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Hosea 4

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1 Höret, ihr Kinder Israel, des HERRN Wort! denn der HERR hat Ursache, zu schelten, die im Lande wohnen; denn es ist keine Treue, keine Liebe, keine Erkenntnis Gottes im Lande;

2 sondern Gotteslästern, Lügen, Morden, Stehlen und Ehebrechen hat überhandgenommen und eine Blutschuld kommt nach der andern.

3 Darum wird das Land jämmerlich stehen, und allen Einwohnern wird's übel gehen; denn es werden auch die Tiere auf dem Felde und die Vögel unter dem Himmel und die Fische im Meer weggerafft werden.

4 Doch man darf nicht schelten noch jemand strafen; denn dein Volk ist wie die, so den Priester schelten.

5 Darum sollst du bei Tage fallen und der Prophet des Nachts neben dir fallen; also will ich deine Mutter zu Grunde richten.

6 Mein Volk ist dahin, darum daß es nicht lernen will. Denn du verwirfst Gottes Wort; darum will ich dich auch verwerfen, daß du nicht mein Priester sein sollst. Du vergißt das Gesetz deines Gottes; darum will ich auch deine Kinder vergessen.

7 Je mehr ihrer wird, je mehr sie wider mich sündigen; darum will ich ihre Ehre zu Schanden machen.

8 Sie fressen die Sündopfer meines Volks und sind begierig nach ihren Sünden.

9 Darum soll es dem Volk gleich wie dem Priester gehen; denn ich will ihr Tun heimsuchen und ihnen vergelten, wie sie verdienen,

10 daß sie werden essen, und nicht satt werden, Hurerei treiben und sich nicht ausbreiten, darum daß sie den HERRN verlassen haben und ihn nicht achten.

11 Hurerei, Wein und Most machen toll.

12 Mein Volk fragt sein Holz, und sein Stab soll ihm predigen; denn der Hurerei-Geist verführt sie, daß sie wider ihren Gott Hurerei treiben.

13 Oben auf den Bergen opfern sie, und auf den Hügeln räuchern sie, unter den Eichen, Linden und Buchen; denn die haben feinen Schatten. Darum werden eure Töchter auch zu Huren und eure Bräute zu Ehebrechrinnen werden.

14 Und ich will's auch nicht wehren, wenn eure Töchter und Bräute geschändet werden, weil ihr einen andern Gottesdienst anrichtet mit den Huren und opfert mit den Bübinnen. Denn das törichte Volk will geschlagen sein.

15 Willst du, Israel, ja huren, daß sich doch nur Juda nicht auch verschulde. Geht nicht hin gen Gilgal und kommt nicht hinauf gen Beth-Aven und schwört nicht: So wahr der HERR lebt!

16 Denn Israel läuft wie eine tolle Kuh; so wird sie auch der HERR weiden lassen wie ein Lamm in der Irre.

17 Denn Ephraim hat sich zu den Götzen gesellt; so laß ihn hinfahren.

18 Sie haben sich in die Schwelgerei und Hurerei gegeben; ihre Herren haben Lust dazu, daß sie Schande anrichten.

19 Der Wind mit seinen Flügeln wird sie zusammen wegtreiben; sie müssen über ihrem Opfer zu Schanden werden.

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Swedenborg

Hlavní výklad ze Swedenborgových prací:

der Propheten und der Psalmen Davids 187


Další odkazy Swedenborga k této kapitole:

Arcana Coelestia 374, 627, 643, 991, 1613, 2466, 3122, ...

Apocalypse Revealed 134, 290, 316, 405, 485, 567, 721, ...

Die Lehre vom Herrn 48

Die Lehre des neuen Jerusalem von der Heiligen Schrift 79

Lebenslehre 2, 79

Himmel und Hölle 471

Wahre Christliche Religion 156, 314, 376, 440, 643


References from Swedenborg's unpublished works:

Apocalypse Explained 79, 98, 141, 250, 283, 324, 342, ...

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Word/Phrase Explanations

Kinder
A child is a young boy or girl in the care of parents, older than a suckling or an infant, but not yet an adolescent....

israel
'Israel,' in Jeremiah 23:8, signifies the spiritual natural church. The children of Israel dispersed all the literal sense of the Word by falsities. 'The children...

