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Ezekiel 31

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1 And it came to pass in the eleventh year, in the third [month], on the first of the month, [that] the word of Jehovah came unto me, saying,

2 Son of man, say unto Pharaoh king of Egypt, and to his multitude: Whom art thou like in thy greatness?

3 Behold, Assyria was a cedar in Lebanon, with fair branches and a shadowing shroud, and of a high stature: and his top was amidst the thick boughs.

4 The waters made him great, the deep set him up on high; its streams ran round about his plantation, and it sent out its rivulets unto all the trees of the field.

5 Therefore his height was exalted above all the trees of the field, and his boughs were multiplied, and his branches became long, because of great waters, when he shot forth.

6 All the fowl of the heavens made their nests in his boughs, and under his branches did all the beasts of the field bring forth their young, and under his shadow dwelt all the great nations.

7 Thus was he fair in his greatness, in the length of his branches: because his root was by great waters.

8 The cedars in the garden of God could not hide him; the cypresses were not like his boughs, and the plane-trees were not as his branches: no tree in the garden of God was like unto him in his beauty.

9 I had made him fair by the multitude of his branches; and all the trees of Eden, that were in the garden of God, envied him.

10 Therefore thus saith the Lord Jehovah: Because thou hast lifted up thyself in stature, ... and he hath set his top amidst the thick boughs, and his heart is lifted up in his height,

11 I have given him into the hand of the mighty one of the nations; he shall surely deal with him: I have driven him out for his wickedness.

12 And strangers, the terrible of the nations, have cut him off and have left him; upon the mountains and in all the valleys his branches are fallen, and his boughs are broken in all the watercourses of the land; and all the peoples of the earth are gone down from his shadow, and have left him.

13 Upon his fallen [trunk] do all the fowl of the heavens dwell, and all the beasts of the field are upon his branches:

14 to the end that none of all the trees by the waters exalt themselves in their stature, nor set their top amidst the thick boughs, and that none of them that drink water stand up in his height by himself; for they are all given over unto death in the lower parts of the earth, in the midst of the children of men, with them that go down to the pit.

15 Thus saith the Lord Jehovah: In the day when he went down to Sheol, I caused a mourning: I covered the deep for him, and I restrained the floods thereof, and the great waters were stayed; and I made Lebanon black for him, and all the trees of the field fainted for him.

16 I made the nations to shake at the sound of his fall, when I cast him down to Sheol, with them that go down into the pit; and all the trees of Eden, the choice and best of Lebanon, all that drink water, were comforted in the lower parts of the earth.

17 They also went down into Sheol with him unto them that were slain with the sword, and [that were] his arm, that dwelt under his shadow in the midst of the nations.

18 To whom art thou thus like in glory and in greatness among the trees of Eden? Yet shalt thou be brought down with the trees of Eden, unto the lower parts of the earth; thou shalt lie in the midst of the uncircumcised, with them that are slain by the sword. This is Pharaoh and all his multitude, saith the Lord Jehovah.

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Swedenborg

Hlavní výklad ze Swedenborgových prací:

Apocalypse Explained 654

Apocalypse Revealed 503

The Inner Meaning of the Prophets and Psalms 154


Další odkazy Swedenborga k této kapitole:

Arcana Coelestia 46, 108, 119, 130, 756, 776, 908, ...

Apocalypse Revealed 90, 312, 409, 567, 757

Divine Love and Wisdom 325

The Lord 4, 28

Faith 54

True Christian Religion 82, 467, 635


References from Swedenborg's unpublished works:

Apocalypse Explained 110, 175, 372, 388, 518, 538, 650, ...

Coronis (An Appendix to True Christian Religion) 3, 27, 41, 58

Marriage 82

Scriptural Confirmations 9, 74

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Word/Phrase Explanations

third
'Three' denotes fullness, and 'a third,' not full.

