Hosea 13

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1 When Ephraim spoke, a horror seized Israel: and he sinned in Baal and died.

2 And now they have sinned more and more : and they have made to themselves a molten thing of their silver as the likeness of idols: the whole is the work of craftsmen: to these that say: Sacrifice men, ye that adore calves.

3 Therefore they shall be as a morning aloud, and as the early dew that passeth away, as the dust that is driven with a whirlwind out of the floor, and as the smoke out of the chimney.

4 But I am the Lord thy God from the land of Egypt: and thou shalt know no God but me, and there is no saviour beside me.

5 I knew thee in the desert, in the land of the wilderness.

6 According to their pastures they were filled, and were made full: and they lifted up their heart, and have forgotten me.

7 And I will be to them as a lioness, as a leopard in the way of the Assyrians.

8 I will meet them as a bear that is robbed of her whelps, and I will rend the inner parts of their liver: and I will devour them there as a lion, the beast of the field shall tear them.

9 Destruction is thy own, 0 Israel: thy help is only in me.

10 Where is thy king? now especially let him save thee in all thy cities: and thy judges, of whom thou saidst: Q Give me kings and princes.

11 I will give thee a king in my wrath, and will take him away in my indignation.

12 The iniquity of Ephraim is bound up, his sin is hidden.

13 The sorrows of a woman in labour snail come upon him, he is an unwise son: for now he shall not stand in the breach of the children.

14 I will deliver them out of the hand of death. I will redeem them from death : O death, I will be thy death; O hell, I will be thy bite: comfort is hidden from my eyes.

15 Because he shall make a separation between brothers: s the Lord will bring a burning wind that shall rise from the desert, and it shall dry up his springs, and shall make his fountain desolate, and he shall carry off the treasure of every desirable vessel.

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Hlavní výklad ze Swedenborgových prací:

The Inner Meaning of the Prophets and Psalms 196

Další odkazy Swedenborga k této kapitole:

Arcana Coelestia 264, 908, 1861, 1949, 2584, 3574, 3579, ...

Apocalypse Revealed 241, 242, 243, 281, 321, 343, 422, ...

A Brief Exposition of New Church Doctrine 36, 120

Doctrine of the Lord 34, 38, 45

Sacred Scripture 79

True Christian Religion 6, 21, 83, 188, 294, 583, 637

References from Swedenborg's unpublished works:

Apocalypse Explained 186, 278, 328, 388, 419, 482, 483, ...

Marriage 6, 21, 83

Scriptural Confirmations 19, 99

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Word/Phrase Explanations

Ephraim was the second son born to Joseph in Egypt and was, along with his older brother Manasseh, elevated by Jacob to the same status...

Like "say," the word "speak" refers to thoughts and feelings moving from our more internal spiritual levels to our more external ones – and ultimately...

'Israel,' in Jeremiah 23:8, signifies the spiritual natural church. The children of Israel dispersed all the literal sense of the Word by falsities. 'The children...

Baalim and her lovers (Hosea 2:13) signify those things which belong to the natural man, and are loved; such as the lusts and falsities thence...

'The soul going forth' and 'dying,' as in Genesis 35:18, signifies the extreme of temptation, which is when the old self dies and the new...

Molten thing
'A molten image' denotes what is from one's sense of ownership from will (proprium voluntarium).

'Silver,' in the internal sense of the Word, signifies truth, but also falsity. 'Silver' means the truth of faith, or the truth acquired from selfhood,...

'Works,' as in Genesis 46:33, denote goods, because they are from the will, and anything from the will is either good or evil, but anything...

'A workman,' as in Hosea 8:6, signifies a person’s proprium or selfhood. 'A workman,' as in Zechariah 1:20, signifies the same thing as 'iron,' that...

As with many common verbs, the meaning of “to say” in the Bible is highly dependent on context. Who is speaking? Who is hearing? What...

'Oxen' or 'calves' signify the affections of the natural mind.

Morning comes with the rising of the sun, and the sun – which gives life to the earth with its warmth and light – represents...

