696. And to them that fear Thy name, the small and the great, signifies and to all of whatever religion who worship the Lord. This is evident from the signification of "fearing the name" of the Lord God, as being to worship the Lord (of which presently); also from the signification of "the small and the great," as being of whatever religion; for "the small" mean those who have but little knowledge of the truths and goods of the church, and "the great" those who know much, thus those who worship the Lord little and much; for in the measure that a man knows the truths of faith and lives according to them does he worship the Lord, for worship is not from man but from the truths from good that are with man, since these are from the Lord, and the Lord is in them. "They that fear Thy name, the small and the great," mean all of whatever religion who worship the Lord, because just before "the servants, the prophets and the saints," are mentioned, meaning all within the church who are in the truths of doctrine and in a life according to them; therefore "they that fear Thy name, the small and the great," mean all without the church who worship the Lord according to their religion, for those who are in the worship of the Lord, and live in any faith and charity, according to their religious principle, also fear God's name. In fact, this verse treats of the Last Judgment upon all, both the evil and the good; and the Last Judgment is executed upon all, both those within the church and those outside of it; and then all are saved who fear God and live in mutual love, in uprightness of heart and in sincerity from a religious principle, for all such, by an intuitive faith in God and by a life of charity, are consociated as to their souls with the angels of heaven, and are thus conjoined to the Lord and saved. For after death everyone comes to his own in the spiritual world, with whom he was closely consociated as to his spirit while he was living in the natural world.
 "The small and the great" signify less or more, that is, those who worship the Lord less or more, thus who are less or more in truths from good, because the spiritual sense of the Word is abstracted from all regard to persons, contemplating the thing nakedly; and the expression "the small and the great" has regard to person, for it means men who worship God; for this reason instead of these less and more are meant in the spiritual sense, thus those who worship less or more from genuine truths and goods. It is similar with "the servants, the prophets and the saints," just above, by whom in the spiritual sense prophets and saints are not meant, but, apart from persons, the truths of doctrine and a life according to them. But while these are meant, all who are in the truths of doctrine and a life according to them are also included, for such truths and life are in subjects which are angels and men; but in such case to think of angels and men only is natural, while to think of the truths of doctrine and life, which make angels and men, is spiritual. Thence it may be clear how the spiritual sense in which the angels are, differs from the natural sense in which men are, namely, that in every particular that a man thinks there inheres something of person, space, time and matter, while angels think things abstractly from all these. Thence it is that the speech of angels is incomprehensible to man, because it is from the intuition of the thing, and thus from a wisdom abstracted from things that are proper to the natural world, and therefore comparatively undetermined to such things.
 "To fear Thy name" signifies to worship the Lord, because "to fear" signifies to worship, and "Thy name" signifies the Lord. In a preceding verse it is said that the twenty-four elders gave thanks to the Lord God, "who is, and who was, and who is to come;" wherefore "to fear Thy name" means to worship the Lord. In the Word both of the Old and New Testaments, "the name of Jehovah," "the name of the Lord," "the name of God," and "the name of Jesus Christ" are mentioned, and "name" here means all things whereby He is worshipped, thus all things of love and faith, and in the highest sense the Lord Himself is meant, because where He is, there also are all things of love and faith. That such is the signification of "the name of Jehovah," "the Lord God," and "Jesus Christ," may be seen above (n. 102, 135, 224), and is also evident from these words of the Lord:
If two of you shall agree on earth In My name respecting anything that they shall ask it shall be done for them by My Father who is in the heavens. For where two or three are gathered together in My name, there am I in the midst of them (Matthew 18:19, 20).
Here "to agree in the Lord's name" and "to be gathered together in His name" means not in mere name, but in those things that belong to the Lord, which are the truths of faith and the goods of love by which He is worshipped.
Matthew 18:19-20; The Apocalypse Explained 102, 135, 224)
 "To fear," in reference to the Lord, signifies to worship and reverence, because in worship and in all things of worship there is a holy and reverential fear, which is that the Lord is to be honored and in no way injured; for it is as with children towards parents and parents towards children, with wives towards husbands and husbands towards wives, also as with friends towards friends, in whom there is a fear of injuring and also respect; such a fear with respect is in all love and in all friendship, so that love and friendship without such a fear and respect is like food not salted, which is insipid. This is why "to fear the Lord" means to worship Him from such love.
