Leviticus 2

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1 When any one shall offer an oblation of sacrifice to the Lord, his offering shall be of fine flour, and he shall pour oil upon it, and put frankincense,

2 And shall bring it to the sons of Aaron the priests: and one of them shall take a handful of the flour and oil, and all the frankincense, and shall put it a memorial upon the altar for a most sweet savour to the Lord.

3 And the remnant of the sacrifice shall be Aaron's, and his sons', holy of holies of the offerings of the Lord.

4 But when thou offerest a sacrifice baked in the oven of flour, to wit, loaves without leaven, tempered with oil, and unleavened wafers, anointed with oil:

5 If thy oblation be from the fryingpan, of flour tempered with oil, and without leaven,

6 Thou shalt divide it into little pieces, and shalt pour oil upon it.

7 And if the sacrifice be from the gridiron, in like manner the flour shall be tempered with oil:

8 And when thou offerest it to the Lord, thou shalt deliver it to the hands of the priest.

9 And when he hath offered it, he shall take a memorial out of the sacrifice, and burn it upon the altar for a sweet savour to the Lord.

10 And whatsoever is left, shall be Aaron's, and his sons', holy of holies of the offerings of the Lord.

11 Every oblation that is offered to the Lord shall be made without leaven, neither shall any leaven or honey be burnt in the sacrifice to the Lord.

12 You shall offer only the firstfruits of them and gifts: but they shall not be put upon the altar, for a savour of sweetness,

13 Whatsoever sacrifice thou offerest, thou shalt season it with salt, neither shalt thou take away the salt of the covenant of thy God from thy sacrifice. In all thy oblations thou shalt offer salt.

14 But if thou offer a gift of the firstfruits of thy corn to the Lord, of the ears yet green, thou shalt dry it at the fire, and break it small like meal, and so shalt thou offer thy firstfruits to the Lord,

15 Pouring oil upon it and putting on frankincense, because it is the oblation of the Lord.

16 Whereof the priest shall burn for a memorial of the gift, part of the corn broken small and of the oil, and all the frankincense.

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Explanation of Leviticus 2      

Napsal(a) Henry MacLagan

Verses 1-3. The worship of the Lord from the highest degree of celestial love is described.

Verse 4. Then follows a description of worship from interior celestial love, or charity to the neighbour, showing how it is connected with that from the highest celestial good, which is pure love to the Lord, and the lowest

Verses 5-6. A similar description of worship from celestial good in the Internal of the Natural succeeds, accompanied by an account of the arrangement of truths there, and of the influx of inmost celestial good.

Verse 7. And lastly, worship from the External of the Natural is described, showing that it is similar to worship from higher loves, but is in a lower degree

Verses 8-10. It is then shown that celestial worship in all these degrees and ways involves certain particulars, namely: the power to worship must be ascribed to the Lord; it must be acknowledged to be from celestial good inmostly derived from Him; and it must be exercised from Him. Also the worshiper will realize the conjunction of truth with good as from himself; he will be able to devote his life to the service of the Lord; he will experience a state of heavenly joy and peace; he will be able to appropriate good and truth; and he will worship the Lord from pure love

Verses 11-13. Again this worship of the Lord must be free from falsity; it must not be vitiated by merely natural delight; such imperfect worship only appertains to preparatory states; and in all worship there must be the mutual desire of truth for good and of good for truth, or in other words, every one who really loves the truth will desire also to be good, and all who sincerely desire to be good will also long for the truth

Verses 14-16. And also, during such worship, in preparatory states, it will be from natural good, and truth influenced by celestial good, and involving the sincere acknowledgement of the Lord.


Hlavní výklad ze Swedenborgových prací:

Arcana Coelestia 2177, 9993, 9995

Další odkazy Swedenborga k této kapitole:

Arcana Coelestia 925, 2342, 2455, 5620, 7356, 7978, 8680, ...

Apocalypse Revealed 278, 468, 778

Heaven and Hell 287

True Christian Religion 707

Odkazy ze Swedenborgových nevydaných prací:

Apocalypse Explained 324, 365, 491, 504, 540, 619, 701, ...