Dew, in Deut. 32:2 signifies the multiplication of truth from good, and the fructification of good by truth.

Chaff is mentioned in Matthew 3:12 signifies falsity of every kind, derived from an in­fernal origin.

The floor, as in Matthew 3:12, signifies the world of spirits which is between heaven and hell, and where the separation of evils and falsities...

'Smoke' signifies divine truth in extremes, because 'fire' which gives off smoke, signifies love. 'Smoke' also signifies the same thing as 'cloud' in many places....

the Lord
The Bible refers to the Lord in many different ways, which from the text seem indistinguishable and interchangeable. Understood in the internal sense, though, there...

The Lord, in the simplest terms, is love itself expressed as wisdom itself. In philosophic terms, love is the Lord's substance and wisdom is His...

The Lord is love itself, expressed in the form of wisdom itself. Love, then, is His essence, His inmost. Wisdom - the loving understanding of...

'Lands' of different nations are used in the Word to signify the different kinds of love prevalent in the inhabitants.

'Mizraim' signifies the same thing as Egypt.

In a general sense, men represent things of the intellect – facts, ideas, knowledge, everything from the deepest truths to the most pernicious falsities about...

In Isaiah 19:20, 'savior' relates to the Lord regarding the good of love, and 'great one,' regarding the truths of faith from Him.

'Wilderness' signifies something with little life in it, as described in the internal sense in Luke 1:80 'Wilderness' signifies somewhere there is no good because...

‘To grieve at heart’ is in reference to love, and ‘to repent,’ to wisdom, as in Genesis 6:6.

'To satiate' relates to the extent of a person's will, for good or evil.

The heart means love. A good heart means love to the Lord and to the neighbor while a hard or stony heart means the love...

To forget, in the internal sense, signifies nothing else but removal and apparent privation.

'A leopard,' being a crafty and insidious animal, particularly represents people who confirm faith separate from good works. 'A leopard' signifies the affection or lust...

In John 14:6, 'the way is doctrine,' 'the truth' is every thing pertaining to doctrine, and 'the life' is the essential good which is the...

Bears represent the power of the literal external stories and ideas of Bible, separate from their deeper meanings. Since they are wild carnivores, this is...

When we eat, our bodies break down the food and get from it both energy and materials for building and repairing the body. The process...

When we have a desire to be good people and to do good things, the natural first questions are "What does that mean?" "What should...

The Lord from the essential divine, through the divine human, is the savior. The Lord became the savior by His spiritual temptations, or combats.

Cities of the mountain and cities of the plain (Jer. 33:13) signify doctrines of charity and faith.

It’s easy to see the connection between judging and truth. In a court of law, the judge’s whole purpose is to find the truth. In...

Like other common verbs, the meaning of "give" in the Bible is affected by context: who is giving what to whom? In general, though, giving...

The human mind is composed of two parts, a will and an understanding, a seat of loves and affections, and a seat of wisdom and...

Captains and Rulers (Jer. 51:23) signifies principal evils and falsities. Captains and Rulers (Ezek 33:6) signifies principal truths. See Chief Captains.

'Wrath,' as in Genesis 49:7, signifies aversion from truth. 'Great wrath,' as in Revelation 12:12, signifies hatred against the new church.

In Isaiah 59:6, 'webs' and 'garments' signify aspects of the understanding, or thought, 'Iniquity' and 'violence,' aspects of the will, or works.

In the Word three terms are used to mean bad things that are done. These three are transgression, iniquity, and sin, and they are here...

Coming (Gen. 41:14) denotes communication by influx.

'A son,' as in Genesis 5:28, signifies the rise of a new church. 'Son,' as in Genesis 24:3, signifies the Lord’s rationality regarding good. 'A...

'To stay with,' as in Genesis 32:4, relates to the life of truth when accompanied by good, and in this instance, it means to take...

A child is a young boy or girl in the care of parents, older than a suckling or an infant, but not yet an adolescent....

In Genesis 27:22, 'voice' relates to truth, and 'hand,' to good.

Jehovah is called 'the redeemer,' because He took on a human nature.

