2830. 'And behold, a ram' means spiritual members of the human race. This is clear from the meaning of 'a ram', dealt with below. Within the Church it is well known that the burnt offerings and sacrifices in the representative Jewish and Israelite Church meant the Lord's Divine Human. But the burnt offerings and sacrifices of the lambs meant one thing, those of sheep and she-goats another, and those of kids, rams, and he-goats, of oxen, young bulls, and calves, and of turtle doves and young pigeons meant yet other things, as also did the minchahs and drink offerings. In general these things that were sacrificed meant the Divine celestial, Divine spiritual, and Divine natural things which are the Lord's; and from meaning these they meant celestial, spiritual, and natural things which exist from Him within His kingdom, and so within every individual who is the Lord's kingdom. This may be seen also from the Holy Supper which superseded burnt offerings and sacrifices. In it the bread and the wine mean the Lord's Divine Human - the Bread His Divine celestial, the Wine His Divine spiritual - and consequently mean His love towards the whole human race, and in turn the love of the whole human race for the Lord, 2343, 2359. From this it is evident that burnt offerings and sacrifices contained within them celestial worship springing from love to the Lord, and spiritual worship springing from charity towards the neighbour, and therefore from faith in the Lord, 922, 923, 1823, 2180. What the celestial is and what the spiritual is, that is, who constitute the celestial members and who the spiritual within the Lord's kingdom or Church, has been stated rather often, see 1155, 1577, 1824, 2048, 2088, 2184, 2227, 2669, 2708, 2715.
Arcana Coelestia 922-923)
 That 'a ram' then means the Lord's Divine spiritual, and so that which is spiritual with man, or what amounts to the same, spiritual members of the human race, may become clear from the burnt offerings and sacrifices that were made from rams. For example, when Aaron and his sons were consecrated to the function they performed, that is, when they were inaugurated, they were to offer one young bull for a sin offering, sprinkle its blood over the horns of the altar, and pour the remainder at the base of it. Also they were to slaughter one ram and to sprinkle its blood around the altar, and after that they were to burn the ram - the whole of it - as a burnt offering. And the blood of the second ram which had been slaughtered was to be sprinkled over the tip of Aaron's ear, and over his thumb and big toe, and after that they were to make a wave offering of it and burn it on top of the burnt offering, Exodus 29:1-35; Leviticus 8:1-end; Leviticus 8:9:2 and following s. Clearly all these observances were holy, 9:but they were holy for the reason that they represented and meant holy things. Other than for this reason, 9:none of these observances - slaughtering a young bull, 9:sprinkling its blood over the horns of the altar and pouring the remainder at the base of it, 9:slaying one ram and sprinkling its blood around the altar and after that burning it, 9:and sprinkling the blood of the second ram over the tip of Aaron's ear and over his thumb and big toe and also making a wave offering of it and burning it on top of the burnt offering - would have possessed any holiness, 9:nor thus any worship, 9:unless they had represented holy things. But what each observance represented does not become clear to anyone except from the internal sense. That the young bull offered as a sin offering meant the Lord's Divine natural, 9:and the ram His Divine spiritual, 9:and at the same time spiritual members of the human race, 9:may become clear from the meaning of a young bull and of a ram in the Word. Inaugurations into the priesthood were effected by means of spiritual things, 9:for by means of spiritual things man is initiated into those which are celestial, 9:or what amounts to the same, 9:by means of the truths of faith he is initiated into good that stems from love. In a similar way when Aaron entered the Holy Place he was to offer a young bull as a sin offering and a ram as a burnt offering, 9:Leviticus 16:2-3.
Leviticus 8, 9:2, 9:2-24, Leviticus 16:2, Leviticus 16:4)
 When a Nazirite was completing the period of his Naziriteship he was to offer one male lamb a year old without a blemish as a burnt offering, and one ewe-lamb a year old without a blemish as a sin offering, and one ram without blemish as a peace offering, Numbers 6:13-14, 16-17. The reason for these observances was that a Nazirite represented the celestial man, who is the likeness of the Lord, 51, 52, 1013. The celestial man is such that he is moved by celestial love, that is, by love to the Lord, and from this by celestial truth, 202, 337, 2069, 2715, 2718. This was why the Nazirite was required to sacrifice a male lamb and a ewe-lamb, meaning that which is celestial, and also to sacrifice a ram, meaning that which is spiritual. Young bulls, rams, and lambs were sacrificed at festivals. For example, on the first day of the feast of unleavened bread, two young bulls, one ram, and seven lambs, together with their minchah, were to be offered as a burnt offering, Numbers 28:18-20. On the day of the firstfruits too, two-young bulls, one ram, and seven lambs, together with their minchah, were to be offered as a burnt offering, Numbers 28:26-28. At new moons two young bulls, one ram, and seven lambs, together with their minchah, were to be offered as a burnt offering, Numbers 28:11-12; in the seventh month, on the first of the month, one young bull, one ram, seven lambs, together with their minchah; and on the fifteenth day of the seventh month, thirteen young bulls, two rams, fourteen lambs; and so on, see Numbers 29:1-2, 12-14, 17-18, 20-24, 26-36. Young bulls and rams meant spiritual things, while lambs meant celestial. For at festivals it was required that those taking part were to be sanctified and were brought into that condition by means of spiritual things.