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Skočit na podobné biblické verše

Exodus 29:2, 30:35

Leviticus 1:9, 13, 17, 5:11, 12, 13, 6:7, 9, 10, 7:7, 9, 12, 9:4, 10:12, 15, 14:10, 13, 21:22, 23:10, 13, 24:7

Numbers 5:26, 7:13, 8:8, 15:20, 18:9, 12, 28:5

Deuteronomy 26:2

1 Samuel 2:28

1 Chronicles 23:29

Ezekiel 43:24, 44:29, 46:20

Mark 9:49

Philippians 4:18

Vysvětlení slova/fráze

the Lord
The Bible refers to the Lord in many different ways, which from the text seem indistinguishable and interchangeable. Understood in the internal sense, though, there...

The Lord, in the simplest terms, is love itself expressed as wisdom itself. In philosophic terms, love is the Lord's substance and wisdom is His...

It was customary in the representative Ancient Church, and later in the Jewish Church, when people went to the judges, and at a later time,...

Fine flour
Fine flour, as in Ezekiel 16:19, signifies the spiritual principle of charity.

Flour, or meal, signifies celestial truth, and wheat, celestial good. Flour and oil signify truth and good from a spiritual origin, and honey, good from...

Oil – typically olive oil – was an extremely important product in Biblical times, for food preparation, medicinal ointment and for burning in lamps. As...

'To put' has reference to order, arrangement, application, and influx.

As with common verbs in general, the meaning of “bring” is highly dependent on context, but in general it represents an introduction to a new...

Aaron was the brother of Moses. He symbolizes two things, one during the first part of the exodus, when he was Moses' spokesperson, and another...

Priests' represent the Lord regarding His divine good. When they do not acknowledge the Lord, they lose their signification of the Lord.

The first altar mentioned in the Word was built by Noah after he came out of the ark. On that altar, he sacrificed clean animals...

Sweet' signifies delightful things from the good of truth and the truth of good. Everything sweet in the natural world corresponds to delightful and pleasant...

In Leviticus 6:16, 'Aaron and his sons eating the remainder' signifies a person’s reciprocation and making something one's own. This represents conjunction by means of...

Holy of holies
'The Holy of holies' represents the very essential divine good and truth in the Lord's divine human, to which truth from the human was conjoined....

'Sanctuary' signifies the truth of heaven and the church. 'Sanctuary,' as in Ezekiel 24:21, signifies the Word.

The Bible describes many things as being holy, or sacred. The Ark of the Covenant is one very holy object. The inmost chamber of the...

'Offerings' signify worship.

'An oven,' as in Malachi 4:1, signifies hell, where the people live who confirm themselves in false doctrines and evils of life from earthly and...

For something to be “unleavened” means that it's been made without yeast. Since yeast is what makes bread rise and take on its airy texture,...

'Wafers,' as in Exodus 16:31, signify spiritual good. More generally, they signify the outermost celestial good in the external self.

Oil in the Bible represents the Lord’s love, so anointing someone (or something) with oil was a way to make that person (or object) a...

Leaven' signifies evil and falsity, which should not be mixed with good and true things. In Leviticus 2:11, it says, 'no meat offering which ye...

'Honey' signifies the delight derived from good and truth or from the affection thereof, and specifically the external delight. Thus it signifies the delight of...

'Salt' is the desire of conjunction of truth with good, which is why only salt will conjoin water, which corresponds to truth, and oil, which...

The Lord is love itself, expressed in the form of wisdom itself. Love, then, is His essence, His inmost. Wisdom - the loving understanding of...

Just as natural fire can be both comforting in keeping you warm or scary in burning down your house, so fire in the spiritual sense...

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Apocalypse Explained # 540

Apocalypse Explained (Whitehead translation)      

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540. Since it is said that "there went up a smoke out of the pit as the smoke of a great furnace," and it has so far been shown that "smoke" signifies dense falsity, it is important also to show that a "furnace" signifies the evils of earthly and corporeal loves, and thus that "smoke as the smoke of a great furnace" signifies dense falsities from those loves. It is also from appearances in the spiritual world that a "furnace" signifies such loves; for when the hells in which those loves prevail are looked into, they appear like furnaces glowing with fire; and over them smoke appears, such as goes up from furnaces and is seen in conflagrations. From this it is that "furnaces" signify in the Word either the hells, or a company of men, or the man himself, in whom such loves and cupidities reign, or what is the same, where the evils that flow forth from these prevail.