Month
'A month' has respect to the state of truth in a person. 'A month' signifies a full state. Month,' as in Genesis 29, signifies the...

the Word
In general, we tend to be very aware of how knowing what's true leads to doing what is good. That starts as children, with parents...

word
'Word,' as in Psalms 119:6-17, stands for doctrine in general. 'The Word,' as in Psalms 147:18, signifies divine good united with divine truth. 'Word,' as...

jehovah
The Lord, in the simplest terms, is love itself expressed as wisdom itself. In philosophic terms, love is the Lord's substance and wisdom is His...

son of man
The Lord, in some places, calls Himself 'the son of God,' at other times, 'the son of man (ἄνθρωπος).' This is always according to the...

son
'A son,' as in Genesis 5:28, signifies the rise of a new church. 'Son,' as in Genesis 24:3, signifies the Lord’s rationality regarding good. 'A...

Pharaoh
'Pharaoh' signifies scientific ideas, or the natural principle in general. 'Pharaoh' signifies false ideas infesting the truth of the church. Pharaoh,' in Genesis 40, represents...

egypt
'Mizraim' signifies the same thing as Egypt.

Lebanon
'Lebanon' signifies spiritual good. 'Lebanon' signifies the church regarding the perception of truth from the rational self.

branches
A branch (Matt. 24:32) signifies affection, for affection springs and flourishes from good as a branch Springs from its trunk. A branch (Mal. 4:1) denotes...

High
'Height' signifies what is inward, and also heaven.

stature
'Height' signifies the good and truth of the church in every degree.

waters
'Waters,' 'rivers,' and 'depths,' as in Psalm 78:15-16, signify truths from the Lord.

Round about
'Round about' denotes the things most distant from the middle, or from good and truth.

sent
'Being sent' everywhere signifies, in an internal sense, going forth, as in John 17:8. In similar manner, it is said of the holy of the...

Trees of the field
'The trees of the field,' as in Ezekiel 31:15, signify the knowledges of truth in the church.

trees
In general, plants in the Bible represent facts, thoughts and ideas – intellectual things. This makes sense: Plants are rooted in place, but can grow...

field
When we have a desire to be good people and to do good things, the natural first questions are "What does that mean?" "What should...

Long
'Long' and thence to prolong, refer to good.

fowl
Fowl signify spiritual truth; a bird, natural truth; and a winged thing, sensual truth. Fowl signify intellectual things. Fowl signify thoughts, and all that creeps...

Heavens
Heavens are celestial and spiritual things. Consequently, they are inmost things, both of the Lord's kingdom in heaven the and in the earth. This also...

under
Generally speaking things that are seen as lower physically in the Bible represent things that are lower or more external spiritually. In some cases this...

shadow
'The shadow is good' of the oak, poplar and elm means complacence.

dwelt
Inhabitants,' in Isaiah 26:9, signify the men of the church who are in good of doctrine, and thence in the good of life.

Nations
'Nations' signify people who are in the good of love and charity from the Lord. Two nations in the womb,' as in Genesis 25:23, signify...

Length
'Length' symbolizes goodness, here, the goodness of the church, for the same reason that 'breadth' symbolizes truth. This is because 'length means the sweep of...

root
'A root,' as in Malachi 4:1, signifies charity. The dried up root,' as in Hosea 9:16, 17, signifies charity which could not bear fruit.

cedars
'Libanus' signifies the spiritual church. The glory of Libanus,' as in Isaiah 9:13, signifies the celestial spiritual things of the Lord's kingdom and church.

Garden
A garden and paradise signify intellect and wisdom.

Garden of God
The Garden of God, as in Ezekiel 28:13, signifies the rational principle of the spiritual church.

