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Daniel 5

Finnish: Pyhä Raamattu (1933/1938)         

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1 Kuningas Belsassar laittoi suuret pidot tuhannelle ylimyksellensä, ja hän joi viiniä näiden tuhannen edessä.

2 Kun viini oli makeimmillaan, käski Belsassar tuoda ne kulta-ja hopea-astiat, jotka hänen isänsä Nebukadnessar oli ottanut Jerusalemin temppelistä, että kuningas ja hänen ylimyksensä, hänen puolisonsa ja sivuvaimonsa joisivat niistä.

3 Silloin tuotiin ne kulta-astiat, jotka oli otettu temppelistä, Jumalan huoneesta, Jerusalemista, ja niistä joivat kuningas ja hänen ylimyksensä, hänen puolisonsa ja sivuvaimonsa.

4 He joivat viiniä ja ylistivät kultaisia ja hopeisia, vaskisia, rautaisia, puisia ja kivisiä jumalia.

5 Sillä hetkellä ilmestyivät ihmiskäden sormet ja kirjoittivat kuninkaan palatsin kalkitulle seinälle, vastapäätä lampunjalkaa, ja kuningas näki käden, joka kirjoitti.

6 Silloin kuninkaan kasvot kalpenivat, ja hänen ajatuksensa peljästyttivät hänet; hänen lanteittensa nivelet herposivat, ja hänen polvensa tutisivat.

7 Kuningas huusi kovalla äänellä ja käski tuoda noidat, kaldealaiset ja tähtienselittäjät. Kuningas lausui ja sanoi Baabelin tietäjille: "Kuka ikinä voi lukea tämän kirjoituksen ja ilmoittaa minulle sen selityksen, hänet puetaan purppuraan, ja hänen kaulaansa pannaan kultakäädyt, ja hän on oleva yksi valtakunnan kolmesta valtamiehestä".

8 Silloin tulivat kaikki kuninkaan viisaat, mutta he eivät voineet lukea kirjoitusta eivätkä ilmoittaa kuninkaalle sen selitystä.

9 Kuningas Belsassar peljästyi silloin suuresti, ja hänen kasvonsa kalpenivat, ja hänen ylimyksensä tyrmistyivät.

10 Kuninkaan äiti tuli kuninkaan ja hänen ylimystensä puheen tähden pitohuoneeseen. Kuninkaan äiti lausui ja sanoi: "Eläköön kuningas iankaikkisesti! Älkööt sinun ajatuksesi peljättäkö sinua, älköötkä kasvosi kalvetko.

11 Sinun valtakunnassasi on mies, jossa on pyhien jumalien henki ja jolla sinun isäsi päivinä havaittiin olevan valistus ja ymmärrys ynnä viisaus, samankaltainen kuin jumalien; hänet asetti isäsi, kuningas Nebukadnessar, tietäjäin, noitien, kaldealaisten ja tähtienselittäjäin päämieheksi-sinun isäsi, kuningas-

12 sentähden, että erinomainen henki ja tieto ynnä myös taito selittää unia, arvata arvoituksia ja ratkaista ongelmia havaittiin juuri hänessä, Danielissa, jolle kuningas oli antanut nimen Beltsassar. Kutsuttakoon nyt Daniel, niin hän ilmoittaa selityksen."

13 Silloin Daniel tuotiin kuninkaan eteen. Kuningas lausui ja sanoi Danielille: "Oletko sinä Daniel, joka on niitä juutalaisia pakkosiirtolaisia, mitkä minun isäni, kuningas, on tuonut Juudasta?

14 Minä olen kuullut sinusta, että sinussa on jumalien henki ja että sinussa on havaittu valistus, taito ja erinomainen viisaus.

15 Ja nyt tuotiin minun eteeni viisaat ja noidat lukemaan tätä kirjoitusta ja ilmoittamaan minulle sen selitys, mutta he eivät voineet sen selitystä ilmoittaa.

16 Mutta sinun minä olen kuullut voivan antaa selityksiä ja ratkaista ongelmia. Nyt siis, jos voit lukea kirjoituksen ja ilmoittaa minulle sen selityksen, niin sinut puetaan purppuraan, ja kultakäädyt pannaan sinun kaulaasi, ja sinä olet oleva yksi valtakunnan kolmesta valtamiehestä."

17 Silloin Daniel vastasi ja sanoi kuninkaalle: "Lahjasi pidä itse, ja antimesi anna toiselle. Mutta kirjoituksen minä luen kuninkaalle ja ilmoitan hänelle sen selityksen.

18 Sinä kuningas! Korkein Jumala antoi sinun isällesi Nebukadnessarille kuninkuuden, voiman, kunnian ja valtasuuruuden.

19 Ja sen voiman tähden, jonka hän oli hänelle antanut, vapisivat kaikki kansat, kansakunnat ja kielet ja pelkäsivät hänen edessään. Hän tappoi, kenen hän tahtoi, hän jätti henkiin, kenen hän tahtoi, hän ylensi, kenen hän tahtoi, hän alensi, kenen hän tahtoi.

20 Mutta kun hänen sydämensä paisui ja hänen henkensä kävi korskeaksi ja ylpeäksi, syöstiin hänet kuninkaalliselta valtaistuimeltansa, ja hänen kunniansa otettiin häneltä pois.

21 Hänet ajettiin pois ihmisten seasta, ja hänen sydämensä tuli eläinten sydämen kaltaiseksi; hänen asuntonsa oli villiaasien parissa, ja hän joutui syömään ruohoa niinkuin raavaat; hänen ruumiinsa kastui taivaan kasteesta, kunnes hän tuli tuntemaan, että korkein Jumala hallitsee ihmisten valtakuntaa ja asettaa sen päämieheksi, kenen hän tahtoo.

22 Mutta sinä, hänen poikansa Belsassar, et ole nöyryyttänyt sydäntäsi, vaikka tämän kaiken tiesit;

23 vaan sinä olet korottanut itsesi taivaan Herraa vastaan: hänen huoneensa astiat on tuotu sinun eteesi, ja sinä ja sinun ylimyksesi, sinun puolisosi ja sivuvaimosi olette juoneet niistä viiniä, ja sinä olet ylistänyt hopeisia ja kultaisia, vaskisia, rautaisia, puisia ja kivisiä jumalia, jotka eivät näe, eivät kuule eivätkä mitään tiedä. Mutta sitä Jumalaa, jonka kädessä on sinun henkesi ja kaikki sinun tiesi, sinä et ole kunnioittanut.

24 Sentähden on tämä käsi lähetetty hänen tyköänsä ja tämä kirjoitus kirjoitettu.

25 Ja tämä on kirjoitus, joka on tuonne kirjoitettu: 'Mene, mene, tekel, ufarsin'.

26 Ja tämä on sen selitys: mene merkitsee: Jumala on laskenut sinun valtakuntasi luvun ja on tehnyt siitä lopun.

27 Tekel: sinut on vaa'alla punnittu ja köykäiseksi havaittu.

28 Peres: sinun valtakuntasi on pirstottu ja annettu meedialaisille ja persialaisille."

29 Silloin Belsassar antoi käskyn, että Daniel oli puettava purppuraan ja kultakäädyt pantava hänen kaulaansa ja julistettava, että hän oli oleva yksi valtakunnan kolmesta valtamiehestä.

30 Samana yönä tapettiin Belsassar, kaldealaisten kuningas,

31 ja Daarejaves, meedialainen, sai haltuunsa valtakunnan ollessaan noin kuudenkymmenen kahden vuoden ikäinen.

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The Feast of Belshazzar      

By Rev. Dr. Andrew T. Dibb

Belshazzar's Feast, by Rembrandt, showing the handwriting on the wall

This chapter begins with Belshazzar's feast for his friends. Belshazzar is presented in this chapter as the son of Nebuchadnezzar, king of Babylon. His name tells us something about him, for Belshazzar in the original Chaldean language means 'Bel Protect the King.' 'Bel' was a Babylonian god, so this name is about the relationship of the kingly, or ruling loves in a person, and the love of selfishness and dominion from that described by the god of the Babylonians.

Belshazzar has a similar spiritual relationship to Nebuchadnezzar as the Lord Jesus Christ had to the Father. In the case of the Lord, His human set forth the Divine, making it present for all people to see. In the case of Belshazzar, he set forth the love of selfishness, Nebuchadnezzar, for all the world to see. Belshazzar represents the external manifestation of the deepest feelings of selfishness, translated first into thoughts, then actions.

The story of Daniel is about the power of truth changing us from being self-centered to being regenerated. Each person has a Nebuchadnezzar side, and also a Daniel side. In previous chapters, we see Daniel's impact on Nebuchadnezzar. So truth impacts our lives. When we begin the process of change, we follow the order given in chapters two, three, four, and five. Truth is first an intellectual idea which, in time, affects our will. To change, we must be willing to undergo the temptations described in chapter four, but for this to happen, we need to judge our behavior. This is the feast, where actions are judged and those incompatible with conscience are cast out.

Belshazzar commanded the vessels brought so that the guests could drink from them. To drink wine from them means drawing teachings from the Word that one needs to live properly (Apocalypse Explained 376). Before our minds are clear of selfishness, we may go to the Word for guidance. But we are not looking to be lead to the good of life, but to support the selfishness within. This is not unusual with people first introduced to the truths of the Word: as they learn, they may find that the teachings seem to support some of their attitudes, rather than undermine faults. We can see this in Belshazzar's use of the vessels: he did not treat them with respect, but profaned them. Sharing the vessels with his lords, his wives, and concubines shows the various thoughts and affections still tied to selfishness which guided him.

As the king and his guests drank from the holy vessels, they showed their true allegiance: they worshiped gods of gold, silver, brass, iron, wood, and stone, compounding their profanation. Profanation is when the sacred and profane are brought together. One cannot believe the Word is holy, and mock it at the same time. No one can serve two masters (Matthew 6:24).

For a complete explanation of the different materials of the profane idols, see the explanation of the statue from Nebuchadnezzar's dream in Daniel 2. The differences between the two rests in materials of the legs and feet, but in the internal sense, these differences disappear.

Amid this debauchery, a vision took place: the fingers of a man's hand appeared on the wall and wrote words in an unknown language. Belshazzar's fear reflects our own when it suddenly dawns on us that the activities of our life are in conflict with the very things we hold to be true. The conflict between good and evil within us is brought down to the level of our daily lives. The effect can be frightening: it is the realization of our shortcomings. Yet often, before the issues become clear, we feel a sense of unease, a feeling of dissatisfaction at the way our lives are going.

This vague feeling is Belshazzar's inability to read the words written upon the wall. They frightened him, but he did not know what they meant. Like us, he turned to the familiar, comforting voices which usually explained the unknown to him: the astrologers, the soothsayers, and the Chaldeans. These 'wise men' represent the thought patterns we have when our lives are disturbed: we look inwards to our usual justifications. Thus we blame others for our state of mind, or credit it to misfortune, without ever really going to the source of what is bothering us.

Belshazzar promised his soothsayers three distinct things:

"Whoever reads this writing, and tells me its interpretation, shall be clothed with purple and have a chain of gold around his neck; and he shall be the third ruler in the kingdom."

