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Lamentations 1

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1 กรุงที่คับคั่งด้วยพลเมืองมาอ้างว้างอยู่ได้หนอ กรุงที่รุ่งเรืองอยู่ท่ามกลางประชาชาติมากลายเป็นดั่งหญิงม่ายหนอ กรุงที่เป็นดั่งเจ้าหญิงท่ามกลางเมืองทั้งหลายก็กลับเป็นเมืองขึ้นเขาไป

2 กรุงนั้นร่ำไห้สะอื้นในราตรีกาล และน้ำตาของเธอก็อาบแก้ม เธอจะหาใครท่ามกลางคนที่รักเธอให้มาปลอบเธอก็หาไม่พบ บรรดาพวกเพื่อนของเธอสิ้นทุกคนได้ทรยศต่อเธอ เขาทั้งปวงกลับเป็นศัตรูของเธอ

3 ยูดาห์ได้ถูกกวาดไปเป็นเชลย ได้รับความทุกข์ใจ ต้องทำงานอย่างทาส เธอต้องพำนักอยู่ท่ามกลางประชาชาติทั้งหลาย เธอไม่พบที่หยุดพักสงบเลย บรรดาผู้ข่มเหงได้ไล่ทันเธอเมื่อเวลาเธอทุกข์ใจ

4 ถนนหนทางที่เข้าเมืองศิโยนก็คร่ำครวญอยู่ เพราะไม่มีผู้ใดเดินไปในงานเทศกาลที่เคร่งครัดทั้งหลายนั้น บรรดาประตูเมืองของเธอก็รกร้างเสียแล้ว พวกปุโรหิตของเธอได้พากันถอนใจ สาวพรหมจารีทั้งหลายของเธอก็ต้องทนทุกข์ และตัวเธอเองก็ได้รับความขมขื่นยิ่งนัก

5 พวกคู่อริของเธอกลายเป็นหัวหน้า พวกศัตรูของเธอได้จำเริญขึ้น ด้วยว่าพระเยโฮวาห์ได้ทรงกระทำให้เธอทนทุกข์ เพราะความทรยศอันมหันต์ของเธอ ลูกเต้าทั้งหลายของเธอตกไปเป็นเชลยต่อหน้าคู่อริ

6 และความโอ่อ่าตระการได้พรากไปจากธิดาแห่งศิโยนเสียแล้ว พวกเจ้านายของเธอก็กลับเป็นดุจฝูงกวางที่หาทุ่งหญ้าเลี้ยงชีวิตไม่ได้ และได้วิ่งป้อแป้หนีไปข้างหน้าผู้ไล่ติดตาม

7 เยรูซาเล็มเมื่อตกอยู่ในยามทุกข์ใจและยามลำเค็ญก็ได้หวนระลึกถึงสิ่งประเสริฐที่ตนเคยมีในครั้งกระโน้น เมื่อพลเมืองของเธอตกอยู่ในมือของคู่อริ และหามีผู้ใดจะสงเคราะห์เธอไม่ พวกคู่อริเห็นเธอแล้วก็เยาะเย้ยวันสะบาโตทั้งหลายของเธอ

8 เยรูซาเล็มได้ทำบาปอย่างใหญ่หลวง เหตุฉะนี้เธอจึงถูกไล่ออก บรรดาคนที่เคยให้เกียรติเธอก็ลบหลู่เธอ เพราะเหตุเขาทั้งหลายเห็นความเปลือยเปล่าของเธอ เออ เธอเองได้ถอนใจยิ่งและหันหน้าของเธอไปเสีย

9 มลทินของเธอก็กรังอยู่ในกระโปรงของเธอ และเธอหาได้คำนึงถึงอนาคตของเธอไม่ ดังนั้นเธอจึงได้เสื่อมทรามลงเร็วอย่างน่าใจหาย เธอก็ไม่มีผู้ใดจะเล้าโลม "ข้าแต่พระเยโฮวาห์ ขอทอดพระเนตรความทุกข์ใจของข้าพระองค์ เพราะพวกศัตรูได้พองตัวขึ้นแล้ว"

10 พวกศัตรูได้ยื่นมือของเขายึดเอาบรรดาของประเสริฐของเธอ ด้วยเธอได้เห็นบรรดาประชาชาติบุกรุกเข้ามาในสถานบริสุทธิ์ของเธอ คือคนที่พระองค์ได้ทรงห้ามไม่ให้เข้ามาในชุมนุมชนของพระองค์

