540. Since it is said that "there went up a smoke out of the pit as the smoke of a great furnace," and it has so far been shown that "smoke" signifies dense falsity, it is important also to show that a "furnace" signifies the evils of earthly and corporeal loves, and thus that "smoke as the smoke of a great furnace" signifies dense falsities from those loves. It is also from appearances in the spiritual world that a "furnace" signifies such loves; for when the hells in which those loves prevail are looked into, they appear like furnaces glowing with fire; and over them smoke appears, such as goes up from furnaces and is seen in conflagrations. From this it is that "furnaces" signify in the Word either the hells, or a company of men, or the man himself, in whom such loves and cupidities reign, or what is the same, where the evils that flow forth from these prevail.
 Such is the signification of "furnaces" [fornaces et camini] and "ovens" [furni et clibani] in the following passages. In Matthew:
The Son of man shall send forth His angels, and they shall gather out of His kingdom all things that cause stumbling, and them that do iniquity; and shall send them into the furnace of fire. In the consummation of the age the angels shall come forth, and shall sever the wicked from the midst of the righteous, and shall cast them into the furnace of fire; there shall be wailing and gnashing of teeth (Matthew 13:41, 42, 49, 50).
Evidently here "a furnace (caminus seu fornax) of fire," means the hells; "the consummation of the age" is the last time of the church, when judgment takes place. That the evil must then be separated from the good and be cast into hell is signified by "the angels shall gather all things that cause stumbling, and them that do iniquity," and "they shall sever the wicked from the midst of the righteous, and shall cast them into the furnace of fire." Hell is called "the furnace of fire," because it appears to be on fire from the loves of self and of the world. That "infernal fire" signifies torment from these loves may be seen in the work on Heaven and Hell 566-575).
Matthew 13:41-42, 13:49-50)
 In Malachi:
Behold, the day cometh burning as an oven, in which all that sin presumptuously, and every worker of wickedness shall be stubble, and the day that cometh shall set them on fire (Malachi 4:1).
This, too, was said of the last time of the church, and the Last Judgment at that time; both these are signified by "the day that cometh." The "oven" means the hell where those are who confirm themselves in falsities by doctrine, and confirm themselves in evils from earthly and corporeal loves by their life; that such on account of their own loves will perish is meant by "all who sin presumptuously, and every worker of wickedness shall be stubble, and the oven shall set them on fire," "all who sin presumptuously" meaning those who by doctrine confirm themselves in falsities, and "the worker of wickedness" those who by life confirm themselves in evil.
 In Hosea:
By their evil they make glad the king, and by their lies the princes. They are all adulterers, like an oven kindled by the baker; the raiser ceaseth from kneading the dough until it be fermented. For they have turned their mind like an oven while they lie in wait; their baker sleepeth all the night, in the morning he burneth as a fire of flame. They are all hot as an oven, and they will devour their judges; all their kings will fall; not one among them calleth unto Me. Ephraim is a cake not turned (Hosea 7:3-8).
In the spiritual sense this describes the sons of Jacob, that from the love of self and of the world they turned every good into evil, and thence every truth into falsity; "the king whom they make glad by wickedness," signifies all falsity from evil, for a "king" signifies truth from good, and in the contrary sense falsity from evil; and the "princes whom they make glad by lies" signify the chief falsities. That from their loves they perverted goods and truths is signified by "they are all adulterers, like an oven kindled by the baker," "to adulterate" signifying to pervert good and thence truth; this is compared to "an oven kindled by the baker," because they bring together falsities favoring their loves as into a mass of dough; and because evils and falsities are not separated from the goods and truths which are from the sense of the letter of the Word, but they cling together, it is said, "the raiser ceaseth from kneading the dough until it be fermented," "fermentation" signifying separation, here that they are not separated, since it is said, "he ceaseth from kneading the dough until it be fermented." The like is signified by "Ephraim is a cake not turned," "Ephraim" meaning the understanding of truth. That consequently there will be nothing but the evils of those loves that falsities favor is signified by, "the baker sleepeth all the night; in the morning he burneth as a fire of flame, they are all hot as an oven. " Such are compared to a "baker" and an "oven," because they form doctrine out of falsities as a baker makes loaves and cakes in an oven. That they thus destroy all goods and truths that they have from the Word is signified by, "they will devour their judges, and all their kings will fall," "judges" signifying the goods of truth, and "kings" the truths themselves; that such is the result because they wish to be wise of themselves and not from the Lord, is signified by "not one among them that called unto Me." That these words have some such meaning can be seen merely from common intuition, but that the particulars signify and describe such things, that is, that "kings," "princes," "judges," and "adulterers," also an "oven" and a "baker" mean what has just been said, can be seen only from the internal sense. Moreover, those who bring together truths or falsities so that they cohere appear in the spiritual world as bakers kneading dough, with an oven also near them.
