israel" signifies that such have nothing of the good of charity, "mountains of Israel" signifying the goods of charity, and "to fall" there signifying to perish; "thou and all thy hordes, and the people that are with thee," signifies that such worship, with its doctrinals and falsities, would perish; "I have given thee for food to the bird of prey, the bird of every wing, and to the wild beast of the field," signifies the extinction of truth and good by falsities of every kind and by evils; the evils that are signified by "the wild beast of the field" are the evils of life, which are the lusts arising from the love of self and the world.

[15] In David:

O God, the nations have come into Thine inheritance; the temple of Thy holiness have they defiled; they have laid Jerusalem in heaps; the dead body of Thy servants have they given for food to the fowl of the heavens, the flesh of Thy saints to the wild beast of the earth (Psalms 79:1-2).

"Nations" here does not mean nations, but the evils of life and the falsities of doctrine; for God's "inheritance" signifies the church wherein the Lord is all the good and all the truth, because these are from Him; "to defile the temple of holiness, and to lay Jerusalem in heaps," signifies to profane worship and to pervert the doctrine of the church, "the temple of holiness" signifying worship, because worship is there, and "Jerusalem" signifying the church in relation to doctrine, thus also the doctrine of the church; "to give the dead body of Thy servants for food to the fowl of the heavens, and the flesh of Thy saints to the wild beast of the earth" signifies to destroy all truths by falsities, and all goods by evils; here, too, "the fowl of the heavens" means thoughts of falsity, and "the wild beast of the earth" the affections of evil therefrom.

[16] In the same:

Give not the soul of Thy turtle dove unto the wild beast; forget not the life of Thy wretched ones perpetually (Psalms 74:19).

"Turtle dove" signifies spiritual good, so, too, those who are in that good; and "the wild beast" signifies the falsity of evil lusting to destroy, so, too, those who are in the falsity of evil and are eager to destroy; this makes clear what "give not the soul of Thy turtle dove unto the wild beast" signifies. "Wretched ones" mean those who are infested by falsities, and are thence in anxiety, and are waiting for deliverance.

[17] In Ezekiel:

The sheep were scattered with no shepherd, and became food for every wild beast of the field, and were scattered (Ezekiel 34:5, 8).

This signifies that the goods of charity have been destroyed by falsities and utterly consumed by evils of every kind therefrom; "the wild beast of the field" meaning the evils of life springing from the falsities of doctrine; "sheep," in the Word, mean those who are in the good of charity; but the genuine spiritual sense is a sense abstracted from persons, consequently "sheep" signify the goods of charity; "shepherds" signify those who by truths lead to good, and in an abstract sense, the truths themselves through which there is good; therefore "without a shepherd" signifies that there is no truth through which there is good, and therefore falsity. "To become food" signifies to be consumed, the same as "to be eaten" when wild beasts are spoken of; "the wild beast of the field" signifying the evils from falsities.

[18] In Job:

Blessed is the man whom God chasteneth. In famine He shall ransom thee from death; and in war from the hands of the sword. At devastation and famine thou shalt laugh, and thou shalt not fear the wild beast of the land (Job 5:17, 20, 22).

This treats of temptations; "Blessed is the man whom God chasteneth" signifies one who is tempted; "In famine he shall ransom thee from death" signifies deliverance from evil when tempted through the lack and non-perception of good; "in war from the hands of the sword" signifies deliverance from falsities when tempted through the lack and non-understanding of truth; "war" meaning temptation; "at devastation and famine thou shalt laugh" signifies that to him there shall be no lack of good; and "thou shalt not fear the wild beast of the earth" signifies that no falsity shall be in him.

(Odkazy: Acts of the Apostles 5:17, 5:20, 5:22)


[19] In Ezekiel:

Thus shalt thou say unto them, Those who are in the desolate places shall fall by the sword, and him that is upon the faces of the field I will give to the wild beast to be devoured, and they that be in the fortresses and in the caves shall die of the pestilence. For I will make the land a desolation and wasteness (Ezekiel 33:27-28).

