781. And his feet were as of a bear, signifies from natural things which are fallacies. This is evident from the signification of "feet," as being natural things (see above, n. 69, 600, 632, 666); also from the signification of a "bear," as being those who are in power from the natural sense of the Word, both the good and the evil (of which presently). The "feet" of the beast whose body was like a leopard's and whose feet were like a bear's signifies fallacies, because a "leopard" signifies reasonings which are discordant and yet appear to be coherent (see just above, n. 780, and so far as such reasonings are from the lowest natural, which is the sensual, they are fallacies, which are signified by "the feet of a bear."
Revelation 13:2; The Apocalypse Explained 69, 600, 632, 666, 780)
 Beasts, both clean and unclean, are mentioned in many passages in the Word, and they signify various things pertaining either to heaven or to hell; clean and useful beasts signify such things as pertain to heaven, unclean and useless beasts such things as pertain to hell. But what pertaining to heaven or to hell is signified can be best known from representatives in the spiritual world, where also beasts appear, all of which are appearances representing such things as angels or spirits are thinking from their affections, inclinations, appetites, pleasures, and desires. These things are presented before their eyes in various forms, as gardens, forests, fields, plains, and also fountains; likewise palaces and houses, and chambers therein, in which are decorative and useful things; also tables are seen upon which are various kinds of food. They are also exhibited in the forms of animals of the earth, the flying things of heaven, and creeping things, in an infinite variety; not only in the forms of such animals and flying things as are upon our earth, but in forms composite from several forms, which nowhere exist on earth, many of which it has been granted me to see. When these appear, their spiritual origin and thus what they signify is at once known. But as soon as the spirit or angel ceases from his thought and meditation these animals and birds instantly vanish.
 That such things are seen in the spiritual world is clearly evident from like things seen by the prophets as that the Lord appeared like a Lamb; cherubs were seen with faces like a lion, an ox, and an eagle (described in Ezekiel); horses were seen going forth out of the book of life when the Lamb opened its seals, also a white horse, and also many white horses upon which those in heaven rode (in John); also white, bay, red, black, and grisled horses (in Zechariah); there was also seen a red dragon having many heads and horns; and now here was seen a beast like a leopard, with the feet of a bear and the mouth of a lion; also another beast having two horns like a lamb, and afterwards a scarlet beast upon which sat a woman. Again, to Daniel four beasts coming up out of the sea appeared, the first of which appeared like a lion with wings of an eagle, the second like a bear, the third like a leopard which had four wings, and the fourth terrible. From this it is clear not only that such beasts appear in the spiritual world, but also that they are significative; and from this it can also be seen that all the beasts as well as all the birds mentioned in the Word are significative of such things as are represented by beasts in the spiritual world. But what is signified by "the bear" will be told in what follows.
 Before this is shown from the Word I will illustrate by some examples what is meant by the fallacies that are here signified by "the feet as of a bear." The many things that man reasons and forms conclusions about from the natural man without spiritual light, that is, without the light of the understanding enlightened by the Lord, are called fallacies, for the natural man takes the ideas of his thought from earthly, corporeal, and worldly things, which in themselves are material; and when a man's thought is not elevated above these he thinks materially about things spiritual; and material thought without spiritual light derives everything from the loves of the natural man and from their delights, which are contrary to heavenly loves and their delights. This is why conclusions and reasonings from the natural man alone and its delusive lumen are fallacies. But let this be illustrated by examples.
 It is a fallacy that cogitative faith saves, since man is such as his life is. It is a fallacy that cogitative faith is spiritual, since to love the Lord above all things and the neighbor as oneself is the spiritual itself, and to love is to will and do. It is a fallacy that faith can also be given in a moment, since man must be purified from evils and from falsities therefrom and be regenerated by the Lord, and this is a long-continued process, and only so far as man is purified and regenerated does he receive spiritual faith. It is a fallacy that man can receive faith and be saved at the hour of death whatever his life may have been, since a man's life remains and he is judged according to his deeds and works.
 It is a fallacy that little children also have faith through baptism, since faith must be acquired through the knowledges of truth and good, and by a life in accordance with them. It is a fallacy that through faith alone the church exists with man, since it is through the faith of charity that the church exists with him; and charity is of the life, and not of faith separated from the life. It is a fallacy that man is justified by faith alone, and that the merit of the Lord is thereby imputed to him when he is justified, and that afterwards nothing condemns him, since faith without the life of faith, which is charity, is like something that is said to be living but has no soul, which in itself is dead; for charity is the soul of faith, because it is its life; consequently man is not justified by a dead faith, much less is the merit of the Lord imputed and salvation effected by it; and where there is no salvation there is condemnation.