 In Lamentations:
Our skins are black like an oven because of the tempests of famine (Lamentations 5:10).
This is a lamentation over the loss of truth and inundation of falsity; "famine" signifies a loss and lack of truth (see above, n. 386; and "a tempest of famine," complete lack, and also an inundation of falsities, for where there are no truths there will be falsities; "tempests" have a similar signification in the Word as inundation. "Our skins are black like an oven" signifies that the natural man is without the light of truth, and thence in the darkness of falsity; here, too, an "oven" signifies the framing of doctrine out of falsities and not out of truths (but see above, n. 386, where this is more fully explained).
The Apocalypse Explained 386)
 In Ezekiel:
The house of Israel has become as dross unto Me; all of them are brass and tin and iron and lead in the midst of a furnace; they have become the dross of silver. Behold, I gather you into the midst of Jerusalem, a gathering of silver and brass and iron and lead and tin will I gather you, into the midst of the furnace, to blow fire upon it to melt it; so will I bring you together in Mine anger and in My wrath, and I will leave you there and melt you. Like a casting of silver in the midst of the furnace, so shall ye be melted in the midst thereof (Ezekiel 22:18-22).
This describes the false doctrinals which the Jews and Israelites brought together from the sense of the letter of the Word, which they adapted merely to themselves and to their loves; these are called the "dross of silver," because "silver" signifies the truth of the Word, and "dross" nothing of truth, or what is abstracted from truth, which is rejected. The things of the sense of the letter of the Word are signified by "brass, tin, iron, and lead," because these signify the goods and truths of the natural man; and the things of the Word that are contained in the sense of its letter are for the natural man. And because from this sense they framed their false doctrinals, which were traditions, it is said "they shall be melted together;" and because they were adapted to their loves, which were loves of self and of the world, it is said that "He would gather them into the midst of the furnace, to blow fire upon it to melt it," "fire" signifying those loves. And because their doctrinals are meant, it is said that "He would gather them into the midst of Jerusalem," "Jerusalem" signifying the church in respect to doctrine, thus also the doctrine of the church.
 In Moses:
The sun went down and it was dense darkness, and behold an oven of smoke and a torch of fire that passed through between the pieces (Genesis 15:17).
Falsities of evil and evils of falsity, swarming out of the filthy loves of the Jewish and Israelitish nation, are here meant by "an oven of smoke," and "a torch of fire that passed through between the pieces," as can be seen in the article above. For Abraham was eager that his posterity should rule over the whole land of Canaan, and because the Lord foresaw that the church would be instituted in that nation, He made a covenant with Abraham. Nevertheless what they were to be is predicted in this that was seen.
 In Nahum:
Draw thee waters for the siege, strengthen thy fortresses; go into the mire, and tread the pitch, repair the brick kiln [fornax]. There shall the fire devour thee, the sword shall cut thee off (Nahum 3:14, 15).
This describes the destruction of truth by the falsities of evil; the "waters for the siege" mean the falsities by which they endeavor to destroy truths; "to strengthen the fortresses" signifies to fortify falsities by such things as appear like truths; "to go into the mire and tread the pitch" signifies to make them appear to cling together, "pitch" meaning falsity from evil conjoining; "to repair the brick kiln" signifies to repair the doctrine framed out of falsified truths and fictions, "bricks" signifying the falsities that are fabricated and do not cohere with truths; "fire shall devour thee" signifies that they will be destroyed by the evils of their loves, and "the sword shall cut thee off" signifies that they will be destroyed by falsities.