'Hell,' as mentioned in Jonah 2:3, signifies the earth below.

'To hide themselves in the dens and in the rocks of the mountains,' as mentioned in Revelation 6:15, signifies being in evils and in falsities...

'Pairs of hands, eyes, etc.' relate to the will and understanding, or to good and truth. The right side to the will or good, and...

Brethren (Gen. 27:29) signify the affections of good.

As with common verbs in general, the meaning of “bring” is highly dependent on context, but in general it represents an introduction to a new...

Because a nearer and stronger divine influx through the heavens disperses truths among the wicked, 'wind' signifies this dispersion of truth and the resulting conjunction...

It is common in the Bible for people to "rise up," and it would be easy to pass over the phrase as simply describing a...

A fountain signifies the Lord and the Word. A fountain signifies superior truth, and well, inferior truth. A fountain, as in Psalm 104:10, denotes knowledges....

The Word is sometimes called 'a well,' and sometimes 'a fountain.' It is called 'a well' regarding the literal sense, and 'a fountain' regarding the...

'Treasuries' denote knowledges of good and truth, and, in the opposite sense, evil and falsity.



Jeremiah 5:6

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6 Wherefore a lion out of the wood hath slain them, a wolf in the evening, hath spoiled them, a leopard watcheth for their cities: every one that shall go out thence shall be taken, because their transgressions are multiplied, their rebellions are strengthened.

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Hlavní výklad ze Swedenborgových prací:

The Inner Meaning of the Prophets and Psalms 71

Další odkazy Swedenborga k tomuto verši:

Arcana Coelestia 4171, 6367, 6441, 10420

Apocalypse Revealed 241, 572

References from Swedenborg's unpublished works:

Apocalypse Explained 278, 780

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Word/Phrase Explanations

'A lion' signifies the good of celestial love and the truth from that good.

Plants in general stand for facts, knowledge, ideas, so it makes sense that a forest in the Bible represents a collection or system of external,...

'A leopard,' being a crafty and insidious animal, particularly represents people who confirm faith separate from good works. 'A leopard' signifies the affection or lust...

'A spoiler,' as in Jeremiah 48:32, signifies evil and its derivative falsity.

Cities of the mountain and cities of the plain (Jer. 33:13) signify doctrines of charity and faith.

Every one
The phrase “Every one,” where it occurs in Genesis 20:7, signifies every thing or all things.

Go out
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In the physical world, the places we inhabit and the distances between them are physical realities, and we have to get our physical bodies through...

'Transgressions' or 'trespasses' denote such evils as are done against the truths of faith.

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Arcana Coelestia # 9424

Arcana Coelestia (Elliott translation)      

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9424. 'And behold, Aaron and Hur are with you' means teachings of truth that are derived from that outward sense of the Word. This is clear from the representation of 'Aaron' as the Word in its outward sense, and also teachings that present what is good and true, dealt with in 6998, 7009, 7089, at this point teachings of truth that are derived from that sense alone, since 'the elders', over whom Aaron presided as head beneath the mountain, means those restricted to the outward sense of the Word, 9421; and from the representation of 'Hur', when linked with Aaron, as the truth as it is presented by those teachings, which Hur also represents in Exodus 17:10, 12, when he and Aaron together supported Moses' hands, 8603, 8611. For truths from the Word that are the source from which doctrinal teachings are derived support the Word, which 'Moses' represented then.

(Odkazy: Exodus 17:10-13, 17:10-12)