 It is a fallacy that in faith alone, there is love and charity, since love and charity are willing and doing, for what a man loves he not only thinks but also wills and does. It is a fallacy that where "doing" and "deeds" and "works" are mentioned in the Word to have faith is meant, because these are present in faith, since these are as distinct as thought and will are; for a man can think many things that he does not will, while what he wills he thinks when left alone to himself; and to will is to do. Moreover, the will and the thought therefrom are the man himself, and not the thought separate; and deeds and works are of the will and of the thought therefrom; while faith alone is of the thought separate from deeds and works, which are of the will.
 It is a fallacy that faith is to be separated from good works because man is unable to do good of himself, and if he does good he places merit in it, since man when he does good from the Word does not do it from himself but from the Lord, because the Lord is in the Word and is the Word; and man then does not do good of himself, when he does it as of himself and yet believes that he does it from the Lord, because from the Word; moreover, when a man believes that the good that he does is from the Lord he cannot place merit in the deeds. It is a fallacy that the understanding must be held bound under obedience to faith, and that faith seen by the understanding is not spiritual faith; when yet it is the understanding that is enlightened in the things of faith when the Word is read; and when enlightenment is excluded the understanding does not know whether a thing is true or false; and in that case faith does not become a man's own faith but the faith of another in him, and this is a historical faith, and when it is confirmed it becomes a persuasive faith, which can see falsities as truths and truths as falsities. This is the source of all heretical beliefs.
 It is a fallacy that the confidence that is called saving faith, accepted without understanding, is spiritual confidence, since confidence apart from understanding is a persuasion from another, or from confirmation by passages gathered up here and there from the Word, and applied by reasonings from the natural man to a false principle. Such confidence is a blind faith, which is merely natural because it does not see whether a thing is true or false. Moreover, all truth wishes to be seen because it belongs to the light of heaven; but truth that is not seen may be falsified in many ways; and falsified truth is falsity.
 Such are the fallacies that pertain merely to such faith as is separated from good works. There are yet many others that pertain not only to faith but also to good works, to charity, and to the neighbor, and especially to such conjunctions of these with faith as are skillfully adjusted by the learned. Such fallacies are signified by "the feet of a bear," because a "bear" signifies those, both the well-disposed and the evil, who have power from the natural sense of the Word. And as "feet" signify things natural, "the feet of the bear" signify the fallacies from which the sense of the letter of the Word is falsified by reasonings, and into which the appearances of truth of that sense are changed.
 That a "bear" signifies power from the natural sense of the Word, both with the well-disposed and with the evil, can be seen from the following passages. In the second book of Kings:
When Elisha went up to Bethel, as he was going up in the way there came forth boys out of the city and mocked him, and said unto him, Go up thou baldhead, go up thou baldhead. And he looked behind him and saw them, and cursed them in the name of Jehovah; and there came forth two she-bears out of the forest, and tare in pieces forty-two boys (2 :23, 24).
Why the boys were cursed by Elisha and in consequence were torn by two bears because they called him "baldhead," cannot be known except by knowing what "Elisha" represented, and what a "baldhead" signifies, and what "bears" signify. This evidently was not done by Elisha from unrestrained anger and without just cause, for he could not have been so cruel merely because the little boys said, "Go up thou baldhead." This was indeed, an insult to the prophet, but not a sufficient reason for their being therefore torn to pieces by bears. But this was done because Elisha represented the Lord in respect to the Word, thus the Word that is from the Lord. "Baldhead" signified the Word deprived of the natural sense, which is the sense of its letter; and "bears out of the forest" signified power from the natural sense or sense of the letter of the Word, as has been said above; and these "boys" signified such as blaspheme the Word because its natural sense is such as it is; and "forty-two" signifies blasphemy. From this it is clear that this represented and thence signified the punishment for blaspheming the Word. For all the power and sanctity of the Word are gathered up and have their seat in the sense of its letter; for without this sense the Word could not exist, since without it the Word would be like a house without a foundation, which would be shaken by the wind, and thus be overthrown and fall to pieces. The Word would also be like a man without a skin, which surrounds and holds the enclosed viscera in their position and order. And as this is the signification of "baldness," and "Elisha" represented the Word, the boys were torn in pieces by bears which signifies the power from the natural sense of the Word, which is the sense of the letter, both with the well-disposed and with the evil. From this it is clear that the historical things of the Word, as well as its prophecies, contain a spiritual sense.