 It is said that "to fear Thy name" signifies to worship the Lord, and yet "those who fear Him" mean here all those who are outside of the church, to whom the Lord is unknown, because they do not have the Word; nevertheless, all such as in respect to God have an idea of the Human are still accepted by the Lord, for God under the Human form is the Lord; but all, whether within or without the church, who do not think of God as Man, when they come into their own spiritual life, which takes place after their departure out of this world, are not accepted by the Lord, because they have no determinate idea of God, but only an indeterminate idea, which is no idea at all, or if it be any is nevertheless dissipated. This is why all who come from the earths into the spiritual world are first explored, as to what idea of God they have had and have brought with them. If they have no idea of Him as Man they are sent to places of instruction, where they are taught that the Lord is the God of heaven and earth, and that when they think of God they must think of the Lord, and that otherwise there can be no conjunction with God, and thus no consociation with angels. Then all who have lived a life of charity receive instruction and worship the Lord. But all those who say that they have had faith, but have not been in the life of faith, which is charity, do not accept instruction; consequently they are separated and sent away into places below the heavens, some into the hells, some into the earth that is called in the Word "the lower earth," where they suffer hard things. Still the Gentiles who have made the laws of religion laws of life receive the doctrine respecting the Lord more readily than Christians, and this especially because they had no other idea of God than that of the Divine Man. This has been said that it may be known why it is that "to fear Thy name" means to worship the Lord.
 In many passages in the Word the expression "to fear Jehovah God" is used, and this means to worship Him; therefore it shall be told in a few words what worship in particular is meant by "fearing God." All worship of Jehovah God must be from the good of love by means of truths. Worship that is from the good of love alone is not worship, neither is worship that is from truths alone, without the good of love, worship; there must be both, since the good of love is the essential of worship, but good has its existence and form by means of truths, therefore all worship must be from good by means of truths. For this reason, in many passages in the Word where the expression "to fear Jehovah God" is used it is added, "to keep and to do His words and commandments;" consequently in these places "to fear" signifies worship by means of truths, and "to keep and do" signifies worship from the good of love, for doing is of the will, thus of the love and of good, but "fearing" is of the understanding, thus of faith and of truth, since every truth that is of faith belongs properly to the understanding, and every good that is of love belongs properly to the will. From this it can be seen that "the fear of Jehovah God" is predicated of worship by means of the truths of doctrine, which are also called truths of faith. Such worship is meant by "the fear of Jehovah God," because Divine truth causes fear in that it condemns the evil to hell; but Divine good does not, since so far as it is received through truths by man and angel it takes away condemnation. Thence it may be seen that so far as man is in the good of love there is fear of God; also that dread and terror disappear and become a holy fear attended with reverence so far as man is in the good of love and in truths therefrom, that is, so far as there is good in his truths. From this it follows that fear in worship varies with each one according to the state of his life; and also that the sanctity attended with reverence that there is in fear with those that are in good, varies also according to the reception of good in the will and according to the reception of truth in the understanding, that is, according to the reception of good in the heart and the reception of truth in the soul.
 But what has now been said can be seen more clearly from the following passages in the Word. In Moses:
What doth Jehovah thy God ask of thee but to fear Jehovah thy God, to walk in all His ways and to love Him, and to serve Jehovah thy God with thy whole heart and with thy whole soul? (Deuteronomy 10:12, 20)
The expressions "to fear Jehovah God," "to walk in His ways," "to love Him," and "to serve Him," are here used, and by all these worship by truths from good is described; worship by truths is meant by "fearing Jehovah God" and by "serving Him," and worship from good by "walking in His ways" and by "loving Him;" therefore it is also said "with the whole heart and with the whole soul," "heart" signifying the good of love and charity that belongs to the will, and "soul" the truth of doctrine and faith that belongs to the understanding; for "heart" corresponds to the good of love, and in man to his will, and "soul" corresponds to the truth of faith, and in man to his understanding, for soul [anima] means the breathing or respiration of man, which is also called his spirit. (That "soul" signifies in the Word the life of faith, and "heart" the life of love, may be seen in Arcana Coelestia 2930, 9050, 9281.)