Herr
The Lord, in the simplest terms, is love itself expressed as wisdom itself. In philosophic terms, love is the Lord's substance and wisdom is His...

wort
'Word,' as in Psalms 119:6-17, stands for doctrine in general. 'The Word,' as in Psalms 147:18, signifies divine good united with divine truth. 'Word,' as...

wohnen
Many people were nomadic in Biblical times, especially the times of the Old Testament, and lived in tents that could be struck, moved and re-raised...

stehlen
In a natural sense, the commandment 'Thou shalt not steal,' in Exodus 20:15, means, according to the letter, not stealing, robbing, or committing piracy in...

Land
'Lands' of different nations are used in the Word to signify the different kinds of love prevalent in the inhabitants.

Vögel
Fowl signify spiritual truth; a bird, natural truth; and a winged thing, sensual truth. Fowl signify intellectual things. Fowl signify thoughts, and all that creeps...

Himmel
Heavens are celestial and spiritual things. Consequently, they are inmost things, both of the Lord's kingdom in heaven the and in the earth. This also...

Meer
Water generally represents what Swedenborg calls “natural truth,” or true concepts about day-to-day matters and physical things. Since all water ultimately flows into the seas,...

Priester
Priests' represent the Lord regarding His divine good. When they do not acknowledge the Lord, they lose their signification of the Lord.

Tage
The expression 'even to this day' or 'today' sometimes appears in the Word, as in Genesis 19:37-38, 22:14, 26:33, 32:32, 35:20, and 47:26. In a...

fallen
To 'stumble' denotes being scandalized or offended, and falling, as a result, from truths into falsities.

prophet
The idea of a "prophet" is very closely tied to the idea of the Bible itself, since the Bible was largely written by prophets. At...

mutter
In general, mothers in the Bible represent the Lord's church on earth, or the church among those who know and follow the Lord. In some...

Vergessen
To forget, in the internal sense, signifies nothing else but removal and apparent privation.

Sünden
In the Word three terms are used to mean bad things that are done. These three are transgression, iniquity, and sin, and they are here...

Essen
When we eat, our bodies break down the food and get from it both energy and materials for building and repairing the body. The process...

Wein
Wine played a key role in the ancient world, where safe, reliable water sources were scarce. It could be stored for long periods of time;...

most
'Must' or 'new wine' denotes evil produced by false.

Holz
'Wood' signifies good, as well the good of love to the Lord as the good of charity towards our neighbor.

gott
The Lord is love itself, expressed in the form of wisdom itself. Love, then, is His essence, His inmost. Wisdom - the loving understanding of...

unter
Generally speaking things that are seen as lower physically in the Bible represent things that are lower or more external spiritually. In some cases this...

Eichen
'Oak' signifies the sensory good and truth of the church, and consequently, the lowest part of the natural, which is either the truths and goods,...

schatten
'The shadow is good' of the oak, poplar and elm means complacence.

Töchter
"Behold I have two daughters,” etc. (Gen. 19:8), signifies the affections of good and truth, and the blessedness perceivable from the enjoyment thereof, by those...

Huren
'A harlot' signifies the affection of falsities, thus the church corrupted.

juda
City of Judah,' as in Isaiah 40:9, signifies the doctrine of love towards the Lord and love towards our neighbor in its whole extent.

gilgal
Gilgal signifies the doctrine of natural truth, serving for introduction into the church.

kommt
As with common verbs in general, the meaning of “come” in the Bible is highly dependent on context – its meaning is determined largely by...

Kuh
'The heifer whereby labor has not been done,' as mentioned in Deuteronomy 21:3, signifies the innocence of the external self, which is in ignorance. 'The...

Lamm
'A lamb' signifies the good of the innocence of infancy. 'A lamb' signifies the Lord regarding His divine humanity. The lamb,' as in Revelation 8:11,...

Ephraim
Ephraim was the second son born to Joseph in Egypt and was, along with his older brother Manasseh, elevated by Jacob to the same status...

Wind
Because a nearer and stronger divine influx through the heavens disperses truths among the wicked, 'wind' signifies this dispersion of truth and the resulting conjunction...