2 Kings 2:23-24)
 The bear that David smote has a like signification; this is described in the first book of Samuel:
David said unto Saul, Thy servant was pasturing his father's flock, and there came a lion and a bear and took away a sheep from the flock; I went out after him and smote him; and when he arose against me I took hold of his beard and smote him and killed him. Thy servant smote both the lion and the bear. Therefore this uncircumcised Philistine shall be as one of them, because he hath reproached the ranks of the living God (1 Samuel 17:34-37).
Power was given to David to smite the lion and the bear that took away the sheep from the flock, because "David" represented the Lord in reference to Divine truth in which those who are of His church are instructed; and a "lion" signifies the power of spiritual Divine truth, and in the contrary sense, as here, the power of infernal falsity against Divine truth; while a "bear" signifies the power of natural Divine truth, and in the contrary sense the power of falsity against that truth. But "a sheep from the flock" signifies those who are of the Lord's church. And as this was represented, the power was given to David to smite the bear and the lion, to represent and signify the Lord's power to defend by His Divine truth His own in the church from the falsities of evil that are from hell. David's taking hold of the beard of the bear involves an arcanum that may be disclosed, indeed, but can scarcely be comprehended. The "beard" signifies the Divine truth in ultimates, in which its essential power rests. This truth also the evil who are in falsities carry indeed in the mouth but they misuse it to destroy; but when it is taken away they no longer have any power. This is why he killed the bear and smote the lion. But this will be further explained elsewhere. But "Goliath," who was a Philistine and was therefore called "uncircumcised," signifies such as are in truths without good; and truths without good are truths falsified, which in themselves are falsities. "The uncircumcised" signifies those who are in filthy corporeal loves; for the foreskin corresponds to those loves. From this it is clear what the victory of David over Goliath represented. From this it can be seen why:
David is compared by Hushai to a bear bereaved in the field (2 Samuel 17:8).
 In Daniel:
Another beast coming up out of the sea was like to a bear, and it raised itself upon its side, and three ribs were in its mouth between its teeth; and they said unto it, Arise, devour much flesh (Daniel 7:5).
The four beasts coming up out of the sea depict the successive states of the church, even to its devastation, which is its end. This second beast, which was "like to a bear," signifies the falsification of the truth of the Word, the power of which still remains in the sense of the letter. The eagerness to falsify its goods is signified by "raising itself upon one side." The "three ribs in the mouth between the teeth" signify the knowledges of truth from the Word in abundance, which are perverted by reasonings from fallacies; and "to devour much flesh" signifies the destruction of good by falsities, and the appropriation of evil.
 In Hosea:
I am become to them as a lion, as a leopard will I watch over the way; I will meet them as a bear that is bereaved; and there I will devour as a huge lion; the wild beast of the field shall rend them (1 Lamentations 3:7, 8).
The signification of the words, "I am become to them as a lion, as a leopard will I watch over the way," was explained in the preceding article. "To meet them as a bear that is bereaved" signifies the falsification of the sense of the letter of the Word; "to devour as a huge lion" signifies the destruction and devastation of every truth of the Word, and thence of the church; "the wild beast of the field shall rend them" signifies that they will be destroyed by the falsities from evil.
 In Lamentations:
Although I cry out and shout he shutteth out my prayers, he hath hedged about my ways with hewn stone, he hath overturned my footpaths; a bear lying in wait for me, a lion in secret places, he hath perverted my ways, he hath made me desolate (Lamentations 3:8-11).
This is a lamentation from God respecting the desolation of truth in the church; and that they cannot be heard by reason of falsities is signified by "Although I cry out and shout he shutteth out my prayers." That falsities from self-intelligence turn away and reject the influx of truth is signified by "he hath hedged about my ways with hewn stone, he hath overturned my footpaths;" God's "ways and footpaths" signifying truths leading to good, and "hewn stone" what belongs to self-intelligence. Because this was the signification of "hewn stone" it was forbidden to build an altar of hewn stones, and likewise the temple at Jerusalem. "A bear lying in wait for me" signifies the natural man perverting the sense of the letter of the Word; "a lion in secret places" signifies the interior natural man from the evils in him perverting every sense of the truth of the Word and thence of the church, which is the source of falsities; "he hath perverted my ways, he hath made me desolate," signifies the devastation of the truth of the church.