Arcana Coelestia 9951)
 In the same:
Ye shall go after Jehovah your God and ye shall fear Him, that ye may keep His commandments and hear His voice and serve Him and cleave unto Him (Deuteronomy 13:4).
"To go after Jehovah God, to keep His commandments, and to cleave unto Him," signifies the good of life, thus the good of love from which is worship; and "to fear Jehovah God, to hear His voice, and to serve Him," signifies the truths of doctrine, thus the truths of faith by means of which is worship. As all worship of the Lord must be by means of truths from good, and not by means of truths without good, nor by means of good without truths, therefore in every particular of the Word there is a marriage of good and truth, as in the passages already cited, and also in the following. (On the marriage of good and truth, in the particulars of the Word, see above, n. 238 at the end, 288, 660.)
The Apocalypse Explained 238, The Apocalypse Explained 288, The Apocalypse Explained 660)
 In the same:
Thou shalt fear Jehovah thy God, Him shalt thou serve, and to Him shalt thou cleave, and in His name shalt thou swear (Deuteronomy 10:20).
Here also "to fear Jehovah God and to serve Him," has reference to the truths of worship, and "to cleave unto Jehovah God and to swear in His name" has reference to the good of worship; for "to cleave to" is a word of the good of love, since one who loves cleaves to; "to swear in the name of Jehovah" in like manner, since the doing of something is confirmed by it. "To serve" has reference to the truths of worship, because in the Word "servants" mean those who are in truths, and for the reason that truths serve good (see above, n. 6, 409).
The Apocalypse Explained 6, The Apocalypse Explained 409)
 In the same:
That thou mayest fear Jehovah thy God, to keep all his statutes and His commandments. Thou shalt fear Jehovah thy God and Him shalt thou serve, and shalt swear in His name. Ye shall not go after other gods. Jehovah hath commanded us to do all these statutes to fear Jehovah our God (Deuteronomy 6:2, 13, 14, 24).
Here, too, in like manner worship by means of truths from good, or by means of faith from love is described; "to fear Jehovah God and to serve Him" means worship by means of the truths of faith; and "to keep and do His statutes and commandments, and to swear in the name of Jehovah," means worship from the good of love; for to keep and do statutes and commandments is the good of life, which is the same as the good of love, since he lives that loves; "to swear in the name of Jehovah" has a like meaning, for "to swear" means to confirm by life. It has already been said above that "to fear Jehovah and to serve Him" means worship according to the truths of doctrine. For there are two things that constitute worship, namely, doctrine and life; doctrine without life does not constitute it, neither does life without doctrine.
 The like is taught in the following passages. In Deuteronomy:
Assemble the people that they may hear, and that they may learn and fear Jehovah your God, and may observe to do all the words of the law (Deuteronomy 31:12).
In the same:
If thou wilt not observe to do all the precepts of this law, to fear this glorious and venerable name, Jehovah thy God (Deuteronomy 28:58).
In the same:
The king shall write for himself a copy of the law, and he shall read in it all the days of his life, whereby he may learn to fear Jehovah his God, to keep all the words of the law, and the statutes to do them (Deuteronomy 17:18, 19).
Thou shalt keep the commandments of Jehovah thy God, to walk in His ways and to fear Him (Deuteronomy 8:6).
In the same:
Who will give that they may have a heart to fear Me, and to keep all My commandments all the days (Deuteronomy 5:29).
In these passages where is mentioned "fearing Jehovah God" there is adjoined "keeping and doing the commandments of the law," also "walking in His ways," for the reason, as has been said, that all internal spiritual worship of God, which consists in the good of life, must be according to the truths of doctrine, because these must teach. Worship according to the truths of doctrine is signified by "fearing Jehovah," and worship from the good of life by "keeping His commandments and walking in his ways," "to walk in the ways of Jehovah" meaning to live according to the truths of doctrine; and as worship according to the truths of doctrine is meant by "fearing Jehovah," therefore it is said that the fear of Jehovah must be learned from the law. But let it be known that "the fear of Jehovah" means the internal spiritual worship that must be in external natural worship, for internal spiritual worship is thinking and understanding truths, thus thinking in a reverent and holy way about God, which is "fearing Him," and external natural worship is doing truths, that is, keeping the commandments and words of the law.