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Apocalypse Explained # 608

Apocalypse Explained (Whitehead translation)      

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608. Verse 6 (Revelation 10:6). And he sware by Him that liveth unto the ages of the ages, signifies the verity from His own Divine. This is evident from the signification of "to swear," as being a strong assertion and confirmation, and in reference to the Lord the verity (of which presently); also from the signification of "Him that liveth unto the ages of the ages," as being the Divine from eternity, which alone lives, and which is the source of life to all in the universe, both angels and men. (That this is signified by "Him that liveth unto the ages of the ages" may be seen above, n. 289, 291, 349.) That "to swear" signifies asseveration and confirmation, but here verity (since it is the Lord that is meant by the angel that swears), can be seen from this, that "to swear" means to asseverate and confirm that a thing is so, and when done by the Lord means Divine verity; for oaths are made only by those who are not interiorly in truth itself, that is, by those who are not interior but only exterior men; consequently they are never made by angels, still less by the Lord; but He is said in the Word to swear, and the Israelites were allowed to swear by God, because they were only exterior men, and because the asseveration and confirmation of the internal man, when it comes into the external, falls into the form of an oath. In the Israelitish Church all things were external, representing and signifying things internal. The Word in the sense of the letter is similar. From this it can be seen that "the angel sware by Him that liveth unto the ages of the ages" cannot mean that he thus sware, but that he said in himself that this is verity, and that when this came down into the natural sphere it was changed, according to correspondences, into the form of an oath.

(Odkazy: The Apocalypse Explained 289, 291, The Apocalypse Explained 349)


[2] Now as "to swear" is only an external corresponding to the confirmation that belongs to the mind of the internal man, and is therefore significative of that, so in the Word of the Old Testament it is said to be lawful to swear by God, yea, that God Himself is said to swear. That this signifies confirmation, asseveration and simply verity, or that it is true, can be seen from the following passages. In Isaiah:

Jehovah hath sworn by His right hand and by the arm of His strength (Isaiah 62:8).

In Jeremiah:

Jehovah of Hosts hath sworn by His soul (Jeremiah 51:14; Amos 6:8).

In Amos:

The Lord Jehovih hath sworn by His holiness (Amos 4:2).

In the same:

Jehovah hath sworn by the excellency of Jacob (Amos 8:7).

In Jeremiah:

Behold, I have sworn by My great name (Jeremiah 44:26).

Jehovah is said "to have sworn by His right hand," "by His soul," "by His holiness," and "by His name," to signify by Divine verity; for "the right hand of Jehovah," "the arm of His strength," "His holiness," "His name," and "His soul," mean the Lord in relation to Divine truth, thus Divine truth proceeding from the Lord; the like is meant by "the excellency of Jacob," for "the mighty One of Jacob" means the Lord in relation to Divine truth.

[3] That "to swear," in reference to Jehovah, signifies confirmation by Himself, that is, from His Divine, is evident in Isaiah:

By Myself have I sworn, the word has gone forth from My mouth, and shall not be recalled (Isaiah 14:23).

In Jeremiah:

By Myself I have sworn that this house shall become a desolation (Jeremiah 22:5).

Because "to swear" in reference to Jehovah signifies Divine verity it is said in David:

Jehovah hath sworn truth unto David, He turneth 1 not from it (Psalms 132:11).

(Odkazy: Isaiah 45:23)


[4] Jehovah God, or the Lord, never swears, for to swear is not becoming to God Himself, or the Divine verity; but when God, or the Divine verity, wills to have anything confirmed before men, then that confirmation in its descent into the natural sphere falls into the form or formula of an oath, such as is used in the world. This shows why it is said in the sense of the letter of the Word, which is the natural sense, that God swears, although He never swears. This, then, is the signification of "to swear" in reference to Jehovah or the Lord in the preceding passages, and also in the following. In Isaiah:

Jehovah of Hosts hath sworn, saying, Surely as I have thought, so shall it come to pass (Isaiah 14:24).

In David:

I have made a covenant with My chosen, I have sworn unto David My servant. Lord, Thou hast sworn unto David in verity (Psalms 89:3, 35, 49).

In the same:

Jehovah hath sworn and will not repent (Psalms 110:4).

In Ezekiel:

I have sworn unto thee, and have entered into a covenant with thee, that thou mightest become Mine (Ezekiel 16:8).

