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Daniel 8

Norwegian: Det Norsk Bibelselskap (1930)         

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1 I kong Belsasars tredje regjeringsår fikk jeg, Daniel, se et syn, et som kom efter det jeg før hadde sett.

2 Da jeg hadde dette syn, forekom det mig som jeg var i borgen Susan i landskapet Elam, og videre forekom det mig i synet som jeg var ved elven Ulai.

3 Og da jeg så op, fikk jeg se en vær som stod foran elven; den hadde to horn, og begge hornene var høie, men det ene høiere enn det andre, og det høieste vokste sist frem.

4 Jeg så væren stange mot vest og mot nord og mot syd, og intet dyr kunde stå sig for den, og det var ingen som kunde frelse av dens vold; den gjorde som den vilde, og tedde sig overmodig.

5 Og da jeg videre gav akt, fikk jeg se en gjetebukk som kom fra vest og fór frem over hele jorden uten å røre ved jorden, og bukken hadde et veldig horn mellem øinene.

6 Og den kom like bort til væren med de to horn, den som jeg så foran elven, og sprang imot den i sin voldsomme kraft.

7 Og jeg så hvorledes den kom tett inn på væren og i sinne fór løs på den og støtte til den og sønderbrøt begge dens horn, og væren hadde ikke kraft til å stå sig for den; og den kastet den til jorden og trådte den ned, og det var ingen som kunde frelse væren av dens vold.

8 Og gjetebukken blev overmåte mektig; men just som den hadde nådd sin fulle styrke, blev det store horn brutt av, og i stedet for det vokste det op fire veldige horn, som vendte mot himmelens fire hjørner.

9 Og av det ene av dem skjøt det op et nytt horn, som fra først av var lite, men siden blev overmåte stort mot syd og mot øst og mot det fagre land*. / {* d.e. Israels land; DNL 11, 16. 41. JE 3, 19.}

10 Og det vokste like op til himmelens hær og kastet nogen av hæren - av stjernene* - til jorden og trådte dem ned. / {* d.e. av Guds folk; DNL 8, 24.}

11 Ja, like til hærens fyrste hevet det sig; det tok fra ham det stadige offer, og hans helligdoms bolig blev omstyrtet.

12 Og sammen med det stadige offer blev hæren overgitt til ødeleggelse for frafallets skyld; og hornet kastet sannheten til jorden, og det hadde fremgang med alt det foretok sig.

13 Så hørte jeg en av de hellige tale; og en annen hellig sa til ham som talte: For hvor lang tid gjelder synet om det stadige offer og det ødeleggende frafall - at både helligdom og hær overgis til nedtredelse?

14 Og han sa til mig: To tusen og tre hundre aftener og morgener; så skal helligdommen komme til sin rett igjen.

15 Da nu jeg, Daniel, så dette syn, søkte jeg å forstå det; da stod det med én gang foran mig en skikkelse som så ut som en mann.

16 Og jeg hørte et menneskes røst mellem Ulais bredder; han ropte: Gabriel! Forklar synet for ham!

17 kom han dit jeg stod, og da han kom, blev jeg forferdet og falt på mitt ansikt; og han sa til mig: Gi akt på mine ord, menneskebarn! For synet sikter til endens tid.

18 Mens han talte med mig, sank jeg sanseløs på mitt ansikt til jorden; da rørte han ved mig og reiste mig op igjen.

19 Og han sa: Nu vil jeg kunngjøre dig hvad som skal skje i vredens siste tid; for synet sikter til den for enden fastsatte tid.

20 Væren du så, den med de to horn, det er kongene av Media og Persia.

21 Og den raggete bukk er kongen av Grekenland, og det store horn mellem dens øine er den første konge*. / {* Aleksander den store.}

22 Og at dette horn blev avbrutt, og at det kom fire andre i dets sted, det betyr at fire kongeriker* skal opstå av hans folk, men ikke med hans kraft. / {* d.e. det makedoniske, trakiske, syriske og egyptiske.}

23 Og i den siste tid av deres herredømme, når overtrederne har gjort sine synders mål fullt, skal det opstå en konge med frekt åsyn og kyndig i onde råd*. / {* Antiokus Epifanes.}

24 Og hans makt skal bli stor, men ikke ved hans egen kraft, og han skal gjøre utrolig stor skade og ha fremgang med alt det han foretar sig; han skal ødelegge mektige fyrster og de helliges folk.

25 Og fordi han er klok, skal hans svikefulle ferd lykkes for ham; han skal ophøie sig i sitt hjerte, og han skal ødelegge mange i deres trygghet; ja, mot fyrstenes fyrste skal han sette sig op; men uten menneskehånd skal han knuses.

26 Og synet om aftenene og morgenene, som det var tale om, er sannhet; men gjem du synet, for det sikter til en fjern fremtid!