11 บรรดาพลเมืองของเธอได้ถอนใจใหญ่ เขาทั้งหลายเสาะหาอาหาร และพวกเขาได้เอาของประเสริฐของตัวออกแลกอาหารกิน เพื่อจะได้ประทังชีวิต "ข้าแต่พระเยโฮวาห์ ขอทรงทอดพระเนตรและพิจารณา เพราะข้าพระองค์เป็นที่เหยียดหยามเสียแล้ว"

12 "ดูก่อน ท่านทั้งหลายที่เดินผ่านไป ท่านไม่เกิดความรู้สึกอะไรบ้างหรือ ดูเถิด จงดูซิว่ามีความทุกข์อันใดบ้างไหมที่เหมือนความทุกข์ที่มาสู่ข้าพเจ้า เป็นความทุกข์ซึ่งพระเยโฮวาห์ได้ทรงกระทำแก่ข้าพเจ้าในวันที่พระองค์ทรงกริ้วข้าพเจ้าอย่างเกรี้ยวกราดนั้น

13 พระองค์ได้ทรงส่งเพลิงลงมาจากเบื้องบนให้เข้าไปเหนือกระดูกทั้งหลายของข้าพเจ้า และเพลิงนั้นก็มีชัยชนะต่อกระดูกเหล่านั้น พระองค์ได้ทรงกางตาข่ายไว้ดักเท้าของข้าพเจ้า พระองค์ได้ทรงกระทำให้ข้าพเจ้าต้องหันกลับ พระองค์ได้ทรงกระทำให้ข้าพเจ้าโดดเดี่ยวอ้างว้าง และอ่อนระอาตลอดทั้งวัน

14 แอกแห่งการละเมิดทั้งมวลของข้าพเจ้าก็ถูกรวบเข้าโดยพระหัตถ์ของพระองค์ทรงรวบมัดไว้ แอกนั้นรัดรึงรอบคอข้าพเจ้า พระองค์ได้ทรงกระทำให้กำลังข้าพเจ้าถอยไป องค์พระผู้เป็นเจ้าได้ทรงมอบข้าพเจ้าไว้ในมือของเขาทั้งหลาย ซึ่งข้าพเจ้าไม่สามารถต่อต้านได้

15 องค์พระผู้เป็นเจ้าได้ทรงเหยียบบรรดาผู้มีกำลังแข็งแกร่งของข้าพเจ้าไว้ใต้พระบาทท่ามกลางข้าพเจ้า พระองค์ได้ทรงเกณฑ์ชุมนุมชนเข้ามาต่อสู้ข้าพเจ้า เพื่อจะขยี้ชายฉกรรจ์ของข้าพเจ้าให้แหลกไป องค์พระผู้เป็นเจ้าได้ทรงย่ำบุตรสาวพรหมจารีแห่งยูดาห์ ดั่งเหยียบผลองุ่นลงในบ่อย่ำองุ่น

16 เพราะเรื่องเหล่านี้ข้าพเจ้าจึงร้องไห้ นัยน์ตาของข้าพเจ้า เออ นัยน์ตาของข้าพเจ้ามีน้ำตาไหลลงมา เพราะผู้ปลอบโยนที่ควรจะปลอบประโลมใจข้าพเจ้าก็อยู่ไกลจากข้าพเจ้า ลูกๆของข้าพเจ้าก็โดดเดี่ยวอ้างว้าง เพราะพวกศัตรูได้ชัยชนะ"

17 มืองศิโยนได้เหยียดมือทั้งสองออก แต่ก็ไม่มีใครที่เล้าโลมเธอได้ พระเยโฮวาห์ทรงมีพระบัญชาเรื่องยาโคบว่า ให้พวกคู่อริล้อมยาโคบไว้ เยรูซาเล็มเป็นดั่งผู้หญิงเมื่อมีประจำเดือนท่ามกลางเขาทั้งหลาย

18 "พระเยโฮวาห์ทรงชอบธรรมแล้ว เพราะข้าพเจ้าได้กบฏต่อพระบัญญัติของพระองค์ ดูก่อนบรรดาชนชาติทั้งหลาย ข้าพเจ้าขอท่านได้ฟังและขอมามองดูความทนทุกข์ของข้าพเจ้า สาวพรหมจารีของข้าพเจ้า และหนุ่มๆของข้าพเจ้าตกไปเป็นเชลยแล้ว