[2] Since another opportunity to do so is provided here, something more will be stated about the way in which support is given to the Word by teachings derived from the Word. A person unacquainted with the arcana of heaven cannot help thinking that the Word can be supported without the teachings derived from it; for that person supposes that such teachings lie in the letter or literal sense of the Word. But it should be recognized that all things taught by the Church must be derived from the Word, and that teachings from any source other than the Word are not teachings that possess anything of the Church within them, let alone anything of heaven. The teachings must be gathered together from the Word, and while they are being gathered a person must receive enlightenment from the Lord; and a person receives such enlightenment when governed by the love of truth for its own sake and not for any selfish or worldly reason. These are the people who are enlightened in their reading of the Word; they see truth, and formulate religious teachings for themselves from it. The reason why this should be so is that such people are in touch with heaven and so with the Lord, and because of this they receive enlightenment from the Lord and are led by Him to see the truths of the Word as they exist in heaven. For the Lord flows by way of heaven into those people's understanding, a person's inward understanding being that which receives the enlightenment; and at the same time the Lord flows in with faith, which is imparted through the co-operation of the new will, which desires truth for truth's sake. All this now shows how the Lord provides people with teachings that present what is true and good.

[3] The fact that these teachings support the Word as to its literal or outward sense is evident to anyone who gives thought to the matter. For everyone in the Church whose thought is guided by doctrinal teachings sees truths in the Word from and in accord with the teachings he knows. He also finds an explanation for the truths that do not agree exactly with these teachings, and passes over any that seem to him to be contradictory, as though he does not see them or fails to understand them. All people, including heretics, act in this kind of way, as is well known. But those who possess authentic teachings of truth that are derived from the Word, and who receive enlightenment when they read the Word, see accordant truths everywhere and nothing whatever contradictory. For these people do not cling to the actual statements made there in accordance with appearances and ordinary human perception, because they know that if the appearances are opened out and so to speak peeled away, truth is laid bare there. They are not led astray by falsities that result from the illusions of the outward senses, as heretics and zealots are, especially Jews and Socinians, nor by falsities that result from self-love and love of the world, as those meant by 'Babel' are. Since none of these are able to receive enlightenment, they deduce their doctrinal teachings solely from the outward sense of the Word to suit their own loves, also adding many ideas of their own, as a result of which the Word is not at all supported but collapses. It should be remembered that the inward sense of the Word contains the authentic teachings of the Church.

[4] All this now shows what the teachings represented here by Aaron and Hur are like, teachings which - being derived solely from the outward sense of the Word, without the inward - were simply idolatrous. This accounts for what it says about Aaron, who represented such teachings, that he made an idol, or the golden calf, Exodus 32:2-5, 21, 35; Deuteronomy 9:20. Indeed these teachings are described in the Word as 'idols'; they are described as such throughout the prophets, as in Ezekiel,

I went in and saw all the idols of the house of Israel, portrayed on the wall round about. And seventy men from the elders of the house of Israel were standing before them; and each had a censer in his hand, and a thick cloud 1 of incense was going up. Ezekiel 8:10-11.

Here 'the idols of the house of Israel' are teachings derived solely from the outward sense of the Word, not through enlightenment received from the Lord but through self-intelligence, thus falsities. Worship in keeping with those falsities is meant by 'a censer in each man's hand' and by 'a thick cloud of incense'.

(Odkazy: Deuteronomy 9:16, 9:21; Exodus 32:20)

[5] In Hosea,

They sin more and more, they make for themselves a molded image from their silver, [idols] by their own intelligence, completely the work of craftsmen, saying to these, Those who offer human sacrifice kiss the calves. Hosea 13:2.

'A graven image from their silver' and 'completely the work of craftsmen' stand for teachings that are fashioned by self-intelligence and do not come from the Lord, thus are derived from the outward sense of the Word, separated from the inward. This happens among those whose minds are set solely on outward and not at the same time on inward things, that is, among those who are ruled by self-love and love of the world and not by love to the Lord and love towards the neighbour.

[6] In Isaiah,

On that day a person will cast away his idols of silver and his idols of gold 2 which they made for themselves to bow down to, to the moles and bats, to go into the clefts 3 of the rocks and into the fissures of the crags. Isaiah 2:20-21; 31:7.

'Idols of silver' stands for falsities embodied in doctrinal teachings, and 'idols of gold' for evils embodied in doctrinal teachings. 'Bowing down to moles and bats, and going into clefts or fissures of rocks and crags' stands for worship springing from falsities and evils of belief.