In David:

Unto whom I have sworn in Mine anger (Psalms 95:11).

In Isaiah:

I have sworn that the waters of Noah shall no more pass over the earth (Isaiah 54:9).

In Luke:

To remember His holy covenant, the oath which He sware to Abraham our father (Luke 1:72, 73).

In David:

He hath remembered His covenant which He made with Abraham, and His oath with Isaac (Psalms 105:8, 9).

In Jeremiah:

That I may establish the oath which I have sworn unto your fathers (Jeremiah 11:5; 32:22).

In Moses:

The land which I have sworn to give unto your fathers (Deuteronomy 1:35; 10:11; 11:9, 21; 26:3, 15; 31:20; 34:4).

(Odkazy: Luke 1:72-73; Psalms 105:8-9)


[5] From this it can be seen what is meant by "the angel lifted up his hand to heaven, and sware by Him that liveth unto the ages of the ages," as it is likewise said in Daniel:

And I heard the man clothed in linen, that he held up his right hand and his left hand unto the heavens, and sware by Him that liveth unto the ages of the ages (Daniel 12:7);

as meaning to bear witness before the angels respecting the state of the church, that what follows is Divine verity.

[6] Because the church that was instituted with the sons of Israel was a representative church, in which all things that were commanded were natural things representing and signifying spiritual things, the sons of Israel, with whom that church existed, were permitted to swear by Jehovah, and by His name, likewise by the holy things of the church; and this represented and thus signified internal confirmation, and also verity, as can be seen from the following passages. In Isaiah:

He that blesseth himself in the earth let him bless himself in the God of truth, and he that sweareth in the earth let him swear in the God of truth (Isaiah 65:16).

In Jeremiah:

Swear by the living Jehovah, in truth, in judgment, and in righteousness (Jeremiah 4:2).

In Moses:

Thou shalt fear Jehovah thy God, Him shalt thou serve, and shalt swear in His name (Deuteronomy 6:13; 10:20).

In Isaiah:

In that day there shall be five cities in the land of Egypt that swear to Jehovah of Hosts (Isaiah 19:18).

In Jeremiah:

If in learning they will learn the ways of My people, to swear by My name, Jehovah liveth! (Jeremiah 12:16).

In David:

Everyone that sweareth by God shall glory, but the mouth of them that speak a lie shall be stopped (Psalms 63:11).

"To swear by God" here signifies to speak the truth, for it is added, "the mouth of them that speak a lie shall be stopped." (That they swore by God see also Genesis 21:23, 24, 31; Joshua 2:12; 9:20; Judges 21:7; 1 Kings 1:17.)

(Odkazy: Genesis 21:23-24)


[7] As the ancients were allowed to swear by Jehovah God, it follows that it was an enormous evil to swear falsely or to swear to a lie, as is evident from these passages. In Malachi:

I will be a witness against the sorcerers, and against the adulterers, and against those that swear to a lie (Malachi 3:5).

In Moses:

Thou shalt not swear to a lie by My name, so that thou profane the name of thy God; also, Thou shalt not take the name of thy God in vain (Leviticus 19:12; Deuteronomy 5:11; Exodus 20:7; Zechariah 5:4).

In Jeremiah:

Run ye to and fro through the streets of Jerusalem, and see whether there be any who say, By the living Jehovah; surely they swear by a lie. Thy sons have destroyed 2 Me, and sworn by one not God (Jeremiah 5:1, 2, 7).

In Hosea:

Israel, ye shall not swear, Jehovah liveth (Hosea 4:15).

In Zephaniah:

I will cut off them that swear by Jehovah, and that swear by their king, and them that are turned back from following Jehovah (Zephaniah 1:4-6).

In Zechariah:

Love not the oath of a lie (Zechariah 8:17).

In Isaiah:

Hear ye, O house of Jacob, who swear by the name of Jehovah, not in truth nor in righteousness (Isaiah 48:1).

In David:

The clean in hands and the pure in heart doth not lift up his soul unto vanity, nor swear with deceit (Psalms 24:4).