27 Men jeg, Daniel, blev rent avmektig, og jeg blev syk en tid; så stod jeg op og gjorde min tjeneste hos kongen; jeg var forferdet over synet, men det var ingen som forstod det.

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Swedenborg

Hlavní výklad ze Swedenborgových prací:

Arcana Coelestia 411, 1664, 2832, 10042, 10455

De Verbo (The Word) 5

Faith 63

Heaven and Hell 171

The Inner Meaning of the Prophets and Psalms 179

True Christianity 851

Scriptural Confirmations 4, 38


Další odkazy Swedenborga k této kapitole:

Arcana Coelestia 22, 1458, 1808, 2333, 2405, 2495, 2547, ...

Apocalypse Revealed 34, 36, 51, 151, 270, 447, 541, ...

A Brief Exposition of New Church Doctrine 83, 85

Conjugial Love 26

Divine Providence 134

Doctrine of the Lord 4, 28, 52

Faith 61, 65, 66, 67

The Last Judgment (Continuation) 13

True Christianity 157, 537, 764


References from Swedenborg's unpublished works:

Apocalypse Explained 50, 63, 72, 179, 316, 412, 418, ...

Coronis (An Appendix to True Christian Religion) 5

De Verbo (The Word) 15

Last Judgment (Posthumous) 220

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syn
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horn
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Arcana Coelestia # 10042

Arcana Coelestia (Elliott translation)      

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10042. 'And you shall take one ram' means the good of innocence in the internal man. This is clear from the meaning of 'a ram' as the good of innocence and charity in the internal man, dealt with below. Since sacrifices and burnt offerings of rams and lambs are referred to in this chapter, the general meaning of the living creatures offered in sacrifices and burnt offerings must be stated. Those creatures were oxen, young bulls, and he-goats; rams, she-goats, and he-kids; and he-lambs, she-lambs, and she-kids of she-goats. Anyone who does not know what these creatures serve to mean cannot possibly know what is meant by a sacrifice or burnt offering of any of them in particular. It should be recognized that all living creatures on earth serve to mean things such as reside in the human being, which in general consist in affections present in his will and in thoughts present in his understanding, and so consist in forms of good and in truths; for forms of good belong to the will and truths to the understanding. And since those things consist in forms of good and in truths they also consist in love and faith; for all aspects of love are called forms of good, and all matters of faith are called truths.

[2] The reason why these different kinds of living creatures serve to mean such things lies in representatives in the next life, where creatures belonging to many genera and countless species appear. Such creatures there are wholly lifelike appearances corresponding to spirits' and angels' affections and thoughts. The truth of this is evident also from the visions of the prophets spoken of in places throughout the Word; for all the things that were seen by the prophets are such as appear in heaven before angels' eyes. This explains why mention in the Word is so often made of beasts or animals, each of which serves to mean something belonging to one of the categories of things residing in the human being. As to his outward self the human being is no more than an animal; but his inward self makes him different. By means of his inward self both this inward self and his outward self can be raised towards heaven and up to God, and can as a consequence receive faith and love. This is why animals were used in sacrifices and burnt offerings. The person who knows nothing of all this cannot possibly know the reason why it was commanded to offer young bulls, rams, or he-lambs on one occasion, oxen, she-goats, and she-lambs on another, and he-goats, he-kids, and she-kids of she-goats on yet another. What other reason could there be for these differences? For the meaning of animals or beasts in the Word as forms of good or evils present with a person, and also truths or falsities, see 142, 143, 246, 714, 715, 776, 1823, 2179, 2180, 2781, 3218, 3519, 5198, 7523, 7872, 9090; and for their use in sacrifices on account of that meaning, 1823, 2180, 2805, 2807, 2830.

(Odkazy: Arcana Coelestia 142-143, 714-715, 2179-2180)


[3] So far however as sacrifices and burnt offerings of those creatures are concerned it should be recognized that,

1. Representative worship among the Jewish and Israelite nation consisted first and foremost in sacrifices and burnt offerings.

2. Sacrifices and burnt offerings in general served to mean the regeneration of a person by means of the truths of faith and forms of the good of love received from the Lord, and in the highest sense the glorification of the Lord's Human.

3. Everything belonging to worship - all the different things constituting it, thus worship in all its variety - was represented by the sacrifices and burnt offerings; and this is why it was decreed that different kinds of living creatures should be used.

[4] But to deal with these considerations in detail,

1. Representative worship among the Jewish and Israelite nation consisted first and foremost in sacrifices and burnt offerings

This is clear from the fact that they were used for every sin and all guilt, and also for every consecration and admission to office, besides being used daily, on every sabbath, at each new moon, and at every feast; and for this reason the altar was the holiest object of all. Every other act of worship among that nation grew out of an occasion for sacrifice, which explains why it says in Daniel, when the abolition of representative worship is the subject, that the sacrifice and the offering will cease, Daniel 9:27, and the continual [sacrifice] will be removed, Daniel 8:10-13; 11:31; 12:11. In particular 'the continual' means the sacrifice that was offered daily, and in general all worship. But see what has been shown already on these matters,

Sacrifices in general mean all representative worship, 923, 2165, 6905, 8680, 8936.