19 ข้าพเจ้าได้ร้องเรียกบรรดาคนรักของข้าพเจ้า แต่เขาทั้งหลายได้หลอกลวงข้าพเจ้า พวกปุโรหิตและพวกผู้ใหญ่ของข้าพเจ้าก็ตายที่กลางเมือง ขณะเมื่อเขาออกหาอาหารเพื่อประทังชีวิตของตน

20 ข้าแต่พระเยโฮวาห์ โปรดทอดพระเนตร เพราะข้าพระองค์มีความทุกข์ จิตใจของข้าพระองค์มีความทุรนทุราย จิตใจของข้าพระองค์ยุ่งเหยิงเพราะข้าพระองค์มักกบฏอย่างร้ายกาจ นอกบ้านมีคนต้องคมดาบตาย ในบ้านก็เหมือนมฤตยู

21 เขาทั้งหลายได้ยินว่า ข้าพระองค์ถอนใจอย่างไร หามีผู้ใดปลอบโยนข้าพระองค์ไม่ บรรดาศัตรูของข้าพระองค์ได้ยินถึงเหตุร้ายที่ตกแก่ข้าพระองค์ เขาทั้งหลายก็พากันดีใจที่พระองค์ได้ทรงกระทำอย่างนี้ พระองค์จะทรงนำวารที่พระองค์ทรงประกาศไว้นั้นให้มาถึง และเขาทั้งหลายจะเป็นอย่างที่ข้าพระองค์เป็นอยู่นี้

22 ขอให้บรรดาการชั่วของเขาทั้งหลายมาปรากฏต่อพระพักตร์พระองค์ และขอทรงกระทำแก่เขาทั้งหลาย เหมือนที่พระองค์ได้ทรงกระทำแก่ข้าพระองค์ เพราะการละเมิดทั้งสิ้นของข้าพระองค์เถิด ด้วยความสะท้อนถอนใจของข้าพระองค์นั้นมากมายหลายครั้ง และจิตใจของข้าพระองค์ก็อ่อนเพลียเต็มทีแล้ว"

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Swedenborg

Hlavní výklad ze Swedenborgových prací:

The Inner Meaning of the Prophets and Psalms 119


Další odkazy Swedenborga k této kapitole:

Arcana Coelestia 248, 680, 2362, 2606, 2851, 2930, 3081, ...

Apocalypse Revealed 213, 350, 543, 591, 612, 620, 652, ...

A Brief Exposition of New Church Doctrine 100

Doctrine of the Lord 64

True Christian Religion 782


References from Swedenborg's unpublished works:

Apocalypse Explained 240, 270, 357, 484, 622, 724, 750, ...

Coronis (An Appendix to True Christian Religion) 58

Scriptural Confirmations 4, 9, 59, 78

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Apocalypse Explained # 622

Apocalypse Explained (Whitehead translation)      

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622. And when I had eaten it my belly was made bitter, signifies that it was perceived and ascertained that the Word was inwardly undelightful because of the adulterated truth of the sense of its letter. This is evident from the explanations above (n. 617, 618), where there are like words. The "belly" here signifies the interiors of the Word, which are called spiritual, because exploration was represented by "devouring or eating up the little book," which means the Word, and by its taste, which means perception; therefore the first perception is signified by the taste in the mouth, where the little book was "sweet as honey." The first perception of the Word is such as is the perception of the sense of its letter, that is, as the Word is outwardly. The other perception however is signified by its taste when it has come into the belly, which is said to be made bitter by it. This other perception of the Word is such as the perception of its spiritual sense is, that is, as the Word is inwardly. Consequently, as the "mouth" signifies what is exterior, so here the "belly" signifies what is interior, because inwardly received and ascertained. The "belly" signifies interior things because the belly stores up the food inwardly, and "food" signifies everything that nourishes the soul; also because the belly, like the bowels, is within or in the midst of the body; for this reason the "belly," and also the "bowels," signify in the Word interior things.