 In David:
Teach me Thy way, O Jehovah, teach it 1
in truth, unite my heart to the fear of Thy name (Psalms 86:11).
"To teach the way" signifies to teach the truth according to which man must live; therefore it is said "teach it in truth." That the good of love must be conjoined with the truths of faith is signified by "unite my heart to the fear of Thy name," "heart" signifying the love, "fear" the holiness of faith, and these must be "united," that is, be together in worship.
 In the same:
Blessed is everyone that feareth Jehovah, that walketh in His ways (Psalms 128:1).
Here again, "to fear Jehovah" means to think in a reverent and holy way about God, and "to walk in His ways" means to live according to the Divine truths; it is by means of these two that there is worship. But in external worship, which is living according to Divine truths, there must be internal worship, which is fearing Jehovah; and this is why it is said that "he that feareth Jehovah walketh in His ways." In the same:
Blessed is the man that feareth Jehovah, that delighteth exceedingly in His commandments (Psalms 112:1).
The signification of this is similar as above; for "to delight exceedingly in Jehovah's commandments" is to love them, thus to will and to do them.
 In Jeremiah:
They feared not, neither did they go in My law and in My statutes (Jeremiah 44:10).
"Not fearing" stands for not thinking about God from the truths of the Word, thus not thinking in a holy and reverent way; "not to go in God's law and in His statutes," stands for not living according to them, "commandments" meaning the laws of internal worship, and "statutes" the laws of external worship.
 In Malachi:
If I be a Father, where is My honor? If I be a Lord, where is the fear of Me? (Malachi 1:6)
The terms "honor" and "fear" are used because "honor" is predicated of the worship from good, and "fear" of the worship by means of truths (that "honor" is predicated of good may be seen above, n. 288, 345; therefore "honor" is also predicated of Father, and "fear" of Lord, for Jehovah is called "Father" from Divine good, and "Lord" here from Divine truth.
The Apocalypse Explained 288, The Apocalypse Explained 345)
 In the same:
My covenant was with Levi of life and of peace, which I gave him with fear, and he feared Me (Malachi 2:5).
"Levi" means here the Lord in relation to the Divine Human, and "the covenant of life and peace" signifies the union of His Divine with Himself, and "fear" and "to fear" signify holy truth, with which there is union.
 In Isaiah:
The spirit of Jehovah resteth upon Him, the spirit of wisdom and intelligence, the spirit of counsel and of might, the spirit of knowledge and of the fear of Jehovah, whence his offering of incense shall be in the fear of Jehovah (Isaiah 11:2, 3).
This, too, is said of the Lord, and these words describe Divine truth, in which and from which is all wisdom and all intelligence. The Divine truth that was in the Lord when He was in the world, and that since the glorification of His Human proceeds from Him, is meant by "the spirit of Jehovah that rested upon Him;" that thence He has Divine wisdom and Divine power from that source is meant by "the spirit of wisdom and intelligence; and the spirit of council and of might;" that He has omniscience and essential holiness in worship from that source is meant by "the spirit of knowledge and of the fear of Jehovah;" and as "fear" signifies the holiness of worship from Divine truth it is added "whence His offering of incense shall be in the fear of Jehovah," "to offer incense" signifying worship from the Divine spiritual, which is Divine truth. (That this is what "offering incense" signifies see above, n. 324, 491, 492, 494, 567.) It is said "the spirit of wisdom, intelligence, knowledge, and fear," for "spirit" means the Divine proceeding, "the spirit of wisdom" the celestial Divine, which is the Divine proceeding as received by the angels of the kingdom of the inmost or third heaven, "the spirit of intelligence" the spiritual Divine which is the Divine proceeding as received by the angels of the middle or second heaven, "the spirit of knowledge" the natural Divine, which is the Divine proceeding as received by the angels of the lowest or first heaven, and "the spirit of the fear of Jehovah" all holiness of worship from the celestial, spiritual, and natural Divine.