The angels of the celestial heaven wear crimson clothes (Divine Love and Wisdom 380, True Christian Religion 686) as an expression of their love to the Lord. Clothing signifies knowledge (Heaven and Hell 179, Arcana Coelestia 1073, 2576, 5319, 9212, 9216, 9952, 10536) so 'clothing of purple' represents knowledges about love to the Lord. But because Belshazzar is selfishness, the knowledge he offered represents re-establishing selfish love as the ruling principle in our minds. In addition to the purple garments, he offered chains of gold. As we have seen before, gold represents goodness from the Lord. But in this case, the 'goodness' originates in selfishness. The final promise is power. The characteristic of the love of self is the lust for power. Nebuchadnezzar extended his natural kingdom across the earth, as selfishness extends its power throughout our lives.

Unsurprisingly, the 'wise men' could not read the writing on the wall. When we are unhappy because of our selfishness, no thoughts from selfishness will set us straight. If we know that what we are doing is wrong, and yet make excuses for our behavior, we will find little or no comfort in these justifications—they are a part of the problem.

So the queen suggested to Belshazzar that he call Daniel. To convince him of Daniel's worth, she uses terms that describe the quality of a conscience formed from the truths of the Word. 'The Spirit of the Holy God' is the truth from the Lord (Apocalypse Explained 183), where conscience is formed. Divine truth in the mind brings spiritual light (True Christian Religion 40) giving first understanding, and then wisdom. Conscience draws its being from the Divine truths from the Lord. The Babylonian 'wise men' all represent the various thoughts of a selfish mind. As the conscience is formed, it begins to take precedence over these thoughts, until it rules. So a person regenerating intellectually thinks from truth, but may still act from selfishness.

The queen's pleas made an impact on Belshazzar, and Daniel was brought before him. The king offered Daniel the same gifts he offered his wise men and astrologers. Daniel, of course, could not accept these, in much the same way, years before, he had been unable to accept food from Nebuchadnezzar's table. To accept the garments of purple, chains of gold, and a position of power in the kingdom was meaningless to Daniel. He was already, after all, in a position of power. Conscience does not need to be bribed: it stands firm and alone in our minds.

Daniel began his interpretation of the Writing on the Wall with a brief history of Nebuchadnezzar, as a summary of the progression of selfishness. He began with the fact that Nebuchadnezzar received his kingdom of from God. In chapter 1, we are told that 'the Lord gave Jehoiakim into his hand.' This implies that not only was the Lord responsible for the siege of Jerusalem, but for all of Nebuchadnezzar's other victories. This verse reinforces that concept: Nebuchadnezzar's success was because of the Lord.

Daniel voiced the words of judgment eloquently: Belshazzar had not humbled his heart, he had lifted himself up against the Lord of heaven. He used the vessels of the Lord's temple to worship gods of silver and gold, bronze and iron, wood and stone, yet he does not know that the Lord holds his life in His hand.

These well-spoken words of judgment are as much an indictment on us as they were on Belshazzar. Often we know the truths of the Word, we wrestle with them in our minds, we allow them to direct our feelings, and yet we do nothing about them. Spiritual procrastination is one of life's greatest dangers. As long as we put off spiritual progress, and wallow in the comfort of selfishness, as long as we hang onto old prejudices and attitudes, and habitual thinking, we are using the Lord's Word as a way of worshiping false idols. What needs to change in us are our loves, our attitudes. As these change, our external behavior must be brought into alignment with them.

Having chastised Belshazzar, Daniel began to explain the writing on the wall. He began by stressing that the fingers that wrote 'were sent by Him,' meaning the 'Most High God' who gave Nebuchadnezzar his kingdom, majesty and glory. While Nebuchadnezzar had humbled himself before the Lord, Belshazzar had not. In the historical sense, it was important for Daniel to stress the relationship between what happened to Nebuchadnezzar and what would happen to Belshazzar.

The judgment, from the power of the Lord, lay in the words written on the wall: 'mene, mene, tekel, upharsin.' Four words in an unknown language that could only be interpreted by Daniel. Thus we see how our conscience, drawn as it is from the teachings of the Word, is the root of our resistance to evil.

Daniel begins by explaining 'mene' saying: 'God has numbered your kingdom and found it wanting.' To number means to know the quality of something. This is why Nebuchadnezzar besieged Jerusalem 'in the third year of the reign of Jehoiakim,' and dreamed of the great statue 'in the second year' of his own reign.

The word 'mene' means the process of self-examination. There is no indication why the word is repeated twice; perhaps it indicates the need for an examination of acts flowing from both our will and our understanding—our actions from an inner love for them, and actions from a sense of duty.

The third word on the wall is 'Tekel,' which Daniel told Belshazzar means: 'You have been weighed in the balances and found wanting.' When we examine ourselves, it is from truth: we judge how we compare to the truth. The next step is to assess our feelings. Thus 'one should be found wanting.'

Daniel interprets the final word of the four to mean 'your kingdom has been divided and given to the Medes and Persians.' This literally happened to Belshazzar, but in the internal sense, to divide means to disperse and expel (Apocalypse Explained 373, Arcana Coelestia 9093). This is the third stage of repentance: when a person has examined self, found one's self wanting, and is willing to change, the next step is to separate the evil from ourselves, and to expel it from our lives. It is only in this way that we can be cleansed of evil.

This is an indication of how our lives should progress: no man can serve two masters, the Lord said, we cannot serve God and mammon. We cannot serve self and be ruled by the conscience at the same time. One must increase and the other decrease. By giving Daniel these gifts in the face of the imminent end of his kingdom, Belshazzar shows us how the conscience must increase, while selfishness as the root of our evil must decrease.

Thus it happened that on that very night, Belshazzar, king of the Chaldeans, was slain, and Darius the Mede received the throne, being about sixty-two years old.

Swedenborg

Hlavní výklad ze Swedenborgových prací:

Arcana Coelestia 1326

Apocalypse Explained 587, 1029

Apocalypse Revealed 717

The Last Judgment 54

The Inner Meaning of the Prophets and Psalms 176

Scriptural Confirmations 4, 37


Další odkazy Swedenborga k této kapitole:

Arcana Coelestia 1183, 3079, 3104, 5223, 8932, 9093, 9818, ...

Apocalypse Revealed 313, 316, 364, 459, 913

Divine Love and Wisdom 383

The Lord 48

Heaven and Hell 365

True Christian Religion 156, 754


References from Swedenborg's unpublished works:

Apocalypse Explained 183, 220, 242, 373, 376, 453

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Word/Phrase Explanations

Nebukadnessar
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 Belshazzar's Feast
A New Church Bible story explanation for teaching Sunday school. Includes lesson materials for Primary (3-8 years), Junior (9-11 years), Intermediate (12-14 years), Senior (15-17 years) and Adults.
Teaching Support | Ages over 3

 Belshazzar’s Feast
Worship Talk | Ages 7 - 14

 Belshazzar’s Feast (3-5 years)
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 Belshazzar’s Feast (6-8 years)
Project | Ages 7 - 10

 Belshazzar’s Feast (9-11 years)
Project | Ages 11 - 14

 Overview of Daniel: A Man of Conscience for ages 3-14
Overview of a series of scripted lessons for the first six chapters of the book of Daniel. Suitable for Sunday schools, families and classrooms. Levels A, B and C provide materials for ages 3-14.
Sunday School Lesson | Ages 3 - 14

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Apocalypse Explained # 376

Apocalypse Explained (Whitehead translation)      

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376. It has thus far been shown that "oil" signifies celestial good, which is the good of love to the Lord; it shall now be shown that "wine" signifies spiritual good, which is the good of charity towards the neighbor and the good of faith; and as this good in its essence is truth, it is said in the general explanation that "the oil and the wine hurt not," which signifies that there must no harm be done to the internal or spiritual sense of the Word in respect either to good or to truth, or what is the same, that there must no harm be done to the goods and truths which are in the internal or spiritual sense of the Word. The good of charity and the good of faith in their essence are truth, because that good is implanted by the Lord in man's intellectual part by means of the truths that are called the truths of faith, and when man lives according to these truths they become goods; for by means of truths a new will is formed in that part, and whatever proceeds from the will is called good. This will, moreover, is the same as conscience, and conscience is a conscience of truth, for it is formed by truths of every kind from the doctrine of the church, and from the sense of the letter of the Word (but on this subject see further in The Doctrine of the New Jerusalem 130-138; and the extracts from the Arcana Coelestia 139-141). From this now it is that "wine" signifies truth.

(Odkazy: Revelation 6:6; The New Jerusalem and its Heavenly Doctrine 139-141)


[2] Furthermore, there are goods and truths internal and external; internal goods and truths are signified by "the oil and the wine" that must not be hurt; but external goods and truths are signified by "wheat and barley." External goods and truths are those that are in the sense of the letter of the Word, while internal goods and truths are those that are in the internal or spiritual sense of the Word; or external goods and truths are such as are in the lower heavens with the angels there, that is, in the ultimates of heaven, while internal goods and truths are such as are in the higher heavens with the angels there, that is, in the third and second heavens. These goods and truths are genuine goods and truths themselves, but the former are truths and goods because they correspond, thus are correspondences; internal goods and truths have immediate communication with the angels of heaven, while external goods and truths have not an immediate but a mediate communication through correspondences. This is why the Jews, because they were only in the sense of the letter and had no knowledge of the signification of things in the spiritual sense, were unable to do harm to the spiritual sense in respect either to good or to truth, and consequently were unable to do harm to genuine goods and truths. So the Christian Church at this day is unable to do harm to the genuine goods and truths which are in the spiritual sense of the Word, for it has been ignorant of that sense, and at the same time ignorant of genuine goods and truths.

[3] The spiritual sense of the Word was not disclosed to Christians, because genuine goods and truths, such as are in the higher heavens, lie concealed in the spiritual sense of the Word; and so long as these goods and truths were unperceived and unknown that sense could not be opened, since these goods and truths could not be seen. In the Christian churches genuine goods and truths have not been perceived and known for the reason that those churches have been divided, in general, into the Papal and the Evangelical; and those in the Papal Church are utterly ignorant of truths, because they do not depend upon the Word, thus upon the Lord who is the Word, that is, Divine truth, but upon the pope, from whose mouth scarcely anything proceeds except what is from the love of ruling, and that love is from hell; therefore with them scarcely a single truth of the church exists; while in the Evangelical churches faith alone has been assumed as the essential means of salvation, and as a consequence the good of love and charity has been rejected as nonessential, and where good is rejected no truth which is truth in itself can exist, since all truth is from good; for the Lord flows into man's good, and by means of good illustrates him and gives him the light to perceive truths, therefore without that light, which is man's very spiritual life, there is no truth, however much it may sound like truth because it is from the Word; it is truth falsified by the ideas that are held in respect to it; for from faith separate from charity, or from truths without good, no other result can follow. This is why the spiritual sense of the Word could not be disclosed to the Christian churches, for if it had been disclosed, they would have falsified and perverted it by ideas from fallacies, and thus would have profaned it. This also is why no one will ever hereafter be admitted into the spiritual sense of the Word unless he is in genuine truths from good, and no one can be in genuine truths from good unless in heart he acknowledges the Lord alone as the God of heaven and earth, for from Him is every good and thence every truth. The spiritual sense of the Word is at this day opened, and therewith also genuine truths and goods are disclosed, because the Last Judgment has been accomplished by the Lord, and thus all things in the heavens and in the hells have been reduced to order; and for this reason it can be provided by the Lord that no harm can be done to genuine truths and goods, which are in the spiritual sense of the Word, and this could not have been provided before (see in the small work on The Last Judgment 73).