(Odkazy: Revelation 10:10, Revelation 14:20; The Apocalypse Explained 617-618)


[2] That the "belly," and the "bowels" signify interior things can be seen from the following passages. In Ezekiel:

Son of man, feed thy belly and fill thy bowels with this roll (Ezekiel 3:1, 3).

This has a similar signification as what is now being explained in Revelation, that "he took and ate up the little book," for the "roll" has a similar signification as "the little book," namely, the Word, and "to feed the belly and fill the bowels with the roll" signifies to explore how the Word is understood in the church, which is done by the reading and perception of it.

[3] In David:

Fill their belly with Thy treasure; the sons are fed to the full, and what remains to them they leave to their babes (Psalms 17:14).

"Treasure" signifies the truth of the Word, "belly" the interior understanding, so "to fill their belly with treasure" signifies to instruct their interior understanding in the truths of the Word; that thence those who are affected by truths are fully instructed is signified by "the sons are fed to the full," "sons" signifying those who are in the affection of truth; and the sons' "babes," truths in their birth; of such it is said that "what remains to them they leave to their babes." It is here said the interior understanding, for man has an exterior understanding and an interior understanding; the exterior understanding is of the natural mind, and the interior understanding is of the spiritual mind; the interior understanding is signified by the "belly."

[4] In John:

Jesus said, If anyone thirst let him come unto Me and drink. He that believeth on Me, as the Scripture saith, out of his belly shall flow rivers of living water. This He said of the Spirit which they that believe on Him were to receive (John 7:37-39).

Thus the Lord describes Divine truth inwardly perceived by those who are in the spiritual affection of truth; such are meant by "those who thirst and come to the Lord and drink;" that such shall have an understanding of Divine truth is signified by "out of his belly shall flow rivers of living water," "rivers out of the belly" meaning interior understanding or intelligence, and "living water," Divine truth from the Lord; and as "the Holy Spirit" means Divine truth proceeding from the Lord, it is added "this He said of the Spirit which they that believe on Him were to receive."

[5] In Mark:

Whatsoever from without goeth into the man cannot render him unclean, because it goeth not into his heart but into the belly; and is cast out into the draught purging all foods. But that which goeth forth out of the man, that rendereth the man unclean; for from within out of the heart of men it goeth forth (Mark 7:18-21; Matthew 15:17-20).

These words must be thus understood, that all things, whether falsities or evils, that from things seen or things heard flow into the thought of the understanding and not into the affection of its will, do not affect or infect the man, since the thought of a man's understanding, so far as it does not proceed from the affection of his will, is not in the man but outside of him, therefore it is not appropriated to him; it is similar with truth and good. This the Lord teaches by correspondences when He says that "that which enters through the mouth into the belly does not render a man unclean, because it does not enter into the heart, for that which enters into the belly is cast out into the draught;" which means that whatever enters into the thought of man's understanding from without or from the outside, whether from objects of sight or from objects of speech or from objects of the memory, does not render him unclean, but so far as it is not of his affection or will it is separated and cast out, as what is taken into the belly is cast out into the draught. These spiritual things the Lord explained by natural things, since the foods that are taken into the mouth and thus pass into the belly signify such things as man takes in spiritually and with which he nourishes his soul; this is why the "belly" corresponds to the thought of the understanding and signifies it. That the "heart" signifies the affection of man's will has been shown above; also that only that which is made a part of a man's affection or will is appropriated to him. Evidently spiritual, not natural, things are here meant, for the Lord says that "out of the heart proceed evil thoughts, murders, adulteries, whoredoms, thefts, false testimonies, blasphemies." Since the falsities and evils that enter from without into the thoughts enter from the hells, and if not received by man with the will's affection are cast back into the hells, it is said that "they are cast out into the draught," for the "draught" signifies hell; and for the reason that in the hells all things are unclean, and those who are there have been cast out of heaven, which is like a man in form, and is therefore called the Greatest Man and also corresponds to all things of man, while the hells correspond to what is cast out of the belly of the Greatest Man or heaven; this is why hell is meant in the spiritual sense by the "draught." The "belly" is said "to purge all foods," because the "belly" signifies the thought of the understanding, as has been said above, and "foods" signify all spiritual nourishments, and the thought of the understanding is what separates unclean things from what are clean, and thus purges.

[6] In Jeremiah:

Jehovah God hath said, Nebuchadnezzar the king of Babylon hath confounded Me, he hath placed Me as an empty vessel, he hath swallowed Me up as a whale, he hath filled his belly with My delicacies, he hath thrust Me out (Jeremiah 51:34).