This treats of the desolation of all the truth and the vastation of all the good in the church, as is also said, "I will make the land a desolation and wasteness," "land" signifying the church. "Those who are in the desolate places shall fall by the sword" signifies that those who are in knowledges [scientifica] shall perish by falsities, for the knowledges [scientifica] of the natural man without light from the spiritual are here meant by desolate places; "him who is upon the faces of the field I will give to the wild beast to be devoured" signifies that those who are in knowledges from the Word shall perish by the evils of falsity, "the faces of the field" meaning the things of the church, here knowledges from the Word, and the "wild beast" the evil of falsity; "they that are in the fortresses and in the caves shall die of the pestilence" signifies those who by the Word and those who by knowledges [scientifica] have confirmed themselves in falsities and evils, that such shall utterly perish by evils and falsities," "fortresses" meaning confirmations from the Word, and "caves" confirmation from knowledges. That such is the signification of these words, can be seen only from the series in the internal sense, for that sense treats, as has been said, of the total vastation of the church.

[20] In the same:

I will send upon you famine and the evil wild beast, and I 1 will make thee bereaved; and pestilence and blood shall pass through thee: especially will I bring the sword upon thee (Ezekiel 5:17).

In the same:

When I shall send famine upon the land, and cut off from it man and beast; when I shall cause the evil wild beast to pass through the land and bereave it, that it may become a waste, so that none pass through because of the wild beast, and when I shall bring the sword, and send the pestilence; thus when I shall send my four evil judgments upon Jerusalem, the sword, the famine, the evil wild beast, and the pestilence, to cut off from it man and beast (Ezekiel 14:13, 15, 17, 19, 21).

In the internal sense "to cut off man and beast" signifies to deprive of every affection of good and truth, both internal or spiritual and external or natural. (That this is signified by "man and beast" in the Word, see Arcana Coelestia 7424, 7523, 7872. "Famine" signifies the deprivation of the good of love; "sword" the deprivation of the truth of faith, both through falsity; "the evil wild beast" the deprivation of both by the evils of the love of self and of the world; and "pestilence" the consequent loss of spiritual life. These are called here "the four judgments," because man is judged by them.

[21] From the explanation of these and the preceding passages the meaning of each particular here in the series can be seen. "The evil wild beast" means all ravenous beasts, such as lions, bears, tigers, panthers, wild boars, wolves, dragons, serpents, and many others, which seize and rend asunder good animals, such as lambs, sheep, bullocks, oxen, and the like. That such wild beasts, and in general, "the evil wild beast," signify lusts springing from the love of self and the world, from which are all the evils of life and the falsities of doctrine, is from correspondence, as can be seen from the appearances in the spiritual world. There all lusts of evil and of falsity appear as wild beasts of various kinds; moreover, those from whom such appearances spring are like wild beasts, for their highest delight is to attack and destroy the good. This delight is an infernal delight, and is inherent in the loves of self and of the world, in which the hells are. From this it can be seen why it is that "the evil wild beast" in general signifies the evils of life, or lusts and the falsities therefrom springing from the loves of self and of the world, which lay waste all things of the church with man.

[22] Hitherto it has been shown from the Word that "wild beasts" signify evil lusts and falsities, in particular, the lusts of ravaging and destroying goods and truths, thus the spiritual life of man, by means of falsities. It shall now be shown that "wild beasts" in the Word also signify the affections of truth and good, which are contrary to the affections of falsity from evil, which are called lusts. "Wild beasts" signify also in the Word the affections of truth and good, because the word in the original by which they are designated and called signifies life, for in that language a "wild beast" is called chayah, and chayah means life, and the life itself of the spiritual man is in the affection of truth and good; so when "wild beast" is mentioned in the Word in this good sense, it ought rather to be rendered and called animal, which means a living soul. But when "wild beast" is spoken of in this sense, the idea that adheres to the word fera in the Latin must be entirely laid aside, for in that language an idea of what is fierce and ferocious adheres to the word fera, thus an idea of something bad or evil. It is otherwise in the Hebrew tongue, in which fera means life, and in general, a living soul or animal; in this sense chayah or fera cannot be called "beast" [bestia], since frequently in the Word fera and bestia are mentioned together, when fera signifies the affection of truth, and bestia the affection of good. Because fera or chayah in this contrary sense signifies the affection of truth and good, Eve, the wife of Adam, is called Chavah, from that word, as is evident in Moses:

And the Man called his wife's name Eve [chavah], because she was to be the mother of all chay [that is, living] (Genesis 3:20).

