Ezekiel 31

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1 And it came to pass in the eleventh year, in the third [month], on the first of the month, [that] the word of Jehovah came unto me, saying,

2 Son of man, say unto Pharaoh king of Egypt, and to his multitude: Whom art thou like in thy greatness?

3 Behold, Assyria was a cedar in Lebanon, with fair branches and a shadowing shroud, and of a high stature: and his top was amidst the thick boughs.

4 The waters made him great, the deep set him up on high; its streams ran round about his plantation, and it sent out its rivulets unto all the trees of the field.

5 Therefore his height was exalted above all the trees of the field, and his boughs were multiplied, and his branches became long, because of great waters, when he shot forth.

6 All the fowl of the heavens made their nests in his boughs, and under his branches did all the beasts of the field bring forth their young, and under his shadow dwelt all the great nations.

7 Thus was he fair in his greatness, in the length of his branches: because his root was by great waters.

8 The cedars in the garden of God could not hide him; the cypresses were not like his boughs, and the plane-trees were not as his branches: no tree in the garden of God was like unto him in his beauty.

9 I had made him fair by the multitude of his branches; and all the trees of Eden, that were in the garden of God, envied him.

10 Therefore thus saith the Lord Jehovah: Because thou hast lifted up thyself in stature, ... and he hath set his top amidst the thick boughs, and his heart is lifted up in his height,

11 I have given him into the hand of the mighty one of the nations; he shall surely deal with him: I have driven him out for his wickedness.

12 And strangers, the terrible of the nations, have cut him off and have left him; upon the mountains and in all the valleys his branches are fallen, and his boughs are broken in all the watercourses of the land; and all the peoples of the earth are gone down from his shadow, and have left him.

13 Upon his fallen [trunk] do all the fowl of the heavens dwell, and all the beasts of the field are upon his branches:

14 to the end that none of all the trees by the waters exalt themselves in their stature, nor set their top amidst the thick boughs, and that none of them that drink water stand up in his height by himself; for they are all given over unto death in the lower parts of the earth, in the midst of the children of men, with them that go down to the pit.

15 Thus saith the Lord Jehovah: In the day when he went down to Sheol, I caused a mourning: I covered the deep for him, and I restrained the floods thereof, and the great waters were stayed; and I made Lebanon black for him, and all the trees of the field fainted for him.

16 I made the nations to shake at the sound of his fall, when I cast him down to Sheol, with them that go down into the pit; and all the trees of Eden, the choice and best of Lebanon, all that drink water, were comforted in the lower parts of the earth.

17 They also went down into Sheol with him unto them that were slain with the sword, and [that were] his arm, that dwelt under his shadow in the midst of the nations.

18 To whom art thou thus like in glory and in greatness among the trees of Eden? Yet shalt thou be brought down with the trees of Eden, unto the lower parts of the earth; thou shalt lie in the midst of the uncircumcised, with them that are slain by the sword. This is Pharaoh and all his multitude, saith the Lord Jehovah.

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Hlavní výklad ze Swedenborgových prací:

Apocalypse Explained 654

Apocalypse Revealed 503

The Inner Meaning of the Prophets and Psalms 154

Další odkazy Swedenborga k této kapitole:

Arcana Coelestia 46, 108, 119, 130, 756, 776, 908, ...

Apocalypse Revealed 90, 312, 409, 567, 757

Divine Love and Wisdom 325

The Lord 4, 28

Faith 54

True Christian Religion 82, 467, 635

References from Swedenborg's unpublished works:

Apocalypse Explained 110, 175, 372, 388, 518, 538, 650, ...

Coronis (An Appendix to True Christian Religion) 3, 27, 41, 58

Marriage 82

Scriptural Confirmations 9, 74

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'Mizraim' signifies the same thing as Egypt.

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go down
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The "high mountains being covered " (Gen. 7:19) signifies that all the good things of charity were extin­guished.

'To tremble,' as in Jeremiah 10:10, relates to the church when falsities are believed and called truths.

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Arms and feet (Daniel 10:6) signify the exterior things of the Word, which are its literal sense.

'The uncircumcised,' as in Ezekiel 31:18, signifies people lacking the good of charity.