[7] In the same prophet,

You will judge unclean the covering of the graven images of your silver, and the clothing of the molded image of your gold. You will throw them away like a menstruous rag; a piece of dung you will call it. Isaiah 30:22.

'The covering of the graven images of silver' and 'the clothing of the molded image of gold' stand for factual knowledge of falsity and evil, which are acknowledged and revered instead of truths and forms of good. In the same prophet,

I told you of old, lest you should say, My idol has done these things, and my graven image, and my molded image has commanded them. Isaiah 48:5.

Here also 'idol', 'graven image', and 'molded image' stand for matters of doctrine fashioned by self-intelligence.

[8] In Jeremiah,

Every person has been made stupid by knowledge; every metal-caster has been filled with shame by his graven image, for his molded image is a lie; and there is no spirit in those things. They are things of no importance, a work of errors. Jeremiah 10:14-15.

In this place too 'graven image' and 'molded image' stand for matters of doctrine fashioned by self-intelligence, which to outward appearance look like truths because they are derived from the outward sense of the Word, but inwardly are falsities. This is why it says that this person is 'made stupid by knowledge', that 'the molded image is a lie', that 'there is no spirit in those things', and also that they are 'of no importance, a work of errors'. Something similar occurs in Habakkuk,

What profit is a graven image since its image-maker has graven it, a molded image and a teacher of lies, since the image-maker trusts in the thing he himself has made? Habakkuk 2:18.

[9] In Isaiah,

The craftsman casts a graven image, and a goldsmith overlays it with gold, and casts silver chains for it. He seeks for himself a skilled 4 craftsman to make ready a graven image. Isaiah 40:19-20.

Here in like manner 'a graven image' stands for some matter of doctrine fashioned by self-intelligence. The likeness to truth imparted to it by the Word, by its outward sense alone, and at the same time by illusions and outward appearances, is meant by 'a goldsmith overlays it with gold, and casts silver chains for it' and by 'he seeks a skilled craftsman to make it ready'.

[10] In the same prophet,

Makers of the graven image, all are vanity; and their most desirable things are profitless. He fashions the iron with tongs, and works it with the coals, and forms it with sharp hammers; so he makes it with his strong arm. 5 He fashions pieces of wood, stretches out a cord, and marks it off with a ruler. He makes it into angles, and marks it out with a ring, so that he may make it in the form of a man (vir), according to the beauty of a human being, to dwell in the house. Isaiah 44:9-18.

This is a description of the way in which self-intelligence, without any enlightenment from the Lord, shapes religious teachings, and of the way in which the Word, its outward sense alone, and reasonings based on the illusions of the senses, are used to make falsities look like the truth. This is why it says 'so that he may make it in the form of a man, according to the beauty of a human being, to dwell in the house'. Consequently to outward appearance it looks like the truth, but inwardly it is falsity. Falsity exists inwardly when people do not think correctly about truths; for one person's thought about one and the same truth is different from another's, but that of all those who are steeped in evil is false. One truth consists of countless other truths; but with those steeped in evil it consists of countless falsities. With these people therefore that truth has no life in it, and this is meant by 'there is no spirit in them', Jeremiah 51:17, and 'they do not hear, see, nor understand', Psalms 115:4-6. All this may be likened to a painting that portrays a person's likeness, which inwardly is nothing but paint, in contrast to the actual person's outward appearance which has heavenly life and beauty inwardly present if truths springing from good exist there.


1. literally, the abundance of a cloud

2. literally, idols of his silver and idols of his gold

3. Reading scissuras (clefts) for fissuras (fissures)

4. literally, wise

5. literally, the arm of his strength


(Odkazy: Exodus 24:14; Isaiah 44:9-13, 44:9, 44:13)

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From Swedenborg's Works

Inbound References:

Arcana Coelestia 9466, 10105, 10329, 10399, 10400, 10548, 10584

The White Horse 8

The New Jerusalem and its Heavenly Doctrine 257

References from Swedenborg's unpublished works:

Apocalypse Explained 386

Other New Christian Commentary

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Thanks to the Swedenborg Society for the permission to use this translation.