[4] That "wine" signifies spiritual good, or the good of charity and the good of faith, which in its essence is truth, can be seen from the following passages in the Word. In Isaiah:

Ho, everyone that thirsteth, come ye to the waters; and he that hath no silver; come ye, buy and eat; buy wine and milk without silver and without price (Isaiah 55:1).

Anyone can see that this does not mean that wine and milk may be bought without silver, "wine and milk" therefore signify things spiritual, namely, "wine" spiritual good, which in its essence is truth, as was said above, but "milk" the good of that truth. That these are given by the Lord freely to those who are ignorant of truth and good, and yet in a desire for these, is signified by "he that hath no silver, come ye, buy and eat; buy without silver;" "to buy" signifies to acquire for oneself, and "to eat" signifies to make one's own, which is done by application as from oneself. Those who are ignorant of truth and good, and yet are in a desire for them, are evidently meant, for it is said, "Ho, everyone that thirsteth, come ye to the waters," "to thirst" signifying to desire, and "waters" signifying truths, here the Word where truths are.

[5] In Joel:

It shall come to pass in that day, the mountains shall drop down sweet wine, and the hills shall flow with milk; all the water-courses of Judah shall flow with waters (Joel 3:18).

This treats of the Lord's coming, and of the new heaven and the new church from Him. It is well known that the mountains in the land of Canaan, or in Judea, did not then drop down sweet wine, nor the hills flow with milk, nor the water-courses of Judah flow with waters more than before, therefore these words must mean something else than new wine, milk, and waters, or than mountains, hills, and water-courses, namely, "that the mountains shall drop down sweet wine" [mustum] or wine [vinum], means that from the good of love to the Lord there shall be genuine truth; "the hills shall flow with milk" means that from the good of charity towards the neighbor there shall be spiritual life; and "all the water-courses of Judah shall flow with waters" means that from the particulars of the Word there shall be truths. (For "Judah" signifies the Lord's celestial kingdom, and also the Word, see Arcana Coelestia 3881, 6363; therefore "its water-courses" signify the particulars of the Word; that "mountains" signify the good of love to the Lord, n. Arcana Coelestia 795, 4210, 6435, 8327, 8758, 10438, 10608; and "hills" the good of charity towards the neighbor, n. 6435, 10438; and this because in heaven those who are in the good of love to the Lord dwell upon mountains, and those who are in the good of charity towards the neighbor dwell upon hills, n. Arcana Coelestia 10438, and Heaven and Hell, n. 188.)

[6] In Amos:

Behold the days come, that the ploughman shall overtake the reaper, and the treader of grapes him that draweth forth seed; and the mountains shall drop down sweet wine, and all the hills shall dissolve. I will bring back the captivity of My people Israel, and they shall build the waste cities; and they shall inhabit them, and they shall plant vineyards and drink the wine thereof, and they shall make gardens and eat the fruit of them. Then will I plant them upon their ground (Amos 9:13-15).

This chapter treats first of the vastation of the church, and then of its restoration by the Lord; and "the people Israel" do not mean that people, but those with whom the church was to be established; and "the ploughman shall overtake the reaper, and the treader of grapes him that draweth forth the seed," signifies that he who receives good and truth shall also perform uses, or bear fruit, thus that with the man of the church the two shall be present at the same time; "the mountains shall drop down sweet wine, and all the hills shall dissolve," signifies, as just above, that from the good of love to the Lord and from the good of charity towards the neighbor there shall be truths in abundance, "sweet wine" here, or "wine," meaning truth; that "the captivity of the people Israel shall be brought back" signifies the restoration of the church among the Gentiles, for "captivity" means spiritual captivity, in which those are who are remote from goods and truths, and yet in a desire for them (see Arcana Coelestia 9164). "The waste cities that they shall build" signify the doctrinals of truth and good from the Word, before destroyed and at that time to be restored; "the vineyards which they shall plant," and "the wine of which they shall drink," signify all things of the church from which there is intelligence, "a vineyard" signifies the spiritual church, and therefore "vineyards" signify all things of the church; "wine" signifies the truth of the church in general, and "to drink it" signifies to be instructed and become intelligent, thus intelligence; and "the gardens which they shall make, and the fruit of which they shall eat," signifies wisdom, "gardens" meaning all things of intelligence, and their "fruit" signifying the goods of life, thus "to eat their fruit" signifies the appropriation of good, thus wisdom, for wisdom comes when truths are committed to the life; and because this is what is meant, therefore it is said of Israel, "I will plant them upon their ground."

[7] In Moses:

He bindeth his foal to the vine, the son of his she-ass unto the noble vine; he washeth his vesture in wine, and his covering in the blood of the grapes. His eyes are red with wine, and his teeth white with milk (Genesis 49:1, 12).

This is in the prophecy of Israel the father respecting Judah, by whom here Judah is not meant, but the Lord in relation to the celestial kingdom; and "wine" and the "blood of grapes" mean the Divine truth. (What the rest signifies, and that "wine" signifies Divine truth, because this has reference to the Lord, see Arcana Coelestia 6375-6381.)

(Odkazy: Genesis 49:11-12)


[8] In the same:

Jacob brought of his venison to his father Isaac, and he did eat; and he brought him wine, and he drank. And Isaac blessed him, saying, God give thee of the dew of heaven, and of the fatnesses of the earth, and plenty of corn and new wine (Genesis 27:25, 27-28, 37).

Those who do not know that the Word is spiritual in its particulars may suppose that by "Isaac" here is meant Isaac, and by "Jacob" Jacob, and therefore that by "the fatnesses of the earth," and "the corn and new wine," no other and deeper things are meant; but "Isaac" here represents the Lord, and "Jacob" the church; thence the "fatnesses of the earth" mean the celestial things that are of the good of love; and "corn and new wine" every good and truth of the church. (But these words may also be seen explained in Arcana Coelestia (Arcana Coelestia 3570), n. 3570, 3579, 3580.)

(Odkazy: Arcana Coelestia 3579-3580, Genesis 27:26-28)


[9] In the same:

If ye shall harken to My commandments, I will give rain to your land in its time, the former rain and the latter rain; and thou shall gather in thy corn, and thy new wine, and thy fresh oil (Deuteronomy 11:13-14).

These blessings of the earth were promised to the sons of Israel if they would hear and do the commandments of Jehovah, and the blessings followed because with them the church was representative, and the things that were said and commanded by Jehovah corresponded to things spiritual, thus these blessings of the earth to the blessings of heaven. The blessings of heaven, to which the blessings of the earth correspond, all have reference to the things that are of the good of love and the truth of faith; these blessings therefore are signified by "the former rain and the latter rain," for "rain" in particular signifies Divine truth flowing in out of heaven, from which all things of the church and heaven with man are born, grow, and are brought forth; therefore "the corn, new wine, and oil, which they should gather in," signify every good and truth of the external and internal man.

[10] In the same:

Thus Israel dwelt securely, alone by the fountain of Jacob, in a land of corn and new wine; yea, his heavens shall drop down dew (Deuteronomy 33:28).

This was the conclusion of the blessings of the sons of Israel by Moses, which were all prophetical, and every son or every tribe of Israel signified something of the church (as in Genesis 49); and here "Israel" signifies the church itself; and "to dwell securely, alone by the fountain of Jacob," signifies to live without infestation from evils and falsities, and to be led by the Lord alone through Divine truth, the "fountain of Jacob" meaning Divine truth and the Word; and "to live in a land of corn and new wine" signifies in every good and truth of the church; and "yea, his heavens shall drop down dew," signifies influx out of heaven.

[11] In the same:

He made him ride upon the high places of the earth, and gave him butter of the herd, and milk of the flock, with the fat of lambs, and of rams, the sons of Bashan, and of he-goats, with the fat of the kidneys of wheat; and thou drinkest the blood of the grape, unmixed wine (Deuteronomy 32:13-14).

These things are said of the Ancient Church, which was the church previous to the Israelitish Church, and was in the good of charity and in truths of faith. The goods of every kind, in which it was, are meant by these things, namely, the "butter of the herd," the "milk of the flock," "the fat of lambs," "the fat of rams," "the fat of goats," "the fat of the kidneys of wheat;" and spiritual truths are meant by "the blood of the grape" and "unmixed wine."

[12] In Jeremiah:

They shall come and sing aloud in the height of Zion, and shall flow together unto the good of Jehovah, to the corn, and to the new wine, and to the fresh oil, and to the sons of the flock and of the herd (Jeremiah 31:12).

"Corn," "new wine," and "fresh oil," signify goods and truth of every kind (what these mean in particular, see above, n. 374). In Isaiah:

Jehovah hath sworn by His right hand, and by the arm of His strength, Surely I will no longer give thy corn to be food for thine enemies, and the sons of the alien shall not drink thy new wine for which thou hast labored; but they that gather it shall eat it and praise Jehovah, and they that bring it together shall drink it in the courts of holiness (Isaiah 62:8-9).

This is said of Jerusalem, which signifies the church in relation to doctrine; therefore "the corn that shall no longer be given as food for the enemies, and the new wine that the sons of the alien shall not drink" signify in general the good and truth of the church, which shall no longer be consumed by evils and falsities; "enemies" here meaning evils, and "the sons of the alien" falsities, and "to eat," or "to have food given them," and "to drink," mean to consume. That goods and truths will remain with those who receive them, and thence make use of them, is signified by "they that gather it shall eat it," and "they that bring it together shall drink it;" worship from these is signified by "praising Jehovah," and "drinking in the courts of holiness."

(Odkazy: Isaiah 62:7-9; The Apocalypse Explained 374)


[13] In the same:

Gladness is taken away, and exultation from Carmel; and in the vineyards there is no singing aloud, no shouting for joy; the treader treadeth not out the wine in the wine-vats; I have made the vintage-shouting to cease (Isaiah 16:10).

This describes the taking away of the heavenly enjoyment that is from good and its truths, because good and truth itself is taken away; the good of the church is meant by "Carmel," and its truths by "vineyards" and by "treading out the wine in the wine-vats;" the enjoyments thereof that are taken away are meant by "gladness," "exultation," "singing aloud," "shouting," and "vintage-shouting," for it was a custom to sing in the vineyards, and in the winepresses when the grape was trodden into wine, that enjoyments from truths, which were signified by "wine," might be represented.

[14] In Jeremiah:

With more than the weeping of Jazer I will weep for thee, O vine of Sibmah; thy shoots are passed over the sea, they reach even to the sea of Jazer; upon thy autumn fruits, and upon thy vintage the devastator is fallen. Whence gladness and exultation is gathered out of Carmel, and out of the land of Moab; and I have caused the wine to cease in the wine-vats; none shall tread with shouting; their shouting shall be no shouting (Jeremiah 48:32-33).