(Odkazy: Jeremiah 5:1-2)


[8] From this it can be seen that the ancients, who were in the representatives and the significatives of the church, were permitted to swear by Jehovah God in order to bear witness to the truth, and by that oath it was signified that they thought what is true and willed what is good. Especially was this granted to the sons of Jacob, because they were wholly external and natural men, and not internal and spiritual; and merely external or natural men wish to have the truth confirmed and witnessed to by oaths; but internal or spiritual men do not wish this; indeed, they turn away from oaths and shudder at them, especially those in which God and the holy things of heaven and the church are appealed to, and are content with saying and with having it said that a thing is true, or that it is so.

[9] As swearing does not belong to the internal or spiritual man, and as the Lord, when He came into the world, taught men to be internal or spiritual, and to that end abrogated the externals of the church, and opened its internals, therefore He forbade swearing by God and by the holy things of heaven and the church. This is evident from these words of the Lord in Matthew:

Ye have heard that it was said, Thou shalt not swear [falsely], but shalt perform unto the Lord thine oath; but I say unto you, swear not at all; neither by the heaven, for it is the throne of God; neither by the earth, for it is the footstool of His feet; neither by Jerusalem, for it is a city of the great King. Neither shalt thou swear by thy head, for thou canst not make one hair white or black (Matthew 5:33-37).

Here the holy things by which one must not swear are mentioned, namely, "heaven," "earth," "Jerusalem," and the "head;" and "heaven" means the angelic heaven, wherefore it is called "the throne of God" (that "the throne of God" means that heaven, see above, n. 253, 462, 477); "the earth" means the church (see above, n. 29, 304, 413, 417), which is called therefore "the footstool of God's feet" (that "the footstool of God's feet" also means the church, see above, n. 606; "Jerusalem" means the doctrine of the church, wherefore it is called "the city of the great king" (that "city" means doctrine, see above, n. 223; and the "head" means intelligence therefrom (see above, n. 553, 577), therefore it is said "thou canst not make one hair white or black," which signifies that man of himself can understand nothing.

(Odkazy: Matthew 5:33-36; The Apocalypse Explained 29, The Apocalypse Explained 223, 253, The Apocalypse Explained 304, The Apocalypse Explained 413, 417, 462, 477, 553, 577, 606)


[10] Again, in the same:

Woe unto you, ye blind guides, for ye say, Whosoever shall swear by the temple it is nothing; but whosoever shall swear by the gold of the temple he is a debtor! Ye fools and blind; for whether is greater, the gold or the temple that sanctifieth the gold? And whosoever shall swear by the altar it is nothing; but whosoever shall swear by the gift that is upon it he is a debtor. Ye fools and blind; whether is greater, the gift or the altar that sanctifieth the gift? But whosoever sweareth by the altar sweareth by it and by everything thereon. And whosoever sweareth by the temple sweareth by it and by Him that dwelleth therein. And he that sweareth by heaven sweareth by the throne of God and by Him that sitteth thereon (Matthew 23:16-22).

One must not swear "by the temple and by the altar," because to swear by these was to swear by the Lord, by heaven, and by the church; for the "temple" in the highest sense means the Lord in relation to Divine truth, and in a relative sense heaven and the church in respect to truth, likewise all worship from Divine truth (see above, n. 220; and the "altar" signifies the Lord in relation to Divine good, and in a relative sense heaven and the church in respect to that good, likewise all worship from Divine good (see above, n. 391; and because by the Lord all Divine things that proceed from Him are meant, for He is in them and they are His, so he who swears by Him swears by all things that are His; likewise he who swears by heaven and by the church, swears by all the holy things that belong to heaven and the church, for heaven is the complex and containant of these things; so, in like manner, is the church; therefore it is said that the temple is greater than the gold of the temple, because the temple sanctifies the gold, and that the altar is greater than the gift which is upon it, because the altar sanctifies the gift.

-----
Footnotes:

1.  Latin has "turneth," the Hebrew "turn back," which is found in AC 2842.

2.  Latin has "destroyed," the Hebrew "forsaken. "

-----

(Odkazy: Isaiah 45:23; Matthew 5:33-36; The Apocalypse Explained 220, The Apocalypse Explained 391)

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References from Swedenborg's unpublished works:

Apocalypse Explained 605, 1029


Thanks to the Swedenborg Foundation for their permission to use this translation.


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