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Apocalypse Explained # 817

Apocalypse Explained (Whitehead translation)      

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817. And he spake as a dragon, signifies with a similar affection, thought, doctrine, and preaching, as belong to those who separate faith from the life of faith, which is charity. This is evident from the signification of "speaking," as being affection, thought, doctrine, and preaching. This is the signification of "speaking" because all the speech of man is from affection and the consequent thought. The affection itself is expressed by the sound of the speech, and the thought by its words. The affection and the thought are both of them in the speech, as everyone who reflects can see. The affection alone by itself cannot speak, it can only make a sound and sing; nor can thought alone by itself speak otherwise than as an automaton without life, since it is the affection that gives life to every expression of speech; and this is why a man is regarded by others according to the affection of his speech and not according to the words he utters. "To speak" signifies also to preach from doctrine, thus doctrine and preaching therefrom, because it is said that the beast "spake as a dragon;" and a "dragon" means those who are in faith separated from charity both in doctrine and in life (see above, n. 711, 714); and this beast means confirmations from the sense of the letter of the Word in favor of the separation of faith from life, and the resulting falsifications of the Word; consequently "to speak as a dragon" signifies that kind of religion in respect to doctrine and preaching.

(Odkazy: Revelation 13:11; The Apocalypse Explained 711)

[2] As faith separate from charity and the resulting falsification of the Word are described by the dragon and its two beasts, I will show in this article that a like heresy is depicted in the Word by "Cain," by "Reuben," and by the "Philistines," and the like is meant also by the "he-goat" in Daniel. For there have been several churches on this earth, namely, the Most Ancient, which was before the flood; the Ancient, which was after the flood; the Jewish, which followed the Ancient; and lastly the Christian Church. All of these churches degenerated in process of time into two enormous errors, into one which adulterated all the goods of the church, and into the other which falsified all its truths. The church that adulterated all the goods of the church is described in the Word by the "Babylonians and Chaldeans;" and the church that falsified all the truths of the church is described by "Cain," by "Reuben," and by the "Philistines," and by the "he-goat" in Daniel which fought with the ram and overcame it. The adulteration of the good of the church, which is described by the "Babylonians and Chaldeans," will be spoken of hereafter where "Babylon" is treated of in Revelation; but now the falsification of truth shall be treated of, which is described here in Revelation by "the dragon and his two beasts," and was also described by "Cain," and by the others above mentioned.

[3] That those who separate the knowledges of truth and good from a life according to them, and who believe that they may be saved by these alone, were represented by "Cain," has been briefly shown in the Arcana Coelestia where Cain and Abel are treated of; to which this shall be added. It is written of Cain:

That he was the firstborn of Adam, and that he tilled the ground, and brought of the fruit of the ground an offering to Jehovah; and that Abel was a shepherd of the flock, and brought of the firstlings of his flock and of the fat thereof; also that Jehovah had respect unto the offering of Abel and not unto the offering of Cain, that therefore Cain's anger was kindled and he slew his brother; and that Cain was therefore accursed and rejected from the ground, and became a wanderer and fugitive in the earth; and that Jehovah set a sign upon Cain lest he should be slain, and decreed that whoever should slay him should have vengeance taken on him sevenfold (see Genesis 4).

It is to be known that all names of persons and places in the Word signify things and states of the church, especially the names in the first chapters of Genesis, because the stories in those chapters are made-up histories containing the deepest arcana of heaven, and yet they are most holy in the sense of the letter, because in every least word there is a spiritual sense that conjoins the heavens with the men of the church. What these stories involve in the spiritual sense and what the names of the persons there signify has been explained in the Arcana Coelestia. "Cain" signifies the knowledges of truth and good separated from a life according to them, thus from heavenly love, and "Abel" signifies heavenly love; or what is the same, "Cain" signifies truth separated from good, and "Abel" good conjoined with truth. And as truth is the first thing of the church, since every church is formed by means of truths, because every church begins from truths or from the knowledges of truth and good, therefore Cain was the firstborn, and was named "man" [vir] of Jehovah," "man of Jehovah" signifying in the Word the truth of heaven and the church; and the "ground" which Cain tilled signifies the church. The separation of truth from good is signified by the murder of Abel by Cain; for when everything of the church is placed in truths or in knowledges, and not in goods or in the affection of living according to truths, good with its affections is slain. And as everything of the church perishes when truth is separated from good, so Cain "was cast forth from the ground," which, as has been said, signifies the church. But because truths are the first things of the church, for life must be learned from truths, "a sign was set on Cain, lest someone should slay him; and it was decreed that if anyone should slay him he should be avenged seven-fold." And because truth without good is carried hither and thither, having nothing to lead it, and consequently falls successively into falsities, and departs from the way that leads to heaven, so Cain "was cast forth from the face of Jehovah, and became a wanderer and fugitive." The like is true of faith and charity, since faith is of truth and charity is of good; so when faith is separated from charity what is said of Cain takes place, namely, that "it kills Abel its brother," which is charity, and in consequence the church perishes, which is signified by "being cast forth from the ground, and becoming a wanderer and fugitive," for when faith is separated from charity truth is successively turned into falsity and falls away.