This also treats of the taking away of the heavenly enjoyment that is from the good of love and the truths thence, for all heavenly enjoyment is in these and from these. Lamentation over it is meant by "weeping" [flere fletum]; deprivation of it is meant by "gladness and exultation is gathered out of Carmel," likewise by "the devastator falling upon it," "the wine failing," and "the shouting being no shouting;" the good that was taken away, for which there was lamentation, is meant by "the autumn fruits;" and the truths of good that were taken away are meant by "the vintage," and by "the wine in the wine-vats." That truths were banished, and that they perished through knowledges [scientifica] is meant by "the vine of Sibmah," and by its "shoots that have gone over the sea, even to the sea of Jazer," "sea" signifying the knowing faculty [scientificum].

[15] In Lamentations:

The infant and the suckling faint in the broad places of the city. They say to their mothers, Where is the corn and the wine? when they faint as one pierced in the broad places of the city, when their soul is poured out upon their mother's bosom (Lam. 2:11-12).

These words contain a lamentation over the Jewish Church, that every good and truth thereof has perished; and the lamentation is described by "the infant and the suckling who faint in the broad places of the city, and say to their mothers, Where is the corn and the wine?" The "infant and the suckling" signify those who are in the good of innocence, and in an abstract sense, the good of innocence itself; by this good every good of the church is meant, since it is the essential of all its goods (see in the work on Heaven and Hell, n. 276-283, 285, 288, 341, 382). "The broad places of the city" signify the truths of doctrine; "mothers" all things of the church; "corn and wine" all the good and truth of the church in general. It is said that "they faint as one pierced in the broad places of the city, when their soul is poured out upon their mother's bosom," because "one pierced" signifies those who perish spiritually from the deprivation of truth, and "soul" signifies spiritual life. (That "the broad places of the city, in which they faint," signify the truths of doctrine, see Arcana Coelestia, n. 2336; and that "the mother, into whose bosom the soul is poured out," signifies the church, n. 2691, 2717, 3703, 4257, 5581, 8897)

(Odkazy: Arcana Coelestia 2336)


[16] In Zephaniah:

Their wealth shall be for plunder, and their houses for a waste, that they may build houses but not inhabit them, and plant vineyards but not drink the wine thereof (Zephaniah 1:13).

The "wealth that shall be for plunder" signifies spiritual wealth, which is the knowledges of good and truth; "the houses that shall be for devastation" signify the things of the church in man; that from these when devastated one profits nothing and receives nothing, even though he listens to them, and sees them in the Word, is signified by "building and not inhabiting, and planting vineyards and not drinking the wine thereof," "houses" meaning the goods of the church, and "vineyards" with "wine" its truths.

[17] Like things are meant in Micah:

Thou shalt sow but shalt not reap; thou shalt tread the olive but shalt not anoint thee with oil, and the new wine but shall not drink wine (Micah 6:15).

In Amos:

Vineyards of desire shall ye plant, but ye shall not drink the wine of them (Amos 5:11).

And in Hosea:

The threshing-floor and the wine-vat shall not feed them, and the new wine shall dissemble unto them. They shall not pour forth wine to Jehovah, and these shall not be agreeable unto Him (Hosea 9:2, 4).

The "threshing-floor and the wine-vat" signify the same as "corn and wine," because corn and wine are there collected; that they will not profit by what they hear is signified by "they shall not feed them, and the new wine shall dissemble unto them;" and that thence their worship is not accepted is signified by "they shall not pour forth wine to Jehovah, and these (that is, the offerings) shall not be agreeable unto Him."

[18] In Joel:

Awake, ye drunkards, and weep; and howl, all ye drinkers of wine, because of the sweet wine which is cut off from your mouth. The field is devastated, the ground mourned, for the corn was devastated, the new wine was dried up, the fresh oil languisheth; the husbandmen were ashamed; the vine-dressers howled (Joel 1:5, 10-11).

What these words signify in the spiritual sense, may be seen above n. 374, where they are explained; "wine" and "sweet wine" meaning the truth of the church, and "vine-dressers" those who are in truths and teach them. This treats of a devastated church, in which goods and truths have perished.

(Odkazy: The Apocalypse Explained 374)


[19] In Ezekiel:

Damascus was thy trader in the multitude of thy works, in the multitude of all riches, in the wine of Heshbon 1 and the wool of Zachar (Ezekiel 27:18).

This is said of Tyre, which signifies the church in relation to the knowledges of good and truth; and "Damascus," which was a city in Syria, signifies the concordant knowing faculty [scientificum]; and the "tradings" referred to in this chapter signify the acquisition and communication and also the use of these. Because "Damascus" signifies the concordant knowing faculty, it is called a "trader in the multitude of all works and riches," "works" by which uses are effected, signifying the knowledges of good, and "riches" the knowledges of truth; and as the knowledges of truth and good are in the natural man, for therein is everything pertaining to cognition and knowing that is perceptible, therefore it is said "in the wine of Heshbon and the wool of Zachar," the "wine of Heshbon" signifying natural truth, and the "wool of Zachar" natural good.

[20] In Isaiah:

A malediction shall devour the earth; the new wine shall mourn, the vine shall languish, all the glad of heart shall sigh. They shall not drink wine with a song; strong drink shall be bitter to them that drink it. The city of voidness shall be broken down; every house shall be shut, that no one come in (Isaiah 24:6-7, 9-10).

These words describe the perversion of the church, which takes place when falsity rules in place of truth, whence there is no longer any good; for man has good by means of truths. "The earth that the malediction will devour" signifies the church, "malediction" meaning its perversion; the "new wine that will mourn," and the "vine that will languish," signify all truth of the church, "to mourn" and "to languish" signifying deprivation of it; that there shall no longer be any heavenly enjoyment and blessedness is signified by "all the glad of heart shall sigh, they shall not drink wine with a song;" that they shall turn away from all things that agree with truths is signified by "strong drink shall be bitter to them that drink it," "strong drink" signifying the things that are from truths and agree with them. But that the doctrine of falsity shall be destroyed is signified by "the city of voidness shall be broken down," "city" meaning doctrine, and "a void" falsity; and that there shall no longer be any good or wisdom with man is signified by "every house shall be shut, that no one come in," which takes place when there is no truth, but only falsity.

[21] In Amos:

Who drink out of bowls of wine, and anoint themselves with the firstfruits of the oils; but they are not grieved for the breach of Joseph (Amos 6:6).

This and what precedes in that chapter describes those who are in external worship without internal, such as the Jews were formerly and still are; the "bowls of wine out of which they drink" are the externals of truth from which is worship; and the "firstfruits of the oils with which they anoint themselves" are the externals of good, from which also is worship; "Joseph" signifies the internal of the church or its spiritual; not being affected because this perishes is signified by "they are not grieved for his breach." (That external worship without internal is no worship, see Arcana Coelestia 1094, 1175, 7724; that the Jews were formerly and still are in external worship without internal, n. 1200, 3147, 3479, 8871; that "Joseph" signifies the spiritual church, thus also the spiritual of the church, n. 3969, 3971, 4669, 6417)

[22] In Zechariah:

I will render the house of Judah mighty and I will save the house of Joseph; on this account they shall be as the mighty Ephraim, and their heart shall be glad as if with wine (Zechariah 10:6-7).

"The house of Judah" signifies the Lord's celestial church, and the "house of Joseph" the Lord's spiritual church; and "to render mighty their houses" signifies to multiply with them truths from good, for all might is of truth from good; therefore it is said, "they shall be as the mighty Ephraim;" "Ephraim" signifying the understanding of truth from good, which is called mighty from its multiplication; heavenly enjoyment therefrom is signified by "their heart shall be glad as if with wine," "wine" meaning truth from good from which that enjoyment comes. (That truths have all power from good, see in the work o n Heaven and Hell 228-233; and also above, n. 209, 333; that "Judah" in the Word signifies the Lord's celestial kingdom, Arcana Coelestia 3881, 6363; and "Ephraim" the intellectual of the church, n. 3969, 5354, 6222, 6234, 6238, 6267, 6296.)

(Odkazy: The Apocalypse Explained 209, The Apocalypse Explained 333)


[23] In Daniel:

Belshazzar king of Babylon, and his magnates, and his wives, and his concubines, drank wine out of vessels of the temple of Jerusalem, and praised the gods of silver, brass, iron, wood, and stone. Therefore there was written on the wall, Numbered, weighed, and divided. And then he [Nebuchadnezzar] was driven out from the sons of man, and his dwelling was with the wild asses (Daniel 5:2-5, 21).

In the internal sense this describes the profanation of good and truth, which also is meant by "Babel" or "Babylon;" for "to drink wine out of the vessels of the temple of Jerusalem" signifies to draw the truths of the church from the Word, "to drink wine" meaning to draw truths, and "the vessels of the temple of Jerusalem" meaning the truths that belong to the doctrine of the church from the Word; and "to praise the gods of gold, silver, brass, iron, wood, and stone" signifies worship from the love of self and the world; for these gods signify idolatrous worship of every kind, and profanation; that it was therefore written on the wall, "numbered, weighed, divided" signifies separation from all things of heaven and the church. That afterwards "the king was driven out from the sons of man, and his dwelling was with the wild asses" signifies separation from all truth, and the allotment of his life with the infernals, "sons of man" meaning the truths of the church, "wild asses" those who are in dire falsities like those in the hells, and "dwelling" meaning the allotment of the life.

(Odkazy: Daniel 5:24-25)


[24] In Joel:

They have cast a lot upon My people; for they have given a boy for a harlot, and sold a girl for wine, which they drank (Joel 3:3).

"To cast lots upon the people" signifies to dissipate the truths of the church, "to cast a lot" signifying to dissipate, and "people" signifying the church in relation to truths, thus also the truths of the church; "to give a boy for a harlot" signifies to falsify truth, "boy" meaning the truth of the church, and "harlot" falsity; and "to sell a girl for wine, which they drank" signifies to pervert the good of the church by truth falsified, "girl" meaning the good of the church, and "wine" truth falsified.

[25] Because "wine" signified the truth of the church that is from good, it was commanded that, with the sacrifices upon the altar, a meal-offering and a drink-offering should be offered, and the meal-offering was bread, and the drink-offering wine; these signified worship of the Lord from the good of love, and from the truths therefrom; for all worship is from these. (On the drink-offerings, the portions of wine with them at the different sacrifices, see Exodus 29:40, 41; Leviticus 23:13, 18; Numbers 6:1-4, 15, 17; 15:4-7, 10, 24; 28:7-10, 24, 31; 29:6, 11, 16, 19, 22, 25, 27, 28, 31, 34, 38, 39; and besides Genesis 35:14) This makes clear what is signified in Joel:

The meal-offering and the drink-offering was cut off from the house of Jehovah; the priests, the ministers (of the altar), mourned (Joel 1:9);

namely, that worship from the good of love, and from the truths therefrom, had perished. Who cannot see that the meal-offering and the drink-offering, which were bread and wine, were not pleasing to Jehovah in worship, unless they had signified such things as are of heaven and the church?

(Odkazy: Exodus 29:40-41; Numbers 29:27-28, 29:38-39)


[26] From this it can now be seen what the bread and wine in the Holy Supper involve, namely, the bread, the good of love to the Lord from the Lord, and the wine, the good of faith, which in its essence is truth. (But on the Holy Supper and the bread and wine of it, see The Doctrine of the New Jerusalem 210-222.) Because "wine" signifies the good of faith, which in its essence is truth, when the Lord instituted the sacrament of the supper, He said:

I say unto you, I will not drink henceforth of this product of the vine until that day when I will drink it with you new in My Father's kingdom (Matthew 26:29).