(Odkazy: Revelation 9:2)

[2] Such is the signification of "furnaces" [fornaces et camini] and "ovens" [furni et clibani] in the following passages. In Matthew:

The Son of man shall send forth His angels, and they shall gather out of His kingdom all things that cause stumbling, and them that do iniquity; and shall send them into the furnace of fire. In the consummation of the age the angels shall come forth, and shall sever the wicked from the midst of the righteous, and shall cast them into the furnace of fire; there shall be wailing and gnashing of teeth (Matthew 13:41, 42, 49, 50).

Evidently here "a furnace (caminus seu fornax) of fire," means the hells; "the consummation of the age" is the last time of the church, when judgment takes place. That the evil must then be separated from the good and be cast into hell is signified by "the angels shall gather all things that cause stumbling, and them that do iniquity," and "they shall sever the wicked from the midst of the righteous, and shall cast them into the furnace of fire." Hell is called "the furnace of fire," because it appears to be on fire from the loves of self and of the world. That "infernal fire" signifies torment from these loves may be seen in the work on Heaven and Hell 566-575).

(Odkazy: Matthew 13:41-42, 13:49-50)

[3] In Malachi:

Behold, the day cometh burning as an oven, in which all that sin presumptuously, and every worker of wickedness shall be stubble, and the day that cometh shall set them on fire (Malachi 4:1).

This, too, was said of the last time of the church, and the Last Judgment at that time; both these are signified by "the day that cometh." The "oven" means the hell where those are who confirm themselves in falsities by doctrine, and confirm themselves in evils from earthly and corporeal loves by their life; that such on account of their own loves will perish is meant by "all who sin presumptuously, and every worker of wickedness shall be stubble, and the oven shall set them on fire," "all who sin presumptuously" meaning those who by doctrine confirm themselves in falsities, and "the worker of wickedness" those who by life confirm themselves in evil.

[4] In Hosea:

By their evil they make glad the king, and by their lies the princes. They are all adulterers, like an oven kindled by the baker; the raiser ceaseth from kneading the dough until it be fermented. For they have turned their mind like an oven while they lie in wait; their baker sleepeth all the night, in the morning he burneth as a fire of flame. They are all hot as an oven, and they will devour their judges; all their kings will fall; not one among them calleth unto Me. Ephraim is a cake not turned (Hosea 7:3-8).

In the spiritual sense this describes the sons of Jacob, that from the love of self and of the world they turned every good into evil, and thence every truth into falsity; "the king whom they make glad by wickedness," signifies all falsity from evil, for a "king" signifies truth from good, and in the contrary sense falsity from evil; and the "princes whom they make glad by lies" signify the chief falsities. That from their loves they perverted goods and truths is signified by "they are all adulterers, like an oven kindled by the baker," "to adulterate" signifying to pervert good and thence truth; this is compared to "an oven kindled by the baker," because they bring together falsities favoring their loves as into a mass of dough; and because evils and falsities are not separated from the goods and truths which are from the sense of the letter of the Word, but they cling together, it is said, "the raiser ceaseth from kneading the dough until it be fermented," "fermentation" signifying separation, here that they are not separated, since it is said, "he ceaseth from kneading the dough until it be fermented." The like is signified by "Ephraim is a cake not turned," "Ephraim" meaning the understanding of truth. That consequently there will be nothing but the evils of those loves that falsities favor is signified by, "the baker sleepeth all the night; in the morning he burneth as a fire of flame, they are all hot as an oven. " Such are compared to a "baker" and an "oven," because they form doctrine out of falsities as a baker makes loaves and cakes in an oven. That they thus destroy all goods and truths that they have from the Word is signified by, "they will devour their judges, and all their kings will fall," "judges" signifying the goods of truth, and "kings" the truths themselves; that such is the result because they wish to be wise of themselves and not from the Lord, is signified by "not one among them that called unto Me." That these words have some such meaning can be seen merely from common intuition, but that the particulars signify and describe such things, that is, that "kings," "princes," "judges," and "adulterers," also an "oven" and a "baker" mean what has just been said, can be seen only from the internal sense. Moreover, those who bring together truths or falsities so that they cohere appear in the spiritual world as bakers kneading dough, with an oven also near them.