[4] It has been shown above n. 434, that "Reuben," the firstborn of Jacob, signified the light of truth and thence the understanding of the Word, and thus truth from good or faith from charity, as did the apostle Peter; and that conversely, "Reuben" represented truth separated from good, or faith separated from charity, and that this faith is signified by his adultery with Bilhah his father's concubine, in consequence of which the birthright was taken away from him and given to Joseph. To this may be added, that all heresies, so far as they are adulterations and falsifications of the Word, correspond to adulteries and whoredoms of various kinds, and these because of this correspondence are actually perceived in the spiritual world from those who are in heresies. The reason of this is that marriages as they exist in the heavens derive their spiritual origin from the conjunction of good and truth; and conversely, adulteries derive their origin from the conjunction of evil and falsity; and this is why heaven is compared in the Word to a marriage, and hell to adultery. And as there is in the hells the conjunction of evil and falsity, so there continually exhales therefrom a sphere of adultery. It is for this reason that "adulteries and whoredoms" signify in the Word the adulterations of the good of the church and the falsifications of its truth (see above, n. 141, 161).

(Odkazy: The Apocalypse Explained 141, 161, The Apocalypse Explained 434)

[5] In respect to faith separated from charity, this is perceived in the spiritual world as the adultery of a son with a mother as also with a step-mother. This is so because that faith shuts out the good of charity; and when this is shut out the evil of the love of self and of the world takes its place, and that faith conjoins itself with that love. For every kind of faith must necessarily conjoin itself with some love; therefore when spiritual love, which is charity, is separated, faith then conjoins itself with the love of self or with the love of the world, which are the loves that are dominant in the natural man; and this is why so heinous an adultery results from faith separated from charity. From this then it is clear what is signified by the adultery of Reuben with Bilhah his father's concubine, and why he was rejected for this reason from the right of the primogeniture. This is also meant by the prophecy of Israel his father respecting Reuben:

Reuben my firstborn, thou art my power and the beginning of my vigor; excelling in exaltation and excelling in strength; light as water, thou shalt not excel, because thou wentest up to thy father's bed, then thou didst profane it, he went up to my couch (Gen. 49:3, 4).

These words may be seen explained in the Arcana Coelestia (n. 6341-6350). That such adultery is perceived in the spiritual world from faith separated from charity has been made evident to me from correspondences in that world. For whenever I have perceived afar off the sphere of adultery with a mother or stepmother, I have known at once that those who had confirmed themselves in faith alone both in doctrine and in life were near, and they were also then discovered; and when they had been explored they were found to have been such in the world.

(Odkazy: Arcana Coelestia 6341, Genesis 49:3-4)

[6] So much respecting Reuben; we will now speak of the Philistines; these also in the Word represent faith separated from love. It was for this reason that they were called the "uncircumcised;" for "one uncircumcised" signifies one who is destitute of spiritual love, and is solely in natural love, and with that love alone no religious principle can be conjoined, much less anything of the church; for every religious principle and everything of the church has regard to the Divine, to heaven, and to spiritual life; and these cannot be conjoined with any other than a spiritual love; but not with a natural love separated from a spiritual love; since natural love separated from spiritual love is man's own [proprium], and this, regarded in itself, is nothing but evil. All the wars that the sons of Israel waged against the Philistines represented the combats of the spiritual man with the natural man, and thence also the combats of truth conjoined with good against truth separated from good, which in itself is not truth but falsity. For truth separated from good is falsified in the idea of the thought respecting it, and for the reason that there is nothing spiritual present in the thought to enlighten it. For the same reason those who are in faith separated from charity have no truth, except merely in their speech or in their preaching from the Word, the idea of truth instantly perishing as soon as truth is thought about.