I say unto you, I will not drink of the product of the vine until the kingdom of God shall come (Luke 22:18).

"The product of the vine," that is, "wine," which the Lord "would drink with them new in His Father's kingdom," or "when the kingdom of God should come," means that all Divine truth in heaven and the church would then be from His Divine Human; He therefore calls it "new," and also He calls it "the new testament in his blood" (Luke 22:20); for "the Lord's blood" has a like signification as "wine" (see above, n. 30, 328, 329). And as everything Divine, since the Lord has risen, proceeds from Him, He says that He will drink it with them when the kingdom of God shall come, and it came when He reduced all things to order in the heavens and in the hells. That the kingdom of God came at the same time with the Lord and that it is from Him can be seen from Matthew 3:2; 4:8; 10:7; 12:28; 16:28; Mark 1:14, 15; 9:1; Luke 1:32, 33; 9:11, 27, 60; 10:11; 16:16; 17:20, 21; 23:42, 51; John 18:36. Now, because "bread" signifies the good of love, and "wine" the good of faith, which in its essence is the truth from that good, and in the highest sense, "bread" signifies the Lord in respect to Divine good, and "wine" the Lord in respect to Divine truth, and because there is a correspondence between spiritual things and natural, (and such a correspondence that when "bread" and "wine" are in man's thought, the good of love and the good of faith are in the angels' thoughts), and because all things of heaven and the church have reference to the good of love and the good of faith, therefore the Lord instituted the Holy Supper in order that by means of it there might be a conjunction of the angels of heaven with the men of the church.

(Odkazy: Luke 1:32-33, Luke 17:20-21; Mark 1:14-15; Matthew 4:17; The Apocalypse Explained 30, The Apocalypse Explained 328, 329)


[27] Because such things are meant by "bread and wine" in heaven, therefore:

Melchizedek, king of Salem, going out to meet Abram, brought out bread and wine; and he was a priest to God Most High. And he blessed Abram (Genesis 14:18-19).

"Melchizedek" here represents the Lord in relation to Divine good and in relation to Divine truth, as priest in relation to Divine good, and as king to Divine truth; therefore he "brought out bread and wine," "bread" signifying Divine good, and "wine" Divine truth; or when applied to man, "bread" signifying the good of love to the Lord, and "wine" the good of faith, which is from the reception of Divine truth.

[28] The "wine" spoken of by the Lord in the following passages has a like signification:

They do not put new wine into old wine-skins, else the skins burst, and the wine is spilled; but they put [new] wine into fresh wine-skins, and both are preserved (Matthew 9:17).

And no man having drunk old wine straightway desireth new; for he saith, The old is more useful (Luke 5:39).

This comparison, like all others in the Word, is from correspondences, "wine" signifying truth, "old wine" the truth of the old or Jewish Church, and "wine-skins" things that contain, "old wine-skins" the statutes and judgments of the Jewish Church, and "fresh wine-skins" the precepts and commandments of the Lord. That the statutes and judgments of the Jewish Church, which related especially to sacrifices and representative worship, are not in agreement with the truths of the Christian Church is meant by "they do not put new wine into old wine-skins, else the wine-skins burst and the wine is spilled; but they put [new] wine into fresh wine-skins, and both are preserved together." That those who have been born and educated in the externals of the Jewish Church cannot be brought immediately into the internals belonging to the Christian Church is signified by "no man having drunk old wine straightway desireth new; for he saith, "The old is more useful."

(Odkazy: Luke 5:37-39)


[29] The same is signified by "the water turned into wine at Cana of Galilee," thus described in John:

At the wedding in Cana of Galilee, when the wine failed, there were six water-pots of stone set there, according to the cleansing of the Jews. Jesus said, Fill the water-pots; and they filled them to the brim. Then he said unto them Draw out now, and bear unto the ruler of the feast; and they bare it. While the ruler of the feast tasted the water that was made wine, he calleth the bridegroom, and saith unto him, Every man setteth on first the good wine; and when they have had enough, the inferior; thou hast kept the good wine until now (John 2:1-10).

It should be known that all the miracles done by the Lord, as well as all the miracles by Him spoken of in the Old Testament, signified, that is, contained within them, such things as belong to heaven and the church, and that thence His miracles were Divine (see Arcana Coelestia 7337, 8364, 9051). So with this miracle; here, as elsewhere in the Word, "a wedding" signifies the church; "in Cana of Galilee" means among the Gentiles; "water" the truth of the external church, such as was the truth of the Jewish Church from the sense of the letter of the Word, and "wine" the truth of the internal church, such as is the truth of the Christian Church; therefore the Lord's "making the water wine" signifies that of the truths of the external church He will make truths of the internal church by opening the internal things that have lain concealed in them. "The six water-pots of stone, set there according to the cleansing of the Jews," signify all these truths in the Word, and thence in the Jewish Church and its worship; these were all representative and significative of things Divine in the Lord and from the Lord, which contained things eternal. For this reason there were "six water-pots of stone, set for the cleansing of the Jews;" the number "six" signifies all, and is predicated of truths; "stone" signifies truth, and "the cleansing of the Jews" purification from sins; thus all things of the Jewish Church are signified, since that church regards purification from sins as its all, for so far as anyone is purified from sins, so far he becomes a church. "The ruler of the feast" means those who are in the knowledges of truth; his saying to the bridegroom, "every man setteth on first the good wine; and when men have had enough, the inferior; thou hast kept the good wine until now," signifies that every church has its beginning in truths from good, but falls away into truths not of good, but that now, at the end of the church, truth from good, or genuine truth, is granted, namely by the Lord.

[30] It is because "wine" signifies the truth of the church, and "oil" the good of the church, that the Lord says, in the parable of the man who was wounded by thieves:

That the Samaritan poured oil and wine into his wounds (Luke 10:33-34);

where "the man wounded by thieves" means those who are infested and have their conscience hurt by evil men, who are "robbers;" and "the Samaritan" means the Gentiles that are in the good of charity; therefore "his pouring into his wounds oil and wine" signifies the spiritual things that heal a man thus injured, "oil" meaning the good of love, and "wine" the good of faith, or truth. What the rest signifies, namely, "that he set him on his own beast, and brought him to an inn, and told them to take care of him," may be seen above (n. 375

(Odkazy: Hosea 7:4-5; Isaiah 1:21-22; Psalms 104:15; The Apocalypse Explained 375; Zechariah 9:15-17)


[8]), where they are explained. That "wine" signifies the truth of the church can be seen not only from the passages cited, but also from others in the Word (as Isaiah 1:21, 22; 25:6; 36:17; Hosea 7:4, 5, 14; 14:5-7; Amos 2:8; Zechariah 9:15, 17; Psalms 104:14-16).

[31] As most things in the Word have also a contrary sense, so, too, has "wine," and in that sense it signifies truth falsified, and also falsity, as in the following passages. In Isaiah:

Woe to the crown of pride, to the drunkards of Ephraim, to the flower of his fading adornment, which is on the head of the valley of the fat ones frenzied with wine; the crown of pride, the drunkards of Ephraim, they shall be trampled under the feet; these go astray through wine, and through strong drink they err; the priest and the prophet go astray through strong drink, they are swallowed up of wine, they err through wine, 2 they go astray among the seeing, they waver in judgment (Isaiah 28:1, 3, 7).

This is said of those who are insane in things spiritual because they believe themselves to be intelligent of themselves, and glory in it; the state of such is here described by pure correspondences; those who are insane in things spiritual or in truths are meant by "the drunkards," and those who thence believe themselves intelligent by "Ephraim," and hence glorying in intelligence or learning is meant by the "crown of pride;" for those who are in falsities of doctrine and have confirmed themselves in them, when they are illustrated and see truths, in the other life become like drunkards. The learned who have confirmed themselves in falsities become such, and to confirm oneself in falsities is to confirm from oneself and not from the Lord. This makes clear what is signified by "woe to the crown of pride, to the drunkards of Ephraim;" "the flower of the fading adornment that is on the head of the valley of the fat ones frenzied with wine" signifies the truth of the church destroyed even as it is born by the glorying of the self-intelligence that is of the natural man separated from the spiritual, when falsity is seen instead of truth, "the flower of the adornment" meaning truth as it is born declining or perished; "the head of the valley of the fat ones" means the intelligence of the natural man; "frenzied with wine" means those who see falsity in place of truth; "the crown of pride, the drunkards of Ephraim, they shall be trampled under the feet," signifies that this intelligence shall utterly perish; "these go astray through wine, and through strong drink they err," signifies through falsities and through such things as are from falsities; "the priest and the prophet go astray through strong drink, they are swallowed up of wine, they are gone astray through strong drink," signifies that such are those who ought to be in the doctrine of good and truth, and in a sense abstracted from persons that such is their doctrine itself; "they go astray among the seeing, they waver in judgment," signifies that they do not see the truths of intelligence. That these words have such a signification no one can see except from the spiritual sense; without that it could not be known that "crown" and "head" signify intelligence, that "drunkards" signify those who are insane in things spiritual, that "Ephraim" signifies here man's own understanding, or that which is from himself, that "valley" signifies the lower things of the mind, which are natural and sensual, and that "priest and prophet" signify the doctrine of good and truth.

[32] In the same:

Linger ye, wonder, be astounded, and cry out; they are drunken, but not with wine; they stagger, but not with strong drink; for Jehovah hath poured out upon you the spirit of deep sleep, and hath closed up your eyes; the prophets and your heads, the seers hath He covered (Isaiah 29:9-10).

This is said of those who can see nothing of truth when they hear or read it from the Word; those who are such are called "drunken but not with wine," and "they stagger, but not with strong drink," "wine" signifying in particular the truth of the spiritual and thus of the rational man, and "strong drink" the truth of the natural man therefrom. Because such are meant it is said, "Jehovah hath poured out upon you the spirit of deep sleep, and hath closed up your eyes," "the spirit of deep sleep" meaning no perception, and the "eyes closed up" no understanding. "The prophets and your heads [the seers] hath He covered," signifies those who are in the doctrine of truth and were wise and intelligent thence; "prophets" signify those who are in the doctrine of truth, and in an abstract sense, doctrine itself, "heads" signify the wise, and in an abstract sense, wisdom, and "seers" signify the intelligent, and in an abstract sense, intelligence. Wonder at such gross stupidity is described by "Linger ye, wonder, be astounded," and lamentation over it by "cry out." Such are those who are in a life of evil, and at the same time in the principles of falsity, however learned they are believed to be; for a life of evil shuts out the perception of good by which thought has life and light, and the principles of falsity shut out the understanding of truth, on which account they see from the sensual man only, and not at all from the spiritual.

[33] In the same:

The dogs are strong of soul, they know not satiety; and they are shepherds who know not intelligence. Come, I will take wine and we will be drunk with strong drink (Isaiah 56:11-12).

This is said of those who care for nothing but worldly and earthly things, which close the internal spiritual man. These, from having no perception of good and no understanding of truth, are called "dogs strong of soul, they know not satiety," that is, they are unable to receive good, "to know" here signifies to be able, and "satiety" reception of good, for satiety is predicated of food, by which spiritual nourishment is signified. That they have no understanding of truth is meant by "they are shepherds who know not intelligence;" those are called "shepherds" who believe themselves able to instruct others, for "to feed" means to instruct; and because such persons love falsities and things falsified, it is added, "Come, I will take wine, and we will be drunk with strong drink."