[5] In Lamentations:

Our skins are black like an oven because of the tempests of famine (Lamentations 5:10).

This is a lamentation over the loss of truth and inundation of falsity; "famine" signifies a loss and lack of truth (see above, n. 386; and "a tempest of famine," complete lack, and also an inundation of falsities, for where there are no truths there will be falsities; "tempests" have a similar signification in the Word as inundation. "Our skins are black like an oven" signifies that the natural man is without the light of truth, and thence in the darkness of falsity; here, too, an "oven" signifies the framing of doctrine out of falsities and not out of truths (but see above, n. 386, where this is more fully explained).

(Odkazy: The Apocalypse Explained 386)

[6] In Ezekiel:

The house of Israel has become as dross unto Me; all of them are brass and tin and iron and lead in the midst of a furnace; they have become the dross of silver. Behold, I gather you into the midst of Jerusalem, a gathering of silver and brass and iron and lead and tin will I gather you, into the midst of the furnace, to blow fire upon it to melt it; so will I bring you together in Mine anger and in My wrath, and I will leave you there and melt you. Like a casting of silver in the midst of the furnace, so shall ye be melted in the midst thereof (Ezekiel 22:18-22).

This describes the false doctrinals which the Jews and Israelites brought together from the sense of the letter of the Word, which they adapted merely to themselves and to their loves; these are called the "dross of silver," because "silver" signifies the truth of the Word, and "dross" nothing of truth, or what is abstracted from truth, which is rejected. The things of the sense of the letter of the Word are signified by "brass, tin, iron, and lead," because these signify the goods and truths of the natural man; and the things of the Word that are contained in the sense of its letter are for the natural man. And because from this sense they framed their false doctrinals, which were traditions, it is said "they shall be melted together;" and because they were adapted to their loves, which were loves of self and of the world, it is said that "He would gather them into the midst of the furnace, to blow fire upon it to melt it," "fire" signifying those loves. And because their doctrinals are meant, it is said that "He would gather them into the midst of Jerusalem," "Jerusalem" signifying the church in respect to doctrine, thus also the doctrine of the church.

[7] In Moses:

The sun went down and it was dense darkness, and behold an oven of smoke and a torch of fire that passed through between the pieces (Genesis 15:17).

Falsities of evil and evils of falsity, swarming out of the filthy loves of the Jewish and Israelitish nation, are here meant by "an oven of smoke," and "a torch of fire that passed through between the pieces," as can be seen in the article above. For Abraham was eager that his posterity should rule over the whole land of Canaan, and because the Lord foresaw that the church would be instituted in that nation, He made a covenant with Abraham. Nevertheless what they were to be is predicted in this that was seen.

[8] In Nahum:

Draw thee waters for the siege, strengthen thy fortresses; go into the mire, and tread the pitch, repair the brick kiln [fornax]. There shall the fire devour thee, the sword shall cut thee off (Nahum 3:14, 15).

This describes the destruction of truth by the falsities of evil; the "waters for the siege" mean the falsities by which they endeavor to destroy truths; "to strengthen the fortresses" signifies to fortify falsities by such things as appear like truths; "to go into the mire and tread the pitch" signifies to make them appear to cling together, "pitch" meaning falsity from evil conjoining; "to repair the brick kiln" signifies to repair the doctrine framed out of falsified truths and fictions, "bricks" signifying the falsities that are fabricated and do not cohere with truths; "fire shall devour thee" signifies that they will be destroyed by the evils of their loves, and "the sword shall cut thee off" signifies that they will be destroyed by falsities.

(Odkazy: Nahum 3:14-15)

[9] In Jeremiah:

Take great stones in thy hand, and hide them in the brick kiln which is near the entrance of Pharaoh's house. I will take the king of Babylon, and I will set his throne upon these stones that thou hast hid, 1 and he shall come and smite the land of Egypt; and I will kindle a fire in the houses [of the gods] of Egypt; and finally he shall array himself with the land of Egypt, as a shepherd arrayeth himself in his garment (43 Jeremiah 43:9-12).