Arcana Coelestia 51-52; Numbers 6:13-17, 29:20-22, 29:24)
 Since 'rams' meant the Divine spiritual of the Lord's Divine Human, and also spiritual things residing with man, it is therefore said in Ezekiel, where the New Temple and the New Jerusalem, that is, the Lord's spiritual kingdom, are referred to, that when they had finished cleansing the altar they were to offer a young bull as a sin offering and a ram as a burnt offering; and for seven days they were to provide daily a he-goat for a sin offering, and a young bull and a ram, Ezekiel 43:23-25. Also 'on that day' the prince on behalf of all the people was to provide a young bull for a sin offering, and on the seven days of the feast seven young bulls and seven rams, together with the minchah, as a burnt offering, Ezekiel 45:22-24; and on the sabbath day he was to provide six lambs and a ram, Ezekiel 46:4; 6.
 As regards the New Temple and the New Jerusalem, these in the universal sense mean the Lord's kingdom, see 402, 940, and in particular a new Church, 2117. There neither burnt offerings nor sacrifices are offered, as may be well known to all; and from this it is evident that burnt offerings and sacrifices mean the celestial things of love and the spiritual things of faith; for these things belong to the Lord's kingdom, and so are akin to the things meant here by young bulls, rams, and lambs. As regards the young bulls and rams, these mean spiritual things, as is clear from each detail in this part of Ezekiel in the internal sense - in general from the fact that specifically the New Temple and the New Jerusalem mean the Lord's spiritual kingdom, while Zion means the celestial kingdom.
 That 'a ram' means that which is spiritual, or what amounts to the same, those who are spiritual, is also evident in Daniel. Daniel saw a ram with two horns which was standing before the river; and then he saw a he-goat which struck the ram, broke its horns, and trampled on it, Daniel 8:3-4, and following verses. Here 'the ram' is used to mean nothing else than the spiritual Church, and 'the he-goat' to mean those who are governed by faith separated from charity, that is, by truth separated from good, and who step by step rise up against what is good, and finally against the Lord - as is also described. In Samuel,
Samuel said to Saul, Does Jehovah delight as greatly in burnt offerings and sacrifices as in hearkening to the voice of Jehovah? Behold, to hearken is better than sacrifice, and to obey than the fat of rams. 1 Samuel 15:22.
Here, since it is obedience - and so truth, which is spiritual - that is spoken of, and since what was said was addressed to the king - who also means truth, 1672, 2015, 2069 - the words used are not therefore 'better than the fat of oxen (or of lambs)' but 'better than the fat of rams'.
 In David,
When Israel went out of Egypt, the house of Jacob from a foreign people, Judah became His sanctuary, Israel His dominions. The sea looked and fled, and Jordan turned itself backwards. The mountains skipped like rams, the hills like the young of the flock. What ails you, O sea, that you flee? O Jordan, that you turn yourself backwards? O mountains, that you skip like rams? O hills, like the young of the flock? At the presence of the Lord, you are in labour, O earth; at the presence of the God of Jacob, who turns the rock into a pool of water, and the flint into a fountain of water. Psalms 114:1-end.
This refers in the internal sense to spiritual good following regeneration and describes the nature of that good. The celestial-spiritual nature of it is described as the mountains skipping like rams, and the celestial-natural as hills doing so like the young of the flock - 'mountains' meaning the celestial things of love, see 795, 1430. Anyone may see that these words, like all the rest of David's, contain matters that are holy, but within the internal sense, and that something spiritual is meant by the mountains skipping like rams, and the hills like the young of the flock, and by the earth going into labour at the presence of the Lord. Without the internal sense they would be expressions devoid of any real meaning.
 Much the same applies to the following in Moses,
He will cause him to ride over the heights of the land, and will cause him to eat the produce of the land, and will cause him to suck honey out of the crag, and oil out of the flinty rock - butter from the cattle, and milk from the flock, with the fat of lambs and rams, the breed 1
of Bashan, and of goats, with the kidney-fat of wheat; and of the blood of the grape you will drink unmixed wine. Deuteronomy 32:13-15.
'Rams, the breed of Bashan' stands for celestial-spiritual things. As to what celestial-spiritual things are, see 1824. In David,
I will offer to You burnt offerings of things full of marrow, with the incense of rams; I will provide ox with he-goats. Psalms 66:15.
'Burnt offerings of things full of marrow' stands for the celestial things of love, 'incense of rams' for the spiritual things of faith.
 In Ezekiel,
Arabia and all the princes of Kedar, these were the merchants of your hand in lambs, in rams and he- goats. Ezekiel 27:21.
This refers to Tyre, which means those with whom cognitions of good and truth exist, 1201. 'Arabia' stands for their wisdom, 'princes of Kedar' for their intelligence, 'lambs' for celestial things, 'rams' for spiritual things, 'he-goats' for natural things, which come in order one after another. In Isaiah,
The whole flock of Kedar will be gathered to You, the rams of Nebaioth will minister to You; they will come up with acceptance on My altar, and I will beautify My beautiful house. Isaiah 60:7.
This refers to the Lord's Divine Human. 'The flock of Kedar' stands for Divine celestial things, 'the rams of Nebaioth' for Divine spiritual things. From all these references it may now become clear that 'a ram' in the internal sense means the Lord's Divine spiritual; and from this it means that which is spiritual with man, or what amounts to the same, it means spiritual members of the human race.
1. literally, sons
Genesis 22:13, 23:8; Leviticus 16:2, Leviticus 16:4)