[34] In Jeremiah:

Thus said Jehovah, God of Israel, Every bottle shall be filled with wine. Behold I fill all the inhabitants of this land, and the kings sitting for David upon his throne, and the priests and the prophets, all the inhabitants of Jerusalem with drunkenness (Jeremiah 13:12-13).

Here, too, "wine" signifies falsity, and "every bottle that shall be filled with wine" signifies the mind of man, since the mind is a recipient of truth or of falsity, as a bottle is of wine; "the kings sitting for David upon his throne" signify those who would otherwise be in Divine truths, "priests" those who would be in Divine goods, "prophets," those who would be in doctrine, "the inhabitants of Jerusalem" all who are of the church; and "the drunkenness with which they shall be filled" signifies insanity in spiritual things.

[35] In the same:

I am become like a drunkard, and like a man into whom wine hath passed, because of Jehovah, and because of the words of His Holiness. For the land is full of adulterers (Jeremiah 23:9-10).

This is a lamentation over the adulteration of good and falsification of truth in the church, which is signified by "the land is full of adulterers;" these are meant by "adulteries," and the church by "land." Insanity in spiritual things through reasonings from evils against Divine goods and from falsities against Divine truth is signified by, "I am become like a drunkard, and like a man into whom wine has passed, because of Jehovah, and because of the words of His Holiness;" "to become like a drunkard and like a man into whom wine hath passed" signifies confusion of mind and insanity by reasoning from evils and falsities; "because of Jehovah" signifies because of Divine goods, and "because of the words of his holiness" signifies because of Divine truths.

(Odkazy: Arcana Coelestia 2465, Genesis 19:32-35, Genesis 19:32-33; Isaiah 19:11-12, 24:20; Joel 1:5-6, 1:7; Leviticus 10:8-9)


[36] In Isaiah:

Hear now this, thou afflicted, and drunken but not with wine (Isaiah 51:21).

The "drunken but not with wine," mean here those who are in falsities from ignorance of truth. That:

Noah drank of the wine and was drunken, and therefore lay naked in the midst of his tent (Genesis 9:21);

means in the spiritual sense, something entirely different from the meaning in the letter; likewise:

Lot's being made drunken by his daughters, and their then lying with him (Genesis 19:32-34).

What is meant by the drunkenness of Noah in the spiritual sense may be seen in Arcana Coelestia 1070-1081); and what by the drunkenness of Lot (n. 2465 end). "Drunkenness" also elsewhere in the Word signifies insanity in spiritual things, and lapsing into errors (Isaiah 19:11, 12, 14; Jeremiah 25:27; Joel 1:5-7; Jeremiah 51:7; Leviticus 10:8, 9).

[37] That "wine" in a contrary sense signifies falsity, is also evident from Isaiah:

Woe unto them that rise early in the morning, that follow strong drink; to them that delay until twilight till wine inflames them. But they do not look upon the work of Jehovah, and they see not the working of His hands. Woe to the wise in their own eyes, and the intelligent before their own faces. Woe unto the mighty in drinking wine, and to men of strength to mingle strong drink (Isaiah 5:11-12, 21-22).

This is said of those who frame for themselves doctrinals from self-intelligence not from the Lord, or from Him out of the Word, which consequently are mere falsities. "Woe unto them who rise early in the morning, who follow strong drink, to them who delay until twilight till wine inflame them; but they do not look upon the work of Jehovah, and they see not the working of His hands" signifies therefore the perverted states of those who believe that they are illustrated of themselves, whence they are in falsities of doctrine, and care not for the Word, from which they might know goods and truths of life and of doctrine. "To rise early in the morning," and "to delay until twilight" signifies to be illustrated; and "to follow strong drink," and "to be inflamed with wine" signifies to hatch out doctrinals of themselves; "not to look upon the work of Jehovah," and "not to see the working of His hands" signifies not to care for the Word, or the goods of life and the truths of doctrine there disclosed; "the work of Jehovah" is predicated of the goods of life, and "the working of His hands" of the truths of doctrine, both from the Word; because such persons are meant, therefore it is said, "Woe to the wise in their own eyes, and the intelligent before their own faces;" "the wise in their own eyes" signifying those who are wise from their own intelligence, and "the intelligent before their own faces" signifying those who are intelligent from their own affection, "eyes" signifying the understanding, and "face" affection. And "woe unto the mighty in drinking wine, and to men of strength to mingle strong drink," signifies unto such as aspire after great things, and are ingenious in confirming the falsities that favor the loves of self and their own principles; "the mighty" are those who aspire to great things; "men of strength" those who are ingenious, and seem to themselves to be intelligent; "to drink wine" means to imbibe falsities, and "to mingle strong drink" means to confirm them. Such are all those who are in the love of self, and who seek after the reputation for learning, for such are in what is their own, and cannot be elevated above it; therefore their own thought is in the corporeal sensual, by which no truth is seen, and no spiritual good is perceived. But those who are not in the love of self, and who seek intelligence for the sake of the uses of life, are elevated by the Lord from what is their own into the light of heaven, and though not themselves aware of it, are illustrated.

[38] In Hosea:

Whoredom and new wine have taken up the heart. My people ask the wood, and their rod answereth them; for the spirit of whoredom hath led them astray, and they have committed whoredom under their God. Ephraim is joined to idols; their wine is gone; in whoring they commit whoredom (Hosea 4:11-12, 17-18).

This treats of those who falsify truths; the falsification of truth is signified by "whoredom," and the falsity therefrom by "new wine." This makes clear what is signified by "whoredom and new wine have taken up the heart; the spirit of whoredoms hath seduced them, they have committed whoredom under their God, and the wine hath departed, in whoring they commit whoredom," namely, that such falsify Divine truths, and consequently have no truth at all, "to commit whoredom under their God" signifies to falsify Divine truths, and "the wine hath departed" signifies that consequently they have no truth at all; "Ephraim, who is joined to idols" signifies those who are in self-intelligence, and the "idols to which he is joined" signify the falsities of religion. "My people ask the wood, and their rod answereth them" signifies that they consult their self-love, and favor it from self-intelligence; for "wood" or an idol of wood, which they ask, signifies self-love, and "the rod that answers" signifies power from what is one's own, thus intelligence.

[39] In Revelation:

Babylon is fallen is fallen, the great city, because of the wine of the wrath of her whoredom she hath made all nations to drink. If anyone worshipeth the beast he shall drink of the wine of the wrath of God, which hath been mingled unmixed in the cup of the anger [of God]; and he shall be tormented with fire and brimstone (Revelation 14:8-10);

I will show thee the judgment of the great harlot that sitteth upon many waters, with whom the kings of the earth committed whoredom, and they that dwell in the earth were made drunk from the wine of her whoredom (Revelation 17:1-2).

For of the wine of the wrath of her whoredom have all nations drunk, and the kings of the earth have committed whoredom with her (Revelation 18:3).

"The wine of the anger of God" signifies the falsity of evil, and "the wine of whoredom" signifies truth falsified; what the rest means will appear in the explanation of it, likewise what these words mean in Revelation:

Babylon the great was remembered before God, to give unto her the cup of the wine of the wrath of God's anger (Revelation 16:19);

"The wine of God's anger" having the same meaning as "the chalice, or cup, of God's anger."

(Odkazy: Daniel 5:24-25; Genesis 19:32-35, Genesis 27:25-28, Genesis 49:11-12; Isaiah 62:7-9; Joel 1:9-11; Revelation 6:6)


[40] In Jeremiah:

Babylon hath been a cup of gold in the hand of Jehovah, making the whole earth drunken; the nations have drunk of her wine, therefore the nations are mad (Jeremiah 51:7).

And in David:

There is a cup in the hand of Jehovah, and He hath mingled the wine, hath filled it with mixture, and hath poured out; but the lees of it all the wicked of the earth shall suck out and drink (Psalms 75:8).

As the "meal-offering" and the "drink-offering," which were bread and wine, signify worship from the good of love and the truths of faith, so in a contrary sense, the "meal-offering" and "drink-offering" signify worship from the evils that are of the love of evil, and from the falsities of faith; this was signified by the "meal-offering" and "drink-offering" that were offered to idols and to the gods (Isaiah 57:6; 65:11; Jeremiah 7:18; 44:17-19; Ezekiel 20:28; Deuteronomy 32:38). From the signification of "wine" it can be seen what "vineyard," "vine," its "branches," and "grapes" signify in the Word, namely, that "a vineyard" signifies the spiritual church, that is, the church that is in the truths and goods of doctrine from the Lord, "a vine" the doctrine itself, its "branches" truths from which doctrine is formed, and "the grapes" which are the fruit of vineyards and of vines, the goods of charity and the goods of faith (but of these elsewhere).

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Footnotes:

1.  Hebrew has "Helbon. "

2.  In AC 6377 we read "strong drink."

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Apocalypse Explained 368, 405, 419, 433, 492, 619, 625, 638, 657, 811, 881, 887, 918, 919, 920, 962, 1035, 1049, 1152, 1154

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Apocalypse Explained # 328

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328. For thou wast slain, and didst redeem us to God in Thy blood, signifies the separation of all from the Divine, and the conjunction with the Divine by the acknowledgment of the Lord, and by the reception of Divine truth from Him. This is evident from the signification of "being slain," as being, in reference to the Lord, the separation of all from the Divine, for "to be slain" signifies in the Word to be spiritually slain, that is, to perish by evils and falsities (see above, n. 315); and because the Lord with such is not, for He is denied, therefore "being slain" signifies, in reference to the Lord, not acknowledged (as above, n. 315 and also denied; and when the Lord is denied He is as it were slain with such as deny, and by the denial they are separated from the Divine; for such as deny the Lord, that is, His Divine, separate themselves altogether from the Divine. For the Lord is the God of the universe, and He is one with the Father, and the Father is in Him and He in the Father, and no one cometh to the Father but by Him, as the Lord Himself teaches; consequently those in the church who do not acknowledge His Divine, and still more those who in heart deny it, are altogether separated from the Divine.

(Odkazy: Revelation 5:9; The Apocalypse Explained 315)


[2] Denying the Divine is here meant by slaying Him with themselves. In the internal sense of the Word the same is meant by "crucifying the Lord" (see above, n. 83, 195); for the Jews, with whom the church then was, denied that he was the Christ, and thereby separated themselves from the Divine and therefore they gave Him up to death, or crucified Him. Moreover, at this day those who deny His Divine do the same; it is therefore frequently said by preachers that those who lead an evil life and blaspheme the Lord crucify Him with themselves. This, therefore, is what is here signified by "Thou wast slain. " This is evident also from the signification of "thou didst redeem us to God in Thy blood," as being that He conjoined us to the Divine by the acknowledgment of Him, and by the reception of Divine truth from Him; for "to redeem" signifies to liberate from hell, and thereby to appropriate men to Himself, and thus enjoin them to the Divine, as will be seen from the passages in the Word in which "to redeem" and "redemption" are mentioned, which will be quoted below. The "blood of the Lord" signifies Divine truth proceeding from Him; and because man by the reception of Divine truth from the Lord is liberated from hell and conjoined to Him, therefore "Thou didst redeem us to God in Thy blood" signifies conjunction with the Divine by the reception of the Divine truth from the Lord.

