Josua 20



1 Und der HERR redete mit Josua und sprach:

2 Sage den Kindern Israel: Gebt unter euch Freistädte, davon ich durch Mose euch gesagt habe,

3 dahin fliehen möge ein Totschläger, der eine Seele unversehens und unwissend schlägt, daß sie unter euch frei seien von dem Bluträcher.

4 Und der da flieht zu der Städte einer, soll stehen draußen vor der Stadt Tor und vor den Ältesten der Stadt seine Sache ansagen; so sollen sie ihn zu sich in die Stadt nehmen und ihm Raum geben, daß er bei ihnen wohne.

5 Und wenn der Bluträcher ihm nachjagt, sollen sie den Totschläger nicht in seine Hände übergeben, weil er unwissend seinen Nächsten geschlagen hat und ist ihm zuvor nicht feind gewesen.

6 So soll er in der Stadt wohnen, bis daß er stehe vor der Gemeinde vor Gericht, und bis daß der Hohepriester sterbe, der zur selben Zeit sein wird. Alsdann soll der Totschläger wiederkommen in seine Stadt und in sein Haus, zur Stadt, davon er geflohen ist.

7 Da heiligten sie Kedes in Galiläa, auf dem Gebirge Naphthali, und Sichem auf dem Gebirge Ephraim und Kirjath-Arba, das ist Hebron, auf dem Gebirge Juda;

8 und jenseit des Jordans, da Jericho liegt, gegen Aufgang, gaben sie Bezer in der Wüste auf der Ebene aus dem Stamm Ruben und Ramoth in Gilead aus dem Stamm Gad und Golan in Basan aus dem Stamm Manasse.

9 Das waren die Städte, bestimmt allen Kindern Israel und den Fremdlingen, die unter ihnen wohnten, daß dahin fliehe, wer eine Seele unversehens schlägt, daß er nicht sterbe durch den Bluträcher, bis daß er vor der Gemeinde gestanden sei.


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Exploring the Meaning of Joshua 20


Napsal(a) Rev. Julian Duckworth

Joshua 20: The six cities of refuge.

Once all twelve tribes of Israel had received their inheritance, the Lord commanded Joshua and the Israelites to designate six cities of refuge, which were spread throughout the land on both sides of the Jordan. These cities would serve as safe havens, so that anyone who accidentally killed another person could flee to safety there. At the gate of the city, the refugee would declare his case to the city elders, and they would shelter him there until the high priest died. Then, the refugee could go back to his own city.

The six cities of refuge were evenly spaced throughout the land. In the north, Kedesh; in the center, Shechem; in the south, Kirjath Arba. Across the Jordan: Bezer, in Reuben; Ramoth, in Gad; and Golan in Manasseh. The three cities in Canaan are all said to be ‘on the mountains’, while the three cities across the Jordan are said to be ‘in the wilderness’ or ‘on the plain’.

There is a humanitarian purpose in granting safety when someone is accused of murder, a crime punishable by death. The spiritual meaning of this provision partly lies in the difference between justice and mercy. Justice has to do with the penalty of the law, while mercy recognizes that there could be more to the picture than just the intention to harm.

The Word acknowledges the place of both justice and mercy. Truth condemns, but love forgives. Ultimately, it is not we who know the real intentions of human hearts. This is something known only to the Lord, who will treat us justly, but also feel tender mercy and compassion towards us “for our low estate” (see Psalm 136:23 and Swedenborg’s work, Arcana Caelestia 6180).

In his work, True Christian Religion, Swedenborg writes: “We acquire justice the more we practice it. We practice justice the more our interaction with our neighbour is motivated by a love for justice and truth. Justice dwells in the goodness itself or the useful functions themselves that we do. The Lord says that every tree is recognized by its fruit. Surely we get to know other people well through paying attention not only to what they do but also to what outcome they want, what they are intending and why. All angels pay attention to these things, as do all wise people in our world” (see True Christian Religion 96[2]).

Innocence is the wish not to harm, and it is one of the cornerstones of heaven. We can easily begin to feel guilt when we cause harm to someone without intending to. They suffer and we suffer also. Reconciliation is needed for everyone in that kind of situation. Spiritually, these cities of refuge mean giving others and ourselves the time and space to let go of harmful feelings – which hell often plays on – and after finding refuge, allowing the Lord to bring us healing (Arcana Caelestia 9011).

There are six cities of refuge because the number ‘six’ represents all the labors of regeneration and spiritual temptation. ‘Seven’ follows after ‘six’ and refers to the Sabbath, the day of the Lord’s rest, when He has brought us through hardships into a new peace (Arcana Caelestia 8975).

The fact that the six cities of refuge were spread on both sides of the Jordan also holds a valuable spiritual meaning. Being in Canaan means that we are consciously living with a sense of the Lord’s guidance in our thinking and actions. This gives us a higher level of understanding, rather like seeing life from up on the mountain. Being across the Jordan means that we are more acutely experiencing the uncertainties of life, although we still try to do what is good because of our faith and trust in the Lord. No matter what situation we face, we need our personal cities of refuge where we meet the ‘elders’ of the city – the leading truths in the Word – who bring us in, and offer us sanctuary with the Lord (Arcana Caelestia 8578).

Ze Swedenborgových děl


Arcana Coelestia # 8975

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8975. 'He shall serve for six years' means a state of labour and some conflict, and of consequent strengthening of truth. This is clear from the meaning of 'six years' as states of labour and conflict. For the meaning of 'six' as labour and conflict, see 737, 900, 8888, and 'years' as states, 487, 488, 493, 893, 7839. The reason why strengthening of truth is also meant is that spiritual truth, which is called the truth of faith, is strengthened through labour and conflict. The words 'some conflict' are used because those imbued with the truth of faith and not with complementary goodness of life are not allowed to experience any serious conflict, that is, temptation, since they would go under; for the Lord cannot flow in through good with them and so cannot protect them from the evils and falsities which attack in temptations. They are merely external people, and whatever flows in from the Lord must do so by way of the internal man into the external. When people are not imbued with the good of charity, the internal man does not lie open; for good is what opens the internal man, and is what dwells there.

(Odkazy: Arcana Coelestia 487-488; Exodus 21:2)

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Thanks to the Swedenborg Society for the permission to use this translation.