Isaiah 11:2-3; The Apocalypse Explained 324, The Apocalypse Explained 491-492, 494, 567)
 In Jeremiah:
I will give them one heart and one way, to fear Me all the days for good to them; and I will make with them the covenant of an age; and My fear will I give into their heart that they may not depart from with Me (Jeremiah 32:39, 40).
"I will give them one heart and one way to fear Me" signifies one will and one understanding to worship the Lord, "heart" signifying the good of the will, "way" the truth of the understanding which leads, and "fear" holy worship therefrom. "I will make with them the covenant of an age, and My fear will I give into their heart," signifies conjunction through the good of love and through the truth of that good in worship, "covenant" meaning conjunction, and "fear in the heart" the holiness of worship from truth in the good of love; "that they may not depart from with Me" signifies for the sake of conjunction. Because conjunction with the Lord is effected by means of truths from good, and not by means of truth without good, nor by means of good without truths, both are here mentioned.
 In David:
O house of Aaron trust ye in Jehovah, ye that fear Jehovah trust in Jehovah (Psalms 115:10, 11).
"House of Aaron" signifies all who are in the good of love, and "those that fear Jehovah" signify all who are in truth from that good. In Revelation:
The angel who had the eternal Gospel said, Fear ye God and give Him glory, worship Him (Revelation 14:7).
"To fear God and to give Him glory" signifies to worship the Lord from holy truths; and "to worship Him" signifies from the good of love. In David:
Let all the earth fear Jehovah; let all the inhabitants of the world stand in awe of Him. Behold, the eye of Jehovah is upon them that fear Him, that wait for His mercy (Psalms 33:8, 18).
The good pleasure of Jehovah is in them that fear Him, in them that wait for His mercy (Psalms 147:11).
Because "the fear of Jehovah" signifies the reception of Divine truth, and "mercy" the reception of Divine good, it is said that "the eye" and "the good pleasure of Jehovah are upon them that fear Him, that wait for His mercy."
Psalms 22:18, 115:10-11)
 In Isaiah:
The strong people shall honor Thee, the city of the terrible nations shall fear Thee (Isaiah 25:3).
Here again, worship from good is signified by "to honor," for "honor" is predicated of the good of love; and worship from truths is signified by "fearing the Lord," as has been said above. "The strong people" signifies men of the church who are in truths from good, wherefrom is all power; "the city of the terrible nations" signifies those who are in truths of doctrine, and through these in the good of love; and as all spiritual power is therefrom they are called "terrible nations." These words, too, show clearly that there is a marriage of good and truth in every particular of the Word; for "to honor" is predicated of good, "to fear" of truth, both in worship; the term "people" is used of those who are in truths, and through these in good, but the term "nations" of those who are in good, and from good in truths; and as all power in the spiritual world is from the conjunction of good and truth, the people are called "strong," and the nations are called "terrible."
 "The fear of Jehovah" signifies worship in which there is holiness through truths, in the following passages also. In Isaiah:
The heart of the people hath departed far from Me, and their fear toward Me hath become a commandment taught of men (Isaiah 29:13).
In the same
Who among you feareth Jehovah, heareth the voice of His servant? He that walketh in darkness, and hath no brightness, that trusteth In the name of Jehovah, and leaneth upon his God (Isaiah 50:10).
They shall hear every good that I do unto them, that they may dread and tremble for all the good and for all the peace that I am about to do unto them (Jeremiah 33:9).
The angel of Jehovah encampeth about them that fear Him to deliver them. Fear Jehovah, ye His saints, for there is no want to them that fear Him (Psalms 34:7, 9).
In the same:
Who have no changes, neither fear they God (Psalms 55:19).
In the same:
The fear of Jehovah is the beginning of wisdom; a good understanding have all they that do them [Hi s commandments] (Psalms 111:10).
Because "fear" has respect to Divine truth, from which is holiness in worship and wisdom and intelligence, therefore it is said, "the fear of Jehovah is the beginning of wisdom, a good understanding, that is intelligence, have all they that do them [His commandments]." In the same:
They that fear Jehovah shall praise Him, all the seed of Jacob shall honor Him, and all the seed of Israel shall fear Him (Psalms 22:23).
The mercy of God is unto generation of generations to them that fear Him (Luke 1:50).