Also "the four animals" that were cherubim, are called from the same word, chayah, in the plural; and because, as was said, the idea of fierce and ferocious adheres to the word fera in the Latin, therefore the translators have used "living creatures" [animalia] for the cherubim which appeared as animals (see Ezekiel 1:5, 13-15, 22; 10:15 elsewhere).

[23] Likewise animals that may be eaten, as lambs, sheep, she-goats; rams, kids, he-goats, heifers, oxen, cows, as also animals that are not to be eaten, are called by the common word wild beasts [ferae], and yet they are mild and useful, consequently not wild or ferocious. Thus in Moses:

This is the wild beast that ye shall eat of all the beasts, among all the wild beasts that go on all four, to distinguish between the wild beast that is eaten and the wild beast that is not eaten (Leviticus 11:2, 27, 47).

And elsewhere:

He that hunteth a hunting of the wild beast or 2 of the fowl that is eaten (Leviticus 17:13).

Also the animals that were sacrificed, and that have been named above, were termed wild beasts. Thus in Isaiah:

And Lebanon is not sufficient to burn, and the wild beast thereof is not sufficient for a burnt-offering (Isaiah 40:16).

And in David:

I will take no bullock out of thy house, nor he-goats out of thy folds for sacrifice; for every wild beast of the forest is Mine, and the beasts upon the mountains of thousands. I know every fowl of the mountains and the wild beast of My fields is with Me. If I were hungry I would not tell thee, for the world is Mine and the fullness thereof. Sacrifice unto God confession (Psalms 50:9-12, 14).

(Odkazy: Psalms 50:9-14)


[24] That "wild beast" signifies the affection of truth and good can be seen further from the following passages. In Moses:

In the seventh year, which is the sabbatical year, thou shalt let the land rest and shalt abandon it; that the needy of thy people may eat it, and what they leave the wild beast of the field may eat (Exodus 23:11).

And in another place:

In the year of the Sabbath, all the produce that is in thy land shall be for food for thy beast and for the wild beast (Leviticus 25:7).

Here "beast and wild beast" mean lambs, sheep, she-goats, kids, rams, he-goats, bullocks, oxen, cows, horses, and asses, but not lions, bears, boars, wolves, and the like rapacious wild beasts; so here "wild beasts" mean domestic wild beasts which are useful, which signify the affections of truth and good.

(Odkazy: Leviticus 25:6-7)


[25] In David:

Praise Jehovah from the earth, ye whales and deeps, the wild beast and every beast, the creeping thing and the bird of wing, kings of the earth and all peoples (Psalms 148:7, 10-11).

These signify goods and truths of every kind with man, from which man worships God; and as man worships God from these, and these are not of man but of the Lord with him, it is meant that these worship God, for no one can worship God rightly from himself, but from God, that is, from the goods and truths that are of God with him. That no one of himself but only from the Lord, is able to name Jesus, is known to some in the church, and is fully known in heaven. "To praise Jehovah" signifies to worship Him; "whales and deeps" signify knowledges and cognitions in general or in the whole complex; "wild beast and every beast" signify the affections of truth and good; "creeping thing and bird of every wing" signify the delight of good and truth of the natural and of the spiritual man; consequently it is also said, "Praise Jehovah, ye kings of the earth and all peoples," these signifying truths of good of every kind. That such things are signified by these words is evident from their signification in the internal sense, and from the Word in heaven, where the Word is spiritual, because it is for the angels who are spiritual. (That the Word is also in the heavens, and there it is in its internal sense, see Heaven and Hell 259-261.)

[26] In the same:

O God, Thou makest the rain of good will to drop down; Thou shalt confirm Thine inheritance when it is weary; Thy wild beasts shall dwell therein (Psalms 68:9-10).