 In Amos:
Woe unto you that desire the day of Jehovah. What to you is the day of Jehovah? It is a day of darkness and not of light; as one who fleeth from a lion and meeteth a bear, or who cometh to a house and leaneth with his hand upon the wall and a serpent biteth him (Amos 5:18, 19).
"The day of Jehovah" means the coming of the Lord, who is the Messiah whom they expected; and as they believed that He would deliver them from the enemies of the land, and would exalt them in glory above all the nations, they desired Him. But as the Lord came into the world not for the sake of any kingdom on earth but for the sake of a kingdom in heaven, and as the Jewish nation was in the falsities of evil, and these were at that time manifested, it is said, "Woe unto you that desire the day of Jehovah. What to you is the day of Jehovah? It is a day of darkness and not of light," "darkness and not light" meaning the falsities in which they were; "as one who fleeth from a lion meeteth a bear" signifies fear because of the dominion of falsity when truths are sought from the sense of the letter of the Word, which they cannot but falsify; for one is said "to flee from a lion and to meet a bear" when he is interiorly in falsity from evil, and is led to investigate truths from the sense of the letter of the Word, which he then, because of the interior dominion of falsity from evil, cannot but pervert; "who cometh to a house and leaneth with his hand upon a wall and a serpent biteth him" signifies that when such a man in seeking goods consults the Word from the sense of the letter he does not see that evils pervert it; "the bite of a serpent" signifying falsification, here the falsification that arises from the interior dominion of falsity from evil.
 In Isaiah:
The wolf shall dwell with the lamb, and the leopard with the kid; the calf shall lie down, and the young lion and the fatling together, and a little boy shall lead them; and the heifer and the bear shall feed, and their young ones shall lie down together; the lion shall eat straw like the ox (1 1:6, 7).
The signification of "the wolf dwelling with [the lamb, and the leopard with] the kid, and the calf and the young lion and the fatling lying down together, and a little boy leading them," has been explained in the preceding article. "The heifer and the bear shall feed, and their young ones shall lie down together," signifies the power and eagerness of the natural man to falsify the truths of the Word, and that these shall do no harm to the good of the natural man and its affection, "heifer" meaning the affection for good and truth of the natural man, and "bear" the power and eagerness of the natural man to falsify the truths of the sense of the letter of the Word; "the lion shall eat straw like an ox" signifies that infernal falsity burning to destroy the truths of the church shall do no harm to the affection of good of the natural man, either as to the individual man in himself or as to men in relation to one another, nor shall it do harm to the Word, "straw" signifying the Word in the letter which is perverted by infernal falsity, but cannot be perverted by those who are in truths from good.
 In the same:
We grope for the wall as the blind, and we grope as they that have no eyes, we stumble in the noonday as in the twilight; among the living we are as dead; we growl like bears, and moaning we moan like doves; we wait for judgment but there is none, for salvation but it is far from us; for our transgressions before Thee are multiplied, and our sins answer against us (Isaiah 59:10-12).
"We grope for the wall as the blind, and we grope as they that have no eyes," signifies that there is no understanding of truth; "we stumble in the noonday as in the twilight" signifies a falling into errors, although they are in the church where the Word is, by which they might come into the light of truth; "among the living we are as dead," signifies that they might be in spiritual life through the Word, and yet are not, because they are in falsities; "we growl like bears, and moaning we moan like doves," signifies the grief of the natural man, and the grief of the spiritual man therefrom; "we wait for judgment but there is none, for salvation but it is far from us," signifies a hope for the enlightenment of the understanding, and consequent salvation, but in vain; "our transgressions before 1
Thee are multiplied, and our sins answer against us," signifies by reason of falsities from evil.
 From this it can now be seen that a "bear" signifies the natural man in respect to its power from the sense of the letter of the Word, in both senses, also in respect to the eagerness to falsify that sense. That this is what a "bear" signifies has been made evident to me by the bears seen in the spiritual world, in whose form the thoughts of those were represented who had been natural, and had studied the Word, and had wished to prevail by means of knowledge therefrom. Bears were also seen that had ribs between their teeth, like the bear described in the passage cited above from Daniel; and it was given to understand that the ribs represented the knowledges that they had drawn from the Word while in the world. White bears also appear there, which represent the power of the spiritual-natural man through the Word. Furthermore, composite beasts appear there of bears, panthers, wolves, and oxen, also the same furnished with wings, which are all significative of persons of such character when they are passing along in meditation.
1. the Latin has "before" for "against."