"Nebuchadnezzar the king of Babylon" signifies the profanation of Divine truth; and as those who profane it drink it in more than others and apply it to filthy loves, especially to the love of rule, even to the transference to themselves of all Divine power, this is signified by "he hath swallowed me up as a whale, he hath filled his belly with my delicacies," "whale" signifying the lowest natural, in which those are who are in the love of self, and "delicacies" meaning the knowledges of truth and good from the Word, so "to fill the belly with them" signifies to drink in and to profane them.

[7] In David:

Be gracious unto me, O Jehovah, for I am in distress; mine eye wasteth away with vexation, my soul and my belly (Psalms 31:9).

"Eye, soul, and belly," here signify the understanding and exterior and interior thought of truth therefrom; thus the "belly" signifies the interiors of the understanding, which are said "to waste away with vexation" when they are destroyed by falsities.

[8] In the same:

Our soul is bowed down to the dust, our belly cleaveth unto the earth (Psalms 44:25).

Here, too, "soul" and "belly" signify in the spiritual sense the thought of the understanding; and "bowed down to the dust," and "cleaving to the earth," signify to be imbued with falsities, for "dust" and "earth" signify what is infernal and damned. What is infernal and damned is signified also by "going upon the belly" and "eating dust," as was said to the serpent:

Be thou cursed above all beasts, and above all the wild beasts of the field; upon thy belly shalt thou go, and dust shalt thou eat all the days of thy life (Genesis 3:14).

For this reason also:

It was strictly forbidden to eat anything that goeth upon the belly, for it was an abomination (Leviticus 11:42).

"Dust" and "the cleaving of the belly to the earth" signify falsity infernal and damned, because in the spiritual world the hells are under the lands, and through the lands there, falsities of evil are exhaled from the hells; also because the "belly" signifies from correspondence the interiors of the understanding and of thought, and these, if they cleave to the earths there, are infected and imbued with the falsities of evil. For this reason, in the spiritual world no one lies with the belly upon the ground; and indeed, to walk there with the feet upon the ground means to touch and drink in what is exhaled from the hells with the corporeal natural, which corresponds to the soles of the feet; and this natural has no communication with the thoughts of the understanding, except in those who are in evils in respect to life and in falsities in respect to doctrine.

[9] In Job:

The belly prepareth deceit (Job 15:35).

And again:

I am filled with words, the spirit of my belly causes anguish for me; and my belly, like wine, is not opened (Job 32:18, 19);

which means inability to open the thoughts of one's understanding. In Jeremiah:

O Jerusalem, wash thy heart from evil, that thou mayest be saved. How long shall thoughts of thy iniquity lodge in thy belly? (Jeremiah 4:14).

Here thoughts are plainly attributed to the belly, for it is said, "How long shall thoughts of iniquity lodge in thy belly?" and evil is attributed to the heart, because the heart corresponds to the will, in which evil has its seat. In David:

There is no certainty in the mouth of anyone; perditions are their belly; their throat is an open sepulcher; they flatter with their tongue (Psalms 5:9).

Here "perditions," that is, evil thoughts, are attributed to "the belly." In the same:

The belly of man and the heart are deep (Psalms 64:6).

Here "the belly of man" signifies the thoughts of falsity, and "the heart" the affections of evil; the latter belong to the will, the former to the understanding. In Habakkuk:

My belly trembled, my lips quivered at the voice (Habakkuk 3:16).

"My belly trembled" signifies grief of thought, therefore it is added, "my lips quivered at the voice," which signifies a consequent stammering of the speech:

The bowels of the whale in which Jonah was three days and three nights (Jonah 1:17);

signifies the hells where there are most direful falsities, with which he was encompassed, consequently grievous temptations, as can be seen from the prophecy of Jonah in the next chapter, where it is also said:

Out of the belly of hell have I cried, and Thou hast heard my voice (Jonah 2:2).

(Odkazy: Acts of the Apostles 15:35; Job 32:18-19)


[10] The "bowels" have a similar signification as the "belly," as can be seen from the following passages. In Isaiah:

My bowels are moved like a harp for Moab, and My inward part for Kir-heres (Isaiah 16:11).