Here too, "wild beast," or "animal," stands for those who are in the affections of truth and good, or in an abstract sense, those affections themselves; for "the rain of good will which God makes to drop down," signifies Divine truth from Divine good; "the inheritance when it is weary which God shall confirm," signifies the church that is in Divine truth in respect to doctrine and life, "inheritance" meaning the church where these are, which is said "to be weary" from the earnest endeavor to do good; "the wild beasts that shall dwell therein," that is, in the inheritance or church, signify the affections of truth and good. That nothing else is here meant by "wild beast," is evident, for no rapacious wild beast, that is, no lust of falsity and evil, can dwell in the inheritance upon which God causes the rain of good will to drop down.

[27] In Hosea:

In that day will I make a covenant for them with the wild beast of the field, and with the fowl of the heavens, and with the creeping thing of the earth; and I will break the bow and the sword and war from the earth; and I will make them to lie down securely. And I will betroth Me to thee 3 forever (Hosea 2:18-19).

These things are said of a new church from the Lord; and "the wild beast of the field, the fowl of the heavens, and the creeping thing of the earth," have the same signification as above in David (Psalms 148:7, 10, 11), where they have been explained. "Covenant" signifies conjunction; so "to make a covenant" signifies to be conjoined (see Arcana Coelestia 665, 666, 1023, 1038, 1864, 1996, 2003, 2021, 6804, 8767, 8778, 9396, 10632). For Jehovah cannot "make a covenant" or be conjoined with the affections of evil and falsity, or with the lusts that are signified by "wild beasts" in the sense first given, nor can He make a covenant with the wild beast, the fowl, and the creeping thing generally, but only with such things as are signified by these. But these things may be seen more fully explained above n. 357.

(Odkazy: Arcana Coelestia 665-666; The Apocalypse Explained 357)


[28] In Ezekiel:

Speak unto Pharaoh king of Egypt, Behold Asshur, a cedar in Lebanon, beautiful in branch, and with shady foliage, and high in stature. The waters made him to grow great, whence his stature became higher than all the trees of the field; in his branches did all the birds of the heavens build their nests, and under his boughs every wild beast of the field brought forth; and in his shade have dwelt all the great nations; no tree in the garden of God was equal to him in beauty (Ezekiel 31:2-9).

"Pharaoh and Egypt" here signify the knowing faculty, [scientificum] that belongs to the natural man; and "Asshur" the rational which the knowing faculty serves; the growth of this through knowledges and cognitions is described by "cedar in Lebanon," this also signifying the rational; "the waters that made him to grow great" signify truths, and "branches" signify extension, such as pertains to the thought of the rational man. From this it can be seen what is signified by "in his branches did all the birds of the heavens build their nests; under his boughs every wild beast of the field brought forth, and in his shade have dwelt all the great nations," namely, rational and spiritual truths of every kind, the affections of truth and goods; "the birds of the heavens" signifying the rational and spiritual truths of every kind, "the wild beast" the affections of truth, "to bring forth" signifies to multiply, since every spiritual birth or multiplication is effected by the affections of truth, and "the great nations" signify goods. (That "birds" signify thoughts, and things rational, intellectual, and spiritual, and thus truths, since all things of thought are either truths or falsities, see Arcana Coelestia 745, 776, 866, 988, 991, 3219, 5149, 7441; that "to bring forth" signifies to multiply truths and goods, and that this is spiritual birth, n. 3860, 3868, 9325; that "nations" signify those who are in goods, and thence in an abstract sense, goods, n. 1059, 1159, 1258, 1260, 1416, 1849, 6005; and above, n. 175, 331; that "Pharaoh" and "Egypt" signify the knowing faculty [scientificum] in both senses, good and evil, see n. 1164, 1165, 1186, 1462, 5700, 5702, 6015, 6651, 6679, 6683, 6692, 7296, 9340, 9391; and that "Asshur" signifies the rational in both senses, n. 119, 1186)

(Odkazy: Arcana Coelestia 1164-1165; The Apocalypse Explained 175, The Apocalypse Explained 331)


[29] That "Egypt" signifies the true knowing faculty [verum scientificum] and "Assyria" the rational, and that the whole of man's rational has its birth by means of knowledges [scientifica], or that these serve it, as was said above, can be seen from these words in Isaiah:

In that day shall there be a highway out of Egypt into Assyria, that Assyria may come into Egypt, and Egypt into Assyria, and they shall serve [Jehovah], the Egyptians with Assyria. In that day shall Israel be a third to Egypt and to Assyria, a blessing in the midst of the land, whom Jehovah of Hosts shall bless, saying, Blessed be Egypt My people, Assyria the work of My hands, and Israel Mine inheritance (Isaiah 19:23-25).