The altar was the chief representative of the Lord and consequently of worship, 2777, 2811, 8935, 8940, 9388, 9389, 9714, 9964.

The ancients before Eber knew nothing about sacrifices, 2180.

Sacrifices were established in Eber's time, existing from then on among the Hebrew nation, and consequently among the descendants of Jacob, and why they did so, 1128, 1343, 2180, 2818.

Sacrifices were not commanded, only permitted, 2180.

(Odkazy: Arcana Coelestia 2771, 9388-9389)


[5] 2. Sacrifices and burnt offerings in general served to mean the regeneration of a person by means of the truths of faith in the Lord and forms of the good of love to Him, both received from the Lord

This is clear from the fact that all aspects of worship have regard to purification from evils and falsities, the implantation of truth and good, and the joining together of these, thus to regeneration since by means of those three a person is regenerated. This explains why sacrifices and burnt offerings were offered for every sin and all guilt; and it says, when they were offered, that it was expiated and would be pardoned, Leviticus 4:20, 26, 31, 35; 5:6, 10, 13, 18; 6:7; 7:7; 10:17; 14:18-19; 15:30-31; 16:6, 24; 17:11. The pardoning of sins, expiation, propitiation, and redemption are nothing other than purification from evils and falsities, the implantation of goodness and truth, and the joining together of these, which is regeneration, 9076, 9452-9454, 9937, 9938. The whole process of regeneration is also described by the specific observances belonging to each sacrifice and burnt offering, and a clear view of that process emerges when the internal sense is used to unfold the representative elements of it, 10022.

(Odkazy: Arcana Coelestia 9937-9938; Leviticus 5:16)


[6] In the highest sense sacrifices and burnt offerings serve to mean the glorification of the Lord's Human

This is so because all the ritual observances belonging to worship that were established among the Israelite and Jewish nation had regard solely to the Lord; thus more than all else the sacrifices and burnt offerings - by which in general everything belonging to worship was represented, as shown above - had regard to Him. Furthermore the only source of human regeneration is the Lord, 9486, 9487, 9506, 9715, 9809, 10019. When therefore the Word deals with human regeneration the subject in the highest sense is the glorification of the Lord's Human; for the regeneration of a person is an image of the glorification of the Lord, 3138, 3212, 3296, 3490, 4402, 5688. Glorifying His Human implies making it Divine, whereas regenerating a person implies making him heavenly, in order that what is Divine and the Lord's may dwell in him.

(Odkazy: Arcana Coelestia 9486-9487)


[7] 3. Everything belonging to worship - all the different things constituting it, thus worship in all its variety - was represented by the sacrifices and burnt offerings; and this is why it was decreed that different kinds of living creatures should be used

This is clear from all the different situations for which sacrifices and burnt offerings were prescribed - for sins committed through error, and for sins not committed through error; for every trespass and uncleanness, whether on the part of a priest, the whole congregation, a leader, or any ordinary person 1 ; for cleansing from leprosy; for purification after childbirth; for consecration of the altar, the tent of meeting, and everything in it; for the cleansing of these when Aaron went once a year into the holy of holies; for the admission of Aaron and his sons to the priestly office; for the consecration of Nazirites; and in general at the three feasts, at each new moon, on the sabbaths, and morning and evening 2 every day; and in addition votive offerings and free-will offerings.

[8] Since sacrifices and burnt offerings were prescribed for so many different situations and they represented all the different things constituting worship, it was also decreed that different kinds of creatures should be used - young bulls, oxen, and he-goats; rams, she-goats, and he-kids; and he-lambs, she-lambs, and she-kids of she-goats. Sacrifices and burnt offerings of young bull, ox, and he-goat represented the purification and regeneration of the external or natural man; those of ram, she-goat, and he-kid represented the purification and regeneration of the internal or spiritual man; and those of he-lamb, she-lamb, and she-kid of the she-goats represented the purification and regeneration of the inmost or celestial man. For there are three degrees that follow in order in a person, namely celestial, spiritual, and natural, see 9992, 10005, 10017; and if a person is to be regenerated the things that are internal and those that are external must be regenerated, see the places referred to in 9325(end).