This represented the profanation of truth by reasonings from knowledges falsely applied. "The great stones hidden in the brick kiln" signify the truths of the Word falsified by fictions that are from self-intelligence, "stones" meaning the truths of the Word, and "brick kiln" the doctrine framed out of fictions; "the house of Pharaoh" signifies the natural man in respect to knowledges there; "entrance" means sensual knowledge, through which there is entrance into the natural man; it is by this that falsifications are made; "the king of Babylon" signifies the profanation of truth; "He will set his throne upon these stones, and will smite Egypt, and kindle a fire in the houses thereof," signifies that through the knowledges of the natural man all the truths of doctrine will be perverted and profaned. That he will subject to himself the natural man in respect to all things therein, which is done by confirmations of falsities from knowledges, is signified by "he will array himself with the land of Egypt, as a shepherd arrayeth himself in his garment." That thus all things of the natural man will be destroyed by the evils of earthly and corporeal loves is signified by "I will kindle a fire in the houses of Egypt."

[10] Because "Egypt" signifies the natural man in respect to knowledge there, and a "furnace of iron" has a similar signification, therefore Egypt in the Word is called "a furnace of iron. " As in Jeremiah:

In the day that I brought you 2 forth out of Egypt, out of the furnace of iron (Jeremiah 11:4).

In Moses:

He hath brought them 3 forth out of the furnace of iron, out of Egypt (Deuteronomy 4:20).

In the first book of Kings:

Which He brought forth 4 out of Egypt, from the midst of the furnace of iron (1 Kings 8:51).

In David:

I removed the shoulder of Israel from the burden of Egypt; his hands have passed away from the furnace (Psalms 81:6).

The natural man in respect to knowledge is signified by the "furnace of iron," "furnace" meaning the natural man, and "iron" knowledge, here false knowledge, because it is said that "they were brought out;" for the natural man, unless he is led by the spiritual man, is in falsities and evils, because he has no light from heaven, for light from heaven flows in through the spiritual man into the natural, and enlightens, teaches, and leads; it is the direct opposite when the natural man does not think and act under the auspices of the spiritual man; then also he is in bondage, for he thinks and acts from falsities and evils that are from hell; this is what is signified when it is said that "they were brought out of the house of bondage" when they were brought out of Egypt. For all freedom of thinking and acting is from the spiritual man, because the spiritual man thinks and wills out of heaven from the Lord, and to be led of the Lord is freedom. From this it can be seen why Egypt is called "a furnace of iron," and "a house of bondage;" this bondage is signified also by "I removed the shoulder of Israel from the burden of Egypt." (That "iron" signifies knowledge [scientificum] belonging to the natural man, may be seen above, n. 176.)

(Odkazy: The Apocalypse Explained 176)

[11] As most things in the Word have also a contrary sense, so does "oven. " As in Isaiah:

Saith Jehovah, who has His hearth in Zion, and His oven in Jerusalem (Isaiah 31:9).

"Hearth" signifies the good of love, and "oven" truth from that good, thus the truth of doctrine; "Zion and Jerusalem" have a like signification, "Zion" signifying the church in respect to the good of love, and "Jerusalem" the church in respect to truth of doctrine. "Oven" has a similar meaning in Moses, where it is said:

That the meal-offering must be prepared either in an oven, or in a plate, or in a frying pan (Leviticus 2:4, 5, 7).

(This is explained in the Arcana Coelestia.) "Furnace" has a similar meaning above in Revelation:

The feet of the Son of man were like unto burnished brass, as if glowing in a furnace (Revelation 1:15).

Of which above, n. 69.


1. Latin has "thou hast hid," Hebrew "I have hid," so also in AC 751 .

2. Latin has "you," Hebrew "them."

3. Latin "them," Hebrew "you."

4. Latin "He brought forth," Hebrew "Thou hast brought forth."


(Odkazy: Leviticus 2:4-5; Revelation 9:2; The Apocalypse Explained 69)

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Odkazy z nepublikovaných prací E. Swedenborga:

Apocalypse Explained 533, 863

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Thanks to the Swedenborg Foundation for their permission to use this translation.