Here "Egypt" signifies the knowing faculty [scientificum], "Assyria" the rational, and "Israel" the spiritual.

[30] From the passages already cited it can be seen what "bird" and "wild beast of the field" signify in Ezekiel:

Thus said the Lord Jehovih, Say to the bird of every wing, and to every wild beast of the field, Assemble yourselves and come; gather yourselves from the circuit to My sacrifice that I do sacrifice for you, a great sacrifice upon the mountains of Israel, that ye may eat flesh and drink blood. Ye shall eat the flesh of the mighty and drink the blood of the princes of the earth. And ye shall eat fat to satiety, and drink blood, even to drunkenness, of My sacrifice which I will sacrifice for you. And ye shall be satiated at My table with horse and chariot, with mighty man and with every man of war. So will I give My glory among the nations (Ezekiel 39:17-21).

From the particulars here it is evident that this is said of the church to be established by the Lord among the nations; therefore "the bird of every wing, and every wild beast of the field, that are to be assembled and invited to the sacrifice," signify all who are in the affection of truth and good, for "the flesh that they will eat" signifies the good of love, and "the blood that they will drink," the truth from that good, and "sacrifice" the worship itself from these. But these things may be seen more fully explained above n. 329.

(Odkazy: Ezekiel 39:17-22; The Apocalypse Explained 329)


[31] Sometimes in the Word, "wild beast" and "beast" are mentioned together, sometimes "wild beast" alone, and "beast" alone; and sometimes "wild beast of the earth" or "wild beast of the field;" and when "wild beast" and "beast" are mentioned together, then the affection or love of falsity and evil is signified, "the wild beast" signifying the affection or love of falsity, and "beast" the affection or love of evil; or in a contrary sense "the wild beast" the affection or love of truth, and "beast" the affection or love of good. But when "wild beast" alone, or "beast" alone is mentioned, then "a wild beast" means the affection of both falsity and evil, and in a contrary sense the affection both of truth and good; while "beast" means the affection of evil and of the falsity therefrom, and in a contrary sense, the affection of good and of the truth therefrom. But what "beast" signifies will be seen below where it is explained. When, however, "the wild beast of the earth" is mentioned, it means a wild beast that devours animals and men; but when "the wild beast of the field" is mentioned, it means a wild beast that eats up the crops; therefore "the wild beast of the earth" signifies such things as destroy the goods of the church, and "the wild beast of the field" such things as destroy the truths of the church; for both "earth" and "field" signify the church, "earth" signifying the church from the nation and people there, and "field" the church from what is sown, or from the reception of seeds.

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Footnotes:

1.  Photolithograph has "I will make bereaved" as also AE 816;AC 5536, 7102; but the Hebrew has "they shall make bereaved." Which we also find in AC 1460, 9335.

2.  Photolithograph has "and," Hebrew "or."

3.  Photolithograph has "Me to thee," which is also found in SS 85; LW n. 38; AR 688; TCR 51; Coronis 3; but the Hebrew has "thee to Me," which is also found in AC 329, 650, 701, 946; AC 2235, 9182, 9857; HH 216; AR 567; Dicta. Pr. p. 56).

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(Odkazy: Exodus 23:28-29; Ezekiel 31:1-10, Ezekiel 39:17-22; Hosea 2:2; Jeremiah 12:9-11; Leviticus 25:6-7; Psalms 50:9-14; Revelation 6:8)

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References from Swedenborg's unpublished works:

Apocalypse Explained 377, 619, 625, 657, 734

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