(Odkazy: Arcana Coelestia 10117)


[9] But what is meant specifically by the sacrifice and burnt offering of a ram that are referred to in the present chapter is clear from places in the Word where sacrifices and burnt offerings of rams are described or where a ram is mentioned. From those places it is evident that 'a ram' means the good of innocence and charity in the internal man, and that a sacrifice and burnt offering of it mean purification and regeneration of the internal man, and so the implantation of the good of innocence and charity there. This meaning of 'a ram' is clear from the following places: In Isaiah,

All the flocks of Arabia will be gathered to you, the rams of Nebaioth will minister to you; they will come up with acceptance on My altar. Isaiah 60:7.

This refers to the Lord, and to heaven and His Church. 'The flocks of Arabia' are all the forms of good belonging to the internal man, 'the rams of Nebaioth' are the forms of the good of innocence and charity there, 'flocks' being forms of good that belong to the internal man, see 8937, 9135, 'Arabia' a place where good exists, 3268, and 'Nebaioth' those there who are governed by that good, 3268, 3686, 3688.

[10] In Ezekiel,

Arabia and all the princes of Kedar, [these were] the merchants of your hand through [the trading of] small cattle, and rams, and he-goats. Ezekiel 27:21.

This refers to Tyre, by which is meant the Church where cognitions or knowledge of good and truth exist, 1201. 'The merchants' are those who possess them and pass them on, 2967, 4453; 'cattle' are forms of the good of love, 'rams' forms of the good of charity, and 'he-goats' forms of the good of faith. In the Word reference is made to 'flocks', 'small cattle' 3 , and 'members of the flock', for which the original language has distinct and separate terms. By 'flocks' internal things in general are meant, by 'members of the flock' the same things in particular, and by 'small cattle' inmost things in particular. But by 'herds' external things are meant. In Jeremiah,

I will cause them to come down like small cattle to the slaughter, like rams with he-goats. Jeremiah 51:40.

'Small cattle', 'rams', and 'he-goats' here have much the same meaning.

[11] In Ezekiel,

Thus said the Lord Jehovih, Behold, I am judging between members of the flock and members of the flock 4 , between rams, and between he-goats. Ezekiel 34:17.

'Between members of the flock and members of the flock' stands for between those with whom interior things of good and of evil are present. 'Between rams and between he-goats' stands for between those with whom charity and consequently faith are present and those with whom truths of faith without charity are present. 'Rams' here have the same meaning as 'sheep', rams being male sheep. For the meaning of 'sheep' as those with whom charity and consequently faith are present, see 4169, 4809; and for that of 'he-goats' as those with whom truths that are called the truths of faith are present but without charity, 4169(end), 4769. The ram and the he-goat in Daniel 8:1-end have the same meaning, as do the sheep and the goats in Matthew 25:32-end.

(Odkazy: Daniel 8; Matthew 25:32-46)


[12] In Moses,

If a soul has sinned through error he shall bring his guilt offering to Jehovah, a ram without blemish out of the flock. Leviticus 5:15, 18; 6:6.

By sacrifices of rams is meant purification of the internal man and the implantation of the good of innocence there; for sin committed through error is sin owing to ignorance that has innocence within it, and the innocence of ignorance belongs to the internal man.

[13] In the same author,

At new moons they were to offer two young bulls, one ram, and seven lambs, and afterwards a he-goat of the she-goats. The same thing was to be done every day during Passover, and also on the day of the firstfruits. Numbers 28:11, 15, 19, 22, 27,[Numbers28: 30.]

All this was done in order that the purification of the whole person - the external, the internal, and the inmost - might be represented. The purification of the external man was represented by the sacrifice and burnt offering of the young bulls, of the internal by those of the ram, and of the inmost by those of the lambs. And since purification was represented, so too was the implantation of the good of innocence; for a young bull is the good of innocence in the external man, a ram that good in the internal man, and a lamb that good in the inmost man, as has been stated above. The reason why the last of the creatures was a he-goat was that 'a he-goat' means the truth of faith in the external man, and the truth of faith there is last and lowest, 9959. Since the forms of good and the truths present with a person follow one another in this order, therefore also the gifts of the princes of Israel when the altar and the tent of meeting were anointed were a young bull, a ram, and a lamb for burnt offerings, and a he-goat of the she-goats for a sacrifice, Numbers 7:15-17, 21-23, 27-29, 33ff.

From all this it may now be recognized that 'a ram' means the good of innocence and charity in the internal man.

-----
Footnotes:

1. literally, any soul

2. literally, between the evenings

3. The expression small cattle describes animals belonging to a flock.

4. i.e. between good ones and bad ones

-----

(Odkazy: Exodus 29:15)

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From Swedenborg's Works

Inbound References:

Arcana Coelestia 10045, 10048, 10052, 10055, 10097, 10106, 10129, 10132, 10134, 10137, 10143, 10206, 10414

The New Jerusalem and its Heavenly Doctrine 221


References from Swedenborg's unpublished works:

Apocalypse Explained 28, 141, 314, 329, 391


Thanks to the Swedenborg Society for the permission to use this translation.


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