[7] Because this religion exists in the churches with all who love to live a natural life, so in the land of Canaan the Philistines were not subjugated, as the other nations of that land were, and consequently there were many battles with them. For all the historical things of the Word are representative of such things as pertain to the church; and all the nations of the land of Canaan represented things heretical confirming either the falsities of faith or the evils of the love; while the sons of Israel represented the truths of faith and the goods of love, and thus the church. But what was represented by the wars that the inhabitants of the land of Canaan carried on will be told in its place and time; here it shall merely be shown that the Philistines represented a religious principle separated from spiritual good, such as is the religious principle of faith alone separated from its life, which is charity. This is why the sons of Israel whenever they fell away from the worship of Jehovah to the worship of other gods were given over to their enemies, or were conquered by them:

Thus they were given over to the Philistines, and served them eighteen years, and afterwards forty years (Judges 10;Judges 13).

This represented their departure from the worship from the good of love and the truths of faith to worship from the evils of love and the falsities of faith. Likewise:

The sons of Israel were conquered and distressed by the Philistines (1 Samuel 4;1 Samuel 13; 28; 29; 31).

But when the sons of Israel returned to the worship of Jehovah, which was the worship from the good of love and the truths of faith, they conquered the Philistines (1 Samuel 7, 1 Samuel 14; 2 Samuel 5, 2 Samuel 8:21, 23; 2 Kings 18). That these historical things involve such things can be seen only from the series of things there described when viewed in the internal sense, to present which here would occupy too much time; therefore one passage only from the prophetical parts of the Word shall be cited, from which it will be manifest that such things as pertain to the church were represented by the Philistines in these narratives.

(Odkazy: 1 Samuel 4:1, 7:1, 13:1, 14:1, 28:1, 29:1, 31:1; 2 Kings 18:1; 2 Samuel 5:1, 8:1, 21:1, 23:1; Judges 10:1, 13:1)

[8] Thus in Isaiah:

Rejoice not, O Philistea, all of thee, because the rod that smiteth thee is broken; for out of the serpent's root shall come forth a basilisk, whose fruit shall be a fiery-flying serpent. Then the firstborn of the poor shall feed, and the needy shall lie down in safety; and I will kill thy root with famine, and he shall slay thy remnant. Howl, O gate; cry out, O city; thou whole Philistea art dissolved; for from the north cometh a smoke, and none shall be alone in thy assemblies. What then shall one answer, ye messengers of the nation? That Jehovah hath founded Zion, and in her the afflicted of His people shall hope (Isaiah 14:29-32).

This describes Philistea, which signifies the church, or those in the church who indeed are in truths from the sense of the letter of the Word or from some other revelation, and yet are in filthy loves, consequently their truths are not living truths; and truths not living are turned into falsities when they are brought from exterior thought, which is the thought next to the speech, into interior thought, which belongs to the understanding, also when this thought considers truths in their origin, which those who are meant by "the Philistines" do not see. They do not see for the reason that while every man, even an evil man, has a faculty to understand, he has no good of the will, which is the good of life; for this good springs from love to God and from love to the neighbor, and it is these loves that cause that faculty to communicate with heaven and receive enlightenment therefrom.