(Odkazy: The Apocalypse Explained 83, 195)


[3] That this sense lies hidden in these words no one can see who abides in the mere sense of the letter, for in that sense nothing else can be seen except that "Thou wast slain" means that He was crucified and "Thou didst redeem us in Thy blood" means that He has reconciled us to His Father by the passion of the cross. Because this meaning is the meaning of the letter, and because it has hitherto been unknown that in the particulars of the Word there is an internal sense which is spiritual, from that sense, namely, the sense of the letter, it has been made a doctrine of the church that the Divine Itself which they call the Father cast away from Him the whole human race, and that the Lord by the passion of the cross made reconciliation, and that thus those for whom He intercedes are saved. Who that has any illumination of understanding cannot see that this doctrinal is contrary to the Divine Itself? For the Divine Itself never casts away any man from Him for He loves all, and therefore desires the salvation of all. It is also contrary to the Divine Itself to be reconciled by the shedding of blood, and to be brought back to mercy by beholding the passion of the cross which His own Son sustained, and from this to have mercy, and not from Himself. Although this doctrine is so contrary to the Divine essence, yet to believe this is called essential faith or justifying faith.

[4] Again, who can think from enlightened reason that the sins of the whole world were transferred to the Lord, and that the sins of anyone who merely has that faith are thereby taken away? But although this is the doctrine of those who never think beyond the sense of the letter, yet the angels who are with men have no perception of these things according to that sense, but according to the spiritual sense, for they are spiritual and therefore think spiritually and not naturally. To angels, "redeeming man in His blood" means liberating man from hell, and thus claiming and conjoining man to Himself by the acknowledgment of Him, and by the reception of Divine truth from Him. Moreover, the church may know that this is so; for it may know that no one is conjoined to the Divine by blood, but by the reception of the Divine truth, and the application of it to the life.

[5] Liberation from hell by the Lord was accomplished by His assuming the Human, and through it subjugating the hells, and reducing to order all things in the heavens, which could have been done in no way except by the Human; for the Divine operates from firsts through ultimates, thus from Himself through the things that are from Himself in ultimates, which are in the Human. This is the operation of Divine power in heaven and in the world. (On this see some things above, n. 41; also in Heaven and Hell 315; and in Arcana Coelestia 5897 897, 6239, 6451, 6465, 8603, 9215, 9216, 9824, 9828, 9836, 10044, 10099, 10329, 10335, 10548.)

Liberation from hell by the Lord was also accomplished by His glorifying His Human, that is, making it Divine; for thus and not otherwise could He hold the hells in subjection forever; and as the subjugation of the hells and the glorification of His Human was accomplished by means of temptations admitted into his Human, His passion of the cross was His last temptation and complete victory. That "He bore the sins of all" signifies that He admitted into Himself all the hells when He was tempted, for from the hells all sins or evils ascend, and enter into man and are in him; therefore the Lord's "bearing sins" signifies that He admitted the hells into Himself when tempted; and His "taking away sins" means that He subjugated the hells, in order that evils may no more rise up from them, with those who acknowledge the Lord and receive Him, that is, who receive in faith and life the Divine truth proceeding from Him, and who are thus conjoined to the Lord.

It was said that "Thou didst redeem us to God in Thy blood" signifies conjunction with the Divine by the acknowledgment of the Lord, and the reception of Divine truth from Him; and as the church is founded on this, I will state briefly how conjunction is thereby effected.

(Odkazy: Arcana Coelestia 9215-9216; Ezekiel 18:12; The Apocalypse Explained 41)


[6] The primary thing is to acknowledge the Lord, to acknowledge His Divine in the Human, and His omnipotence to save the human race; for by that acknowledgment man is conjoined to the Divine, since there is no Divine except in Him; for the Father is there; for the Father is in Him, and He in the Father, as the Lord Himself teaches; consequently they who look to another Divine near Him, or at His side, as those are wont to do who pray to the Father to have mercy for the sake of the Son, turn aside from the way and worship a Divine elsewhere than in Him. Moreover, they then give no thought to the Divine of the Lord, but only to the Human, when yet these cannot be separated; for the Divine and the Human are not two, but a single person, conjoined like soul and body, according to the doctrine received by the churches from the Athanasian Creed. Therefore to acknowledge the Divine in the Lord's Human, or the Divine Human, is the primary thing of the church, by which there is conjunction; and because it is the primary it is also the first thing of the church. It is because this is the first thing of the church, that the Lord, when He was in the world, so often said to those whom He healed, "Believest thou that I can do this?" and when they answered that they believed, He said, "Be it done according to thy faith." This He so often said that they might believe, in the first place, that from His Divine Human He had Divine omnipotence, for without that belief the church could not be begun, and without that belief they could not have been conjoined with the Divine, but must have been separated from it, and thus would not have been able to receive anything good from him.

[7] Afterwards the Lord taught how they were to be saved, namely, by receiving Divine truth from Him; and truth is received when it is applied to the life and implanted in it by doing it; therefore the Lord so often said that they should do His words. From this it can be seen that these two things, namely, believing in the Lord and doing His words, make one, and can by no means be separated; for he who does not do the Lord's words does not believe in Him; so also he who thinks that he believes in Him and does not do His words does not believe in Him, for the Lord is in His words, that is, in His truths, and by them He gives faith to man. From these few things it can be known that conjunction with the Divine is effected through the acknowledgment of the Lord and the reception of Divine truth from Him. This, therefore, is what is signified by "the Lamb redeeming us to God in His blood." That "the Lamb" signifies the Lord in respect to the Divine Human, see above n. 314. (On this more may be seen in The Doctrine of the New Jerusalem 293-297, and in the quotations from Arcana Coelestia, n 300-306, as also at the end of that work, where the Lord is particularly treated of.)

That "blood" signifies the Divine truth proceeding from the Lord, and "salvation by His blood" signifies by the reception of Divine truth from Him, will be explained in the following article.

(Odkazy: The Apocalypse Explained 314)


[8] That "to redeem" signifies to deliver and to make free, and, in reference to the Lord, to deliver and free from hell, and thus to set apart and conjoin to Himself, can be seen from the following passages. In Isaiah:

Who is this that cometh from Edom, walking in the multitude of his power? I that speak in righteousness, great to save. For the day of vengeance is in My heart, and the year of My redeemed hath come. In all their straitness He was in straitness and the angel of His faces saved them; because of His love and His pity He redeemed them; and He took them up and carried them all the days of eternity (Isaiah 63:1, 4, 9).

This treats of the Lord and His temptation-combats, by which He subjugated the hells. "Edom from which He cometh" signifies His Human, so also does "the angel of His faces." His Divine power from which He fought is signified by "walking in the multitude of His power;" the casting down into hell of those who rose up against Him and the elevation of the good into heaven is meant by "righteousness," thus by these words, "I that speak in righteousness, great to save. For the day of vengeance is in my heart, and the year of my redeemed hath come." His Divine love from which He did these things is described by "In all their straitness He was in straitness, and the angel of His faces saved them; because of His love and His pity He redeemed them; and He took them up and carried them all the days of eternity." From this it is clear that "the redeemed" and "those whom He redeemed" signify those whom He rescued from the fury of those who are from hell, and whom he saved.

[9] In the same:

Thus hath said Jehovah thy Creator, O Jacob, and thy Former, O Israel; for I have redeemed thee, I have called thee by thy name; thou art Mine (Isaiah 43:1).

That "to redeem" signifies to free from hell, and to set apart and conjoin to Himself so that they may be His, is clear, for it is said, "I have redeemed thee, I have called thee by thy name; thou art Mine;" because this is effected through reformation and regeneration by the Lord, therefore it is said, "Jehovah thy Creator, O Jacob, and thy Former, O Israel." He is called Creator because "to create" in the Word signifies to regenerate (see above, n. 294). "Jacob" and "Israel" signify those who are of the church, and are in truths from good.

(Odkazy: The Apocalypse Explained 294)


[10] In the same:

Say ye to the daughter of Zion, Behold, thy salvation cometh; behold, His reward is with Him, and the wages of His work are before Him. And they shall call them a people of holiness, the redeemed of Jehovah (Isaiah 62:11-12).

This also treats of the Lord's coming, and the establishment of a church by Him. "Daughter of Zion" signifies the church which is in love to the Lord; His coming is meant by "Behold, thy salvation cometh; behold, His reward is with Him, and the wages of His work are before Him;" those who are reformed and regenerated by Him are meant by "the redeemed of Jehovah."

[11] These are called the "redeemed" because they have been freed from evils by regeneration, and are set apart by the Lord and are conjoined to Him. In the same:

No lion shall be there, and the ravenous of the wild beasts shall not be found therein; but the redeemed shall go; and the ransomed of Jehovah shall return, and come to Zion with singing, and the gladness of eternity shall be upon their head (Isaiah 30:9-10).

This also treats of the Lord's coming, and the salvation of those who suffer themselves to be regenerated by the Lord. That with such there shall not be falsity destroying truth nor evil destroying good, is signified by "No lion shall be there, and the ravenous of the wild beasts shall not be found therein;" that such are delivered from evils and freed from falsities is signified by "the redeemed shall go; so shall the ransomed of Jehovah return;" their eternal happiness is signified by "they shall come to Zion with singing, and the gladness of eternity shall be upon their head," "Zion" meaning the church. What "singing" signifies see just above (n. 326). There are two, words in the original by which "to redeem" is expressed, one signifying deliverance from evils, the other liberation from falsities; these two words are used here; thus it is said, "the redeemed shall go," and "the ransomed of Jehovah shall return. " (These two words are also used in Hosea 13:14; and in David, Psalms 69:18; 107:2)

(Odkazy: Isaiah 35:9-10; The Apocalypse Explained 326)


[12] "To redeem" signifies to deliver from evils and to free from falsities, and also to deliver and free from hell, because all evils and falsities with man arise out of hell; and since the Lord removes these by reformation and regeneration, reformation and regeneration also are signified by "to redeem" or "redemption," as in the following passages.

[13] In David:

Rise up as a help to us, and ransom us for Thy mercy's sake (Psalms 44:26);

to "ransom" here meaning to free and to reform. In the same:

God hath ransomed my soul from the hand of hell; and He will accept me (Psalms 49:15).

"To ransom from the hand of hell" means to free; "to accept me" means to set apart and to conjoin to Himself, or to make His own, as servants sold and redeemed. In Hosea:

Out of the hand of hell will I ransom them; I will redeem them from death (Hosea 13:14).

"To redeem" meaning to deliver and free from damnation. In David:

Bless Jehovah, O my soul, who hath redeemed thy life from the pit (Psalms 103:1, 4).

"To redeem from the pit" means to free from damnation; "the pit" meaning damnation. In the same:

Draw nigh unto my soul, redeem it, and because of my enemies ransom me (Psalms 69:18).

"To draw nigh to the soul" signifies to conjoin it to Himself; "to redeem it" signifies to deliver from evils; "because of my enemies ransom me" signifies to free from falsities, "enemies" meaning falsities. In the same:

Let the redeemed of Jehovah say, whom He hath redeemed out of the hand of the distressing enemy (Psalms 107:2).