 In Jeremiah:
Take great stones in thy hand, and hide them in the brick kiln which is near the entrance of Pharaoh's house. I will take the king of Babylon, and I will set his throne upon these stones that thou hast hid, 1
and he shall come and smite the land of Egypt; and I will kindle a fire in the houses [of the gods] of Egypt; and finally he shall array himself with the land of Egypt, as a shepherd arrayeth himself in his garment (43 Jeremiah 43:9-12).
This represented the profanation of truth by reasonings from knowledges falsely applied. "The great stones hidden in the brick kiln" signify the truths of the Word falsified by fictions that are from self-intelligence, "stones" meaning the truths of the Word, and "brick kiln" the doctrine framed out of fictions; "the house of Pharaoh" signifies the natural man in respect to knowledges there; "entrance" means sensual knowledge, through which there is entrance into the natural man; it is by this that falsifications are made; "the king of Babylon" signifies the profanation of truth; "He will set his throne upon these stones, and will smite Egypt, and kindle a fire in the houses thereof," signifies that through the knowledges of the natural man all the truths of doctrine will be perverted and profaned. That he will subject to himself the natural man in respect to all things therein, which is done by confirmations of falsities from knowledges, is signified by "he will array himself with the land of Egypt, as a shepherd arrayeth himself in his garment." That thus all things of the natural man will be destroyed by the evils of earthly and corporeal loves is signified by "I will kindle a fire in the houses of Egypt."
 Because "Egypt" signifies the natural man in respect to knowledge there, and a "furnace of iron" has a similar signification, therefore Egypt in the Word is called "a furnace of iron. " As in Jeremiah:
In the day that I brought you 2
forth out of Egypt, out of the furnace of iron (Jeremiah 11:4).
He hath brought them 3
forth out of the furnace of iron, out of Egypt (Deuteronomy 4:20).
In the first book of Kings:
Which He brought forth 4
out of Egypt, from the midst of the furnace of iron (1 Kings 8:51).
I removed the shoulder of Israel from the burden of Egypt; his hands have passed away from the furnace (Psalms 81:6).
The natural man in respect to knowledge is signified by the "furnace of iron," "furnace" meaning the natural man, and "iron" knowledge, here false knowledge, because it is said that "they were brought out;" for the natural man, unless he is led by the spiritual man, is in falsities and evils, because he has no light from heaven, for light from heaven flows in through the spiritual man into the natural, and enlightens, teaches, and leads; it is the direct opposite when the natural man does not think and act under the auspices of the spiritual man; then also he is in bondage, for he thinks and acts from falsities and evils that are from hell; this is what is signified when it is said that "they were brought out of the house of bondage" when they were brought out of Egypt. For all freedom of thinking and acting is from the spiritual man, because the spiritual man thinks and wills out of heaven from the Lord, and to be led of the Lord is freedom. From this it can be seen why Egypt is called "a furnace of iron," and "a house of bondage;" this bondage is signified also by "I removed the shoulder of Israel from the burden of Egypt." (That "iron" signifies knowledge [scientificum] belonging to the natural man, may be seen above, n. 176.)
The Apocalypse Explained 176)
 As most things in the Word have also a contrary sense, so does "oven. " As in Isaiah:
Saith Jehovah, who has His hearth in Zion, and His oven in Jerusalem (Isaiah 31:9).
"Hearth" signifies the good of love, and "oven" truth from that good, thus the truth of doctrine; "Zion and Jerusalem" have a like signification, "Zion" signifying the church in respect to the good of love, and "Jerusalem" the church in respect to truth of doctrine. "Oven" has a similar meaning in Moses, where it is said:
That the meal-offering must be prepared either in an oven, or in a plate, or in a frying pan (Leviticus 2:4, 5, 7).
(This is explained in the Arcana Coelestia.) "Furnace" has a similar meaning above in Revelation:
The feet of the Son of man were like unto burnished brass, as if glowing in a furnace (Revelation 1:15).
Of which above, n. 69.
1. Latin has "thou hast hid," Hebrew "I have hid," so also in AC 751 .
2. Latin has "you," Hebrew "them."
3. Latin "them," Hebrew "you."
4. Latin "He brought forth," Hebrew "Thou hast brought forth."
Leviticus 2:4-5; Revelation 9:2; The Apocalypse Explained 69)