[9] This chapter in Isaiah describes those who are in truths without good, and shows that with such all truths are turned into falsities. This, therefore, is the spiritual sense of these words: "Rejoice not, O Philistea, all of thee, because the rod that smiteth thee is broken," signifies that they should not rejoice because they are permitted to remain in their heresy by reason of the fewness of those who are in truths from good; "for out of the serpent's root shall come forth a basilisk" signifies that out of the sensual man a dogma destructive of all truth will arise; "the serpent's root" being the sensual, which is the ultimate of man's life, and "the basilisk" being the destruction of all truth. "Whose fruit shall be a fiery-flying serpent" signifies from which there will spring faith separated from charity; this faith is meant by "a fiery-flying serpent" because it flies upwards by means of reasonings and confirmations from things revealed that are not understood, and thus it kills the things that are living. In like manner "the basilisk" has a similar signification as "the dragon," which is also called "a serpent;" and "the fiery-flying serpent" has a similar signification as "the beast coming up out of the sea and the beast out of the earth," in this chapter of Revelation. "Then the firstborn of the poor shall feed, and the needy shall lie down in safety," signifies that when that dogma is received by those who are natural and sensual men, and who believe themselves to be wiser than others, truths from good with those who desire what is true and will what is good, will become living; "the firstborn" in the Word signify truths born from good; the "poor" those who are not in truths but who still desire them, and the "needy" those who are not in goods but who in heart will them. "And I will kill thy root with famine, and he shall slay thy remnant," signifies that all truths, from the first of them to the last, will be destroyed by falsities. "Howl, O gate; cry out, O city," signifies that no entrance will be granted to any truth, and that doctrine will be made up of mere falsities, "gate" signifying entrance to the truths of doctrine, and "city" doctrine. "Thou whole Philistea art dissolved" signifies the destruction of that church by mere falsities. "For from the north cometh a smoke" signifies that every falsity from evil will break in from hell, "the north" meaning hell, and "smoke" the falsity of evil. "And none shall be alone in thy assemblies" signifies that there shall not remain a single truth among their knowledges. "What then shall one answer, ye messengers of the nation?" signifies the enlightenment of those who are in the good of life from love to the Lord. "That Jehovah hath founded Zion" signifies that a church shall be established from them; "and in her the afflicted of His people shall hope" signifies that those who are not in wisdom from self, and who conquer in temptations against such falsities, shall have intelligence and salvation.

[10] The vastation of truth by falsities with those who are meant by "the Philistines" is also described by Jeremiah 47:1-7; likewise in Ezekiel 25:15, 16; in Joel 3:4-6; in Amos 1:8. That such falsify truths is meant by "the daughters of the Philistines," mentioned in Ezekiel 16:27, 57; also in 2 Samuel 1:20; "the daughters of the Philistines" there meaning the affections of falsity. Their religious principle was also represented by their idol called Dagon, which was set up in Ashdod, and which, according to their description, was formed like a man from the head to the navel, and like a fish from the navel downwards; its being like a man from the head to the navel represented the understanding derived from truths; and like a fish from the navel downwards represented the natural destitute of the good of love; for the lower part down to the knees corresponds to celestial love, and a "fish" signifies the natural man which is without spiritual good. (That "man" [homo] signifies the affection of truth, may be seen above, n. 280; that his "head" signifies the understanding of truth and intelligence therefrom, n. 553; that a "fish" signifies the natural man, n. 513; and that the generative organs signify from correspondence celestial love, see Arcana Coelestia 5050-5062. Moreover, the "emerods" with which the Philistines were smitten when the ark of God was held captive by them, signified truths defiled by evils of life; but these and other things related about them in 1 Samuel 5 may be seen explained above, n. 700

(Odkazy: Ezekiel 25:15-16; The Apocalypse Explained 280, The Apocalypse Explained 513, 553, The Apocalypse Explained 700)

[11] Truth defiled by evil of life is signified also by "the uncircumcised" (2 Samuel 1:20; Ezekiel 28:10; 31:18; 32:18, 19; 44:9). For the foreskin corresponds to corporeal love, because the member which it covers corresponds to spiritual and celestial love. And because "the Philistines" represented those who are in knowledge (scientia) and cognitions of truth without any spiritual and celestial good, they were called "uncircumcised." And as the sons of Israel were also actually of the same character, in order that they might nevertheless represent the church which is in spiritual and celestial good and in truths therefrom, it was commanded that they should be circumcised. From this it can be seen that the religious principle at this day that separates charity from faith is in the representative sense Philistea.

(Odkazy: Ezekiel 32:18-19)

[12] So much respecting the Philistines. Something shall now be said about the goats and sheep, upon which judgment will be executed, according to the Lord's words in Matthew (Matthew 25:31-46 end). The common opinion is that the "goats" there mean all the evil, and it has not been known heretofore that the "goats" there mean those who are in faith separated from charity, and the "sheep" those who are in faith from charity. In a good sense "goats" mean those who are in natural good and in truths therefrom, which truths are called the knowledges (cognitiones) of truth and good from the natural sense of the Word. Such as these, or such good and such truth therefrom, are signified by the goats that were sacrificed. That there were also sacrifices of goats is evident from Leviticus 4:23; 9:2-4, 8-23; 16:2-20; 23:18, 19; Numbers 15:22-29; 28:11-15, 28:18-31; 29:1; and elsewhere. For all the beasts that were offered as sacrifices signified such things as pertain to the church, all of which have reference to goods and truths. The celestial goods and the truths therefrom in which are the angels in the third heaven were signified by "lambs," while the spiritual goods and truths in which are the angels in the middle heaven were signified by "rams," and the natural goods and truths therefrom, in which are the angels who are in the lowest heaven, were signified by "goats." Celestial goods and truths are with those who are in love to the Lord; but spiritual goods and truths are with those who are in love towards the neighbor; and natural goods and truths with those who live well according to truths from natural affection. This is the signification of these three kinds of beasts in various parts of the Word (as in Ezekiel 27:21; Deuteronomy 32:14).