"The redeemed of Jehovah" means those who are delivered from evil; "whom He hath redeemed out of the hand of the distressing enemy" means those whom He has freed from falsities. In Jeremiah:

I am with thee, to save thee and to rescue thee; and I will rescue thee out of the hand of the evil, and I will ransom thee out of the hand of the violent (Jeremiah 15:20-21).

"To ransom out of the hand of the violent" means to free from falsities that offer violence to the good of charity; the "violent" signifying such falsities, consequently those also who are in them.

(Odkazy: Isaiah 13:14)


[14] In David:

Let Israel hope in Jehovah, for with Jehovah there is mercy, and in Him is much ransom, and He shall ransom Israel out of all his iniquities (Psalms 130:7-8).

"Ransom" means liberation; "Israel" the church; and to reform those who are of the church and free them from falsities is signified by "He shall ransom Israel out of all his iniquities." In the same:

Let integrity and uprightness preserve me; for I have waited for thee. Ransom Israel, O God, out of all his distresses (Psalms 25:21-22).

"To ransom Israel out of distresses" means here also to free those who are of the church from falsities, which straiten. In Isaiah:

Is My hand shortened, that there is no ransoming? or is there no power in Me to rescue? (Isaiah 50:2).

That "ransoming" means liberation is evident, for it is said also, "Is My hand shortened, or is there no power in Me to rescue." In David:

God shall hear my voice; He shall ransom my soul in peace (Psalms 55:17-18);

"to ransom" here means to free. In the same:

Unto Thee will I sing psalms with the harp, Thou Holy One of Israel. My lips shall praise; and my soul, which Thou hast ransomed (Psalms 71:22-23).

"To ransom the soul" means to free from falsities; for "soul" in the Word signifies the life of faith, and "heart" the life of love; therefore "to ransom the soul" signifies to free from falsities and to give the life of faith.

[15] In the same:

Ransom me from the oppression of man, that I may keep Thy precepts (Psalms 119:134).

"To ransom from the oppression of man" signifies to free from the falsities of evil, for "man" signifies the spiritual affection of truth and wisdom therefrom, and in the contrary sense, as here, the lust of falsity and insanity therefrom; the "oppression of man" signifies the destruction of truth by falsities. In the same:

Into Thine hand I will commend my spirit; Thou hast ransomed me, O Jehovah, God of truth (Psalms 31:5);

"to ransom" means to free from falsities and to reform by means of truths; and because this is signified by "ransom" it is said, "O Jehovah, God of truth." In the same:

Crime is in the hands of sinners, and their right hand is full of a bribe. But as for me, I walk in mine integrity; ransom me, and be merciful unto me (Psalms 26:10-11);

"to ransom" meaning to free from falsities and to reform. In the same:

He shall redeem their soul from fraud and violence; and precious shall their blood be in His eyes. And he shall live, and to him shall He give of the gold of Sheba; and He shall pray for him continually; all the day shall He bless them (Psalms 72:14-15).

The "needy" are here treated of, by whom those are signified who desire truths from spiritual affection; of these it is said that "He shall redeem their soul from fraud and violence," which signifies liberation from falsities and evils that destroy the goods of love and the truths of faith; the reception of Divine truth by them is signified by "precious shall their blood be in His eyes;" their reformation is described "he shall live, and to him shall He give of the gold of Sheba; and He shall pray for him continually; all the day shall He bless him;" "the gold of Sheba" is the good of charity; "to pray for him continually" signifies that they shall constantly be withheld from falsities and kept in truths; and "all the day shall He bless him" signifies that they shall constantly be in the good of charity and faith, for this is a Divine benediction; while to withhold from falsities and to keep in truths is "to pray for him continually."

(Odkazy: Psalms 26:9-11)


[16] In Isaiah:

Thus said Jehovah, For nought ye have been sold, and not by silver shall ye be redeemed. My people went down into Egypt to sojourn there, but Assyria oppressed them for nought (Isaiah 52:3-4).

This treats of the desolation of truths by knowledges and by the reasonings of the natural man from them; for "My people went down into Egypt to sojourn there" signifies the instruction of the natural man in knowledges and cognitions of truth; "Egypt" signifies knowledges and also cognitions, but such as are from the sense of the letter of the Word; and "to sojourn" signifies to be instructed; "Assyria oppressed them for nought" signifies the falsification of knowledges by the reasonings of the natural man; "Assyria" signifying reasonings, and "to oppress for nought" falsifications, for falsities are nought because there is nothing of truth in them. Knowledges are thus falsified when the natural man separate from the spiritual forms conclusions; this is why it is said, "For nought ye have been sold, and not by silver shall ye be redeemed;" "for nought to be sold" signifies from self or from the selfhood to alienate oneself from falsities and renounce them; and "not by silver to be redeemed" signifies that one cannot be delivered by means of truth from the falsities of evil; "silver" signifying truth, and "to be redeemed" signifying to be delivered from the falsities of evil and to be reformed.

[17] In Zechariah:

I will bring them together, because I will ransom them; and then shall they be multiplied; I will sow them among the peoples; and I will bring them back out of the land, and will bring them together out of Assyria; and I will lead them to the land of Gilead and to Lebanon (Zechariah 10:8-10).

This treats of the restoration of the church, and reformation by means of truth from good; and "I will bring them together, because I will ransom them" signifies the dispersion of falsities and reformation by means of truths; therefore it is said, "they shall be multiplied, and I will sow them among the peoples," which signifies the multiplication and insemination of truth from good; "to bring them back out of the land of Egypt, and to bring them together out of Assyria" signifies (as above) to withdraw them from the falsifying of truth that they are in by their reasonings from knowledges; "to lead them to the land of Gilead and to Lebanon" signifies to the good of the church, which is the good of charity, and to the good and truth of faith; the former is "the land of Gilead" and the latter "Lebanon. "

[18] From this it can be seen what is signified in the spiritual sense by Jehovah's "leading the people out of Egypt" and "ransoming them," as in Moses:

I will rescue you from bondage, and I will redeem you with a stretched-out arm, and with great judgments (Exodus 6:6).

I led you out of Egypt with a stretched-out arm, and I ransomed you out of the house of bondmen (Deuteronomy 7:8; 9:26-29; 13:5; 15:15; 24:18).

Thou in Thy mercy hast led Thy people whom Thou hast redeemed; Thou hast guided them in the strength of Thy hand to the habitation of Thy holiness (Exodus 15:13).

And in Micah:

I made thee to go up out of the land of Egypt, and ransomed thee out of the house of bondage (Micah 6:4).

This means in the sense of the letter that they were led by the Divine power out of Egypt, where they had been made bondmen; but in the internal or spiritual sense no such thing is meant, but it means that those who are of the church, that is, those that are reformed by the Lord by means of truths and a life according to them, are delivered and freed from evils and from the falsities thence, for these are the things that make man a bondsman; this is the spiritual sense of these words, and in this sense are the angels when man is in the sense of the letter.

[19] Moreover, by "redemption" the angels understand deliverance from evils and liberation from falsities in the following passages. In Moses:

I will put a ransom between My people and Pharaoh's people (Exodus 8:23).

In David:

He hath sent a ransom unto His people; He hath commanded His covenant for ever; holy and fearful is His name (Psalms 111:9).

In Matthew:

What is a man profited if he shall gain the whole world, but shall cause the loss of his soul? or what price shall a man give sufficient for the redemption of his soul? (Matthew 16:26; Mark 8:36-37);

"redemption" here meaning deliverance from damnation.

[20] From this it can be seen what the Lord's redeeming mankind signifies, namely, that He delivered and freed them from hell and from the evils and falsities that continually rise up therefrom and bring man into condemnation, and that He continually delivers them and frees them. This deliverance and liberation was effected by His subjugating the hells; and the continual deliverance and liberation by His glorifying His Human, that is, making it Divine, for thereby He keeps the hells continually subjugated; this, therefore is what is signified by His redeeming man, and by His being called in the Word "Redeemer," as in the following passages. In Isaiah:

Fear not, thou worm of Jacob, and ye mortals of Israel; I am He that helpeth thee, and thy Redeemer the Holy One of Israel (Isaiah 41:14).

Thus said Jehovah, the Redeemer of Israel, His Holy One, because of Jehovah who is faithful, the Holy One of Israel, who hath chosen thee (Isaiah 49:7).

Our Redeemer is Jehovah of Hosts, His name the Holy One of Israel (Isaiah 47:4).

Thus said Jehovah your Redeemer, the Holy One of Israel (Isaiah 43:14).

That all flesh may know that I Jehovah am thy Savior and thy Redeemer, the Mighty One of Jacob (Isaiah 49:26).

That thou mayest know that I Jehovah am thy Savior and thy Redeemer, the Mighty One of Jacob (Isaiah 60:16).

By the "Holy One of Israel," and the "Mighty One of Jacob," who is here called "Redeemer," is meant the Lord in respect to the Divine Human, and by "Jehovah" is meant His Divine Itself. The Lord in respect to His Divine Human is called "the Holy One of Israel," and "the Mighty One of Jacob," and the "Strong One of Jacob," because "Israel" and "Jacob" signify the church, thus those who are regenerated and reformed, that is, redeemed by the Lord, for these alone are of the church, that is, constitute the church of the Lord.

[21] That the Lord's Divine Human is what is called "the Holy One" is evident in Luke:

The angel said unto Mary, The Holy Spirit shall come upon thee, and the power of the Most High shall overshadow thee; therefore the Holy Thing born of thee shall be called the Son of God (Luke 1:35).

And that the Lord in respect to the Divine Human is "the Strong One of Jacob," and the "Mighty One of Jacob;" in the same:

The angel said unto Mary, Behold, thou shalt conceive in the womb, and bring forth a Son. He shall be great, and He shall reign over the house of Jacob forever, and of His kingdom there shall be no end (Luke 1:30-33).

"The house of Jacob" evidently means the Lord's church, not the Jewish nation.

[22] Because the Lord's Human was equally Divine with His Divine Itself that took on the Human, Jehovah is called "the Redeemer" in the following passages. In Isaiah:

Thus said Jehovah thy Redeemer, the Holy One of Israel, I am Jehovah thy God (Isaiah 48:17).

Jehovah of Hosts is His name; and thy Redeemer, the Holy One of Israel the God of the whole earth shall He be called (Isaiah 54:5).

In David:

O Jehovah, my 1 Rock and my Redeemer (Psalms 19:14).

In Jeremiah:

Their Redeemer is strong; Jehovah of Hosts is His name (Jeremiah 50:34).

In Isaiah:

Thou, O Jehovah, art our Father, our Redeemer; from everlasting is Thy 2 name (Isaiah 63:16).

From this it can now be seen how this saying of the Lord is to be understood:

The Son of man came to give His soul a redemption for many (Matthew 20:28; Mark 10:45);

namely, that they might be delivered and freed from hell; for the passion of the cross was the last combat and complete victory by which He subjugated the hells, and by which He glorified His Human (see The Doctrine of the New Jerusalem 293-297, 300-306).

(Odkazy: Isaiah 35:9-10; Revelation 5:9)

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From Swedenborg's Works

References from Swedenborg's unpublished works:

Apocalypse Explained 320, 329, 340, 374, 375, 376, 655, 748, 750, 860, 960, 966, 973, 975, 1049

Other New Christian Commentary

Thanks to the Swedenborg Foundation for their permission to use this translation.


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