 That "to fear Jehovah God" involves and thence signifies to have a sense of holiness and reverence and accordingly to worship with holiness and reverence, can be seen from these passages. In Moses:
Ye shall keep My Sabbaths, and My sanctuary ye shall fear; ye shall reverence (Leviticus 19:30;26:2).
In the same:
A work of Jehovah, how is that to be feared [reverenced] which I will do (Exodus 34:10).
In the same:
And Jacob feared and said, How to be feared [reverenced] is this place; this is none other than the house of God, and the gate of heaven (Genesis 28:17).
That in reference to the Divine and the holiness of heaven and the church, "to fear" signifies to revere and to hold in reverence, is evident from these passages, also from this, that the same word in the Hebrew that means "to fear" means also to revere and to venerate. This is evident, too, from those words in Luke:
There was a judge in a certain city who feared not God and reverenced not man. And he said within himself, Although I fear not God and reverence not man. .. (Luke 18:2, 4).
It is said "to fear God" and "to reverence man" because fearing means reverencing in a higher degree.
 In Matthew:
Jesus said, Fear not them who are able to kill the body but are not able to kill the soul; rather fear Him who is able to destroy both body and soul in Gehenna (Matthew 10:28; Luke 12:4, 5, 7).
Here, however, "to fear" signifies to have a fear of dying spiritually, thence a natural fear, which is fearfulness and dread; but spiritual fear is a holy fear that abides within every spiritual love variously according to the quality and quantity of the love. In such a fear is the spiritual man, and he knows that the Lord does not do evil to anyone, much less does He destroy anyone as to body and soul in Gehenna, but that He does good to all and desires to raise up everyone as to body and soul into heaven to Himself. This is why the fear of the spiritual man is a holy fear lest by the evil of life and the falsity of doctrine man should turn away, and thus do harm to that Divine love in himself. But natural fear is a fearfulness, dread, and terror of dangers and punishments, and thus of hell; this fear abides within every corporeal love, also variously according to the quality and quantity of the love. The natural man who has such fear does not know otherwise than that the Lord does evil to the evil, condemns them, casts them into hell, and punishes them, and on this account such persons are in fear and dread of the Lord. In this fear were most of the Jewish and Israelitish nation, because they were natural men; and this is why they are so often said in the Word "to be afraid of" and "to tremble before Jehovah," and also "to be in fear and trembling;" and for the same reason it is said of the sons of Israel that they were "sore afraid" when the Divine law or Divine truth was promulgated from Mount Sinai (Exodus 20:18-20; Deuteronomy 5:23-25).
 This fear is what is meant in part by:
The dread of Isaac by which Jacob sware to Laban (Genesis 31:42, 53);
for "Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob," mean in the Word the Lord, "Abraham," the Lord in respect to the celestial Divine, "Isaac," in respect to the spiritual Divine, and "Jacob," in respect to the natural Divine; the spiritual Divine which "Isaac" signifies is the Divine truth, which terrifies the natural man, and as "Laban" was a natural man, so Jacob sware to him "by the dread or terror of Isaac." Nearly the same fear is meant in Isaiah:
Ye shall sanctify Jehovah of Hosts, for He is your fear and your dread (Isaiah 8:13).
Here the term "fear" has reference to the spiritual man, and "dread" to the natural man. That the spiritual man may not be in such fear as the natural man is in, it is said "Fear not." In Isaiah:
Jacob and Israel, Fear not, for I have redeemed thee, calling thee by thy name, thou art Mine (Isaiah 43:1).
Fear not, little flock; for it hath pleased your Father to give you the kingdom (Luke 12:32).
And in Jeremiah:
Fear not, O Jacob, My servant, and be not dismayed, O Israel, for I will save thee from afar; Jacob shall be tranquil and quiet, none shall make him afraid (Jeremiah 30:9, 10).
And in many other passages. Moreover, that "fear," "terror," "consternation," and the like, signify various commotions of the disposition and changes of state of the mind, may be seen above (n. 667, 677).
1. The Hebrew has "that I may walk" for "teach it."
Jeremiah 30:9-10; Revelation 11:18; The Apocalypse Explained 667, 677)