(Odkazy: Leviticus 23:18-19)

[13] But as most things in the Word have also a contrary sense, so "goats" signify in that sense those who are in faith separated from charity, for the reason that they are more lascivious than other animals, and that they signify in the genuine sense those who are in natural good and the truth thence, and all who are in faith separated from charity both in doctrine and in life are merely natural. That such are meant in the Word by "goats" has been shown me to the life in the spiritual world. There various beasts are seen; but they are not such beasts as exist in our world, that is, not beasts that have been born, but they are correspondences of the affections and of the thoughts therefrom of spirits and angels; consequently as soon as those affections and the thoughts therefrom vary and cease, these beasts vanish out of sight. That I might know that those who are in faith separated from charity, or rather the affections and thoughts of such from their faith, are represented by "goats," it was granted me to see some of those spirits; and they appeared before my eyes and the eyes of many others altogether as goats with horns. Moreover, when rams and sheep were sent among them these goats being kindled with anger rushed upon them, and strove to throw them down, but in vain. For in the spiritual world goats have no power against the rams or sheep, therefore the goats were overcome. Afterwards it was granted me to see the same as men; and this was a proof that the goats were identical with those who had lived in the world in faith separated from charity.

[14] From this what is signified by the "ram" and the "he-goat," and "the battle between them," in the eighth chapter of Daniel can be seen, namely, that the "ram" there means those who are in faith from charity, and the "he-goat" those who are in faith separated from charity. Thus the future state of the church is there described, namely, that faith separate would dissipate all charity, which is the good of life, and falsity therefrom would have rule in the Christian world. To illustrate this, I will present a summary of what is related in Daniel respecting the ram and the he-goat, as follows:

Daniel saw in vision a ram that had two horns, one higher than the other, but the higher came up last; and he made himself great. But then a he-goat of the goats came from the west over the faces of all the earth; and he charged upon the ram and smote him, and broke his two horns; and he cast the ram down to the earth, and trampled upon him. The he-goat had a horn between his eyes, and when this was broken there came up four horns in its place towards the four winds of the heavens; and out of one of them came forth one horn which grew exceedingly, even to the host of the heavens, and cast down some of the host and of the stars to the earth and trampled upon them. Yea, it exalted itself even to the prince of the host, and the continual burnt-offering was taken away from him, and the dwelling-place of his sanctuary was cast down; and it cast down the truth to the earth (Daniel 8:1-14, seq.).

That the "ram" here means those who are in faith from charity, and the "he-goat" those who are in faith separated from charity, may be seen above (n. 316 and n. 573, where the same things are explained; therefore I pass by any further explanation.

(Odkazy: Daniel 8:1-12; The Apocalypse Explained 316, The Apocalypse Explained 573)

[15] Again that "he-goats" mean those who are in faith separated from charity, and "rams" those who are in faith from charity, is evident also in Ezekiel:

And as for you, O my flock, behold I judge between cattle and cattle, and between rams and he-goats (Ezekiel 34:17).

Likewise in Zechariah:

Mine anger was kindled against the shepherds, and I will visit upon the he-goats (Zechariah 10:3).

From this it can be seen that the goats and the sheep in Matthew (25:31-46 to the end) have the same meaning; consequently works of charity only are there enumerated which were done by the sheep, and were not done by the goats. That such are there meant by the "goats" was proved also when the Last Judgment was accomplished upon those who belonged to the Christian Church; for then all those who were in faith separated from charity both in doctrine and life were cast into hell; and all who were in faith from charity were kept safe.

(Odkazy: Daniel 8:1-12; Revelation 13:11)

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