In David:

Bless Jehovah, O my soul, and all my bowels the name of His holiness (Psalms 103:1).

In the same:

I have desired to do Thy will, O my God, and Thy law is in my bowels (Psalms 40:8).

In Ezekiel:

Their silver and their gold shall not be able to deliver them in the day of Jehovah's anger; they shall not satisfy their soul, neither fill their bowels (Ezekiel 7:19).

"Their silver and gold" signify falsities and evils of a religion that is from self-intelligence and self-will; that from these there is no spiritual nourishment, or intelligence and affection of good, is signified by "they shall not satisfy their soul, neither fill their bowels." Because the "bowels" signify the interiors of the thought, and these are what are affected by grief, such grief is described in the Word by "being moved in the bowels" (as Isaiah 63:15; Jeremiah 31:20; Lamentations 1:20; Matthew 9:36; Mark 6:34; 8:2; Luke 1:78; 7:12, 13; 10:33, 34; 15:20).

(Odkazy: Luke 7:12-13, 10:33-34)


[11] As the "belly" signifies the interiors of the thought or of the understanding, so "the fruit of the belly" signifies in the spiritual sense the goods of the understanding, and "sons" its truths. Thus in David:

Lo, sons are the heritage of Jehovah, and the fruit of the belly is His reward (Psalms 127:3).

In Isaiah:

They shall have no compassion on the fruit of the belly, their eye shall not spare the sons (Isaiah 13:18).

And in Job:

Pitying I mourn for the son of my belly (Acts of the Apostles 19:17).

In Moses:

He will bless the fruit of the belly and the fruit of the ground (Deuteronomy 7:13).

In Hosea:

Even when they have brought forth I will slay the desires of their belly (Hosea 9:11, 16).

"The fruit of the belly" and "the desires of the belly" signify in the sense of the letter, natural offspring, but in the spiritual sense spiritual offspring, which is knowledge [scientia], intelligence, and wisdom, for man is reborn into these when he is regenerated; this is why "births," "sons," "daughters," and other terms pertaining to nativity signify such things as pertain to spiritual nativity, that is, regeneration; for angels, who perceive the Word spiritually, know of no other births or "fruits of the belly."

(Odkazy: Job 19:17)


[12] For the same reason "womb" and "belly" have this signification in the following passages. In Isaiah:

O that thou hadst hearkened to My commandments! Thy seed would have been as the sand, and the issue of thy bowels like the grains thereof (Isaiah 48:18, 19).

In David:

I was cast upon Thee; from my mother's belly Thou art my God (Psalms 22:10).

In the same:

Thou dost possess my reins; Thou hast covered me in my mother's belly (Psalms 139:13).

In the same:

The wicked are estranged from the womb; they err from the belly, speaking falsehood (Psalms 58:3).

So elsewhere.

(Odkazy: Isaiah 48:18-19)


[13] The "belly" or "bowels" signify the interiors of the thought or of the understanding, because there are two lives with man, the life of the understanding and the life of the will; to these two fountains of life all things of the body correspond; consequently under their direction all things of the body are acted upon and act, even to the extent that any part of the body that does not suffer itself to be put in action by the understanding and the will has no life. For this reason the universal body is subject to the control of these two lives, for all things in the body that are moved, and so far as they are moved by the respiration of the lungs, are subject to the control of the life of the understanding; and all things in the body that are brought into action, and so far as they are brought into action by the pulsation of the heart, are subject to the control of the life of the will. This is why "soul" and "heart" are often mentioned in the Word, and why the "soul" signifies the life of the understanding, also the life of faith, for the soul is predicated of respiration; and why the "heart" signifies the life of the will, also the life of the love. For the same reason "the belly and bowels" are predicated of thought, which is of the understanding, and the "heart" is predicated of affection, which is of the will.

(Odkazy: Revelation 10:10, Revelation 14:20)

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References from Swedenborg's unpublished works:

Apocalypse Explained 613

Other New Christian Commentary

Thanks to the Swedenborg Foundation for their permission to use this translation.

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Leviticus 11:42

English: King James Version         

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42 Whatsoever goeth upon the belly, and whatsoever goeth upon all four, or whatsoever hath more feet among all creeping things that creep upon the earth, them ye shall not eat; for they are an abomination.

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References from Swedenborg's unpublished works:

Apocalypse Explained 617, 622

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