God
The Lord is love itself, expressed in the form of wisdom itself. Love, then, is His essence, His inmost. Wisdom - the loving understanding of...

tree
'Trees,' in general, signify the perceptions when discussing the celestial self, but when related to the spiritual church, they signify knowledges. A person in the...

beauty
Beauty of his ornament (Ezek. 7:20) signifies the church and its doctrine.

eden
According to the Writings, “Eden” by itself means love, in most cases the love that comes from the Lord and our love for the Lord,...

saith
As with many common verbs, the meaning of “to say” in the Bible is highly dependent on context. Who is speaking? Who is hearing? What...

given
Like other common verbs, the meaning of "give" in the Bible is affected by context: who is giving what to whom? In general, though, giving...

hand
In Genesis 27:22, 'voice' relates to truth, and 'hand,' to good.

mighty
'Might' denotes the forces or power of truth.

Terrible of the nations
In Ezekiel 28:7, 'strangers' signify falsities which destroy truths, and 'the terrible of the nations,' evils which destroy good.

mountains
In Isaiah 40:12 'to weigh the mountains in a balance, and the hills in scales,' signifies that the celestial aspects of love and charity are...

fallen
Like other common verbs, the meaning of "fall" is highly dependent on context in regular language, and is highly dependent on context in a spiritual...

broken
To “break” something creates an image that is much different from “attacking,” “destroying,” or “shattering.” It is less emotional, less violent in its intent; it...

peoples
The Bible generally uses two different terms for large groups: “people” and “nation.” When it uses the term “nation,” it is talking about a group...

earth
'Lands' of different nations are used in the Word to signify the different kinds of love prevalent in the inhabitants.

down
"Down" is used many different ways in natural language, and its spiritual meaning in the Bible is highly dependent on context. Phrases like "bowing down,"...

to
‘To grow’ signifies to be perfected.

water
'Waters' signify truths in the natural self, and in the opposite sense, falsities. 'Waters' signify particularly the spiritual parts of a person, or the intellectual...

amidst
The "midst" of something in the Bible represents the thing that is most central and most important to the spiritual state being described, the motivation...

midst
'Middle' denotes what is primary, principal, or inmost.

drink
To be drunken without wine (Isa. 29:9), are they who are unconcerned about the Word, and the truths of faith, and thus have no inclination...

stand
'To stay with,' as in Genesis 32:4, relates to the life of truth when accompanied by good, and in this instance, it means to take...

children
A child is a young boy or girl in the care of parents, older than a suckling or an infant, but not yet an adolescent....

go
In the physical world, the places we inhabit and the distances between them are physical realities, and we have to get our physical bodies through...

go down
To go up and to go down: in the Word, mention is made of going up and going down when speaking of going from one...

pit
In Job 9:30, 'waters of snow' denotes truths which are or appear genuine. 'Lye' denotes the good which purifies, and 'the ditch' denotes falsity.

day
The expression 'even to this day' or 'today' sometimes appears in the Word, as in Genesis 19:37-38, 22:14, 26:33, 32:32, 35:20, and 47:26. In a...

sheol
'Hell,' as mentioned in Jonah 2:3, signifies the earth below.

mourning
In a general sense, mourning in the Bible represents a state of grief over the lack of desires for good and true ideas about life....

covered
The "high mountains being covered " (Gen. 7:19) signifies that all the good things of charity were extin­guished.

shake
'To tremble,' as in Jeremiah 10:10, relates to the church when falsities are believed and called truths.

comforted
When the Bible talks about someone being comforted or consoled, it generally means that they are being offered ideas that will help bring them to...

Slain
'A multitude of slain' relates to people who perish from falsities, and 'a great number of carcasses,' of people who perish from evils, as in...

sword
A 'sword,' in the Word, signifies the truth of faith combating and the vastation of truth. In an opposite sense, it signifies falsity combating and...

arm
Arms and feet (Daniel 10:6) signify the exterior things of the Word, which are its literal sense.

uncircumcised
'The uncircumcised,' as in Ezekiel 31:18, signifies people lacking the good of charity.

Ze Swedenborgových děl

 

Apocalypse Explained # 650

Apocalypse Explained (Whitehead translation)      

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650. The beast that cometh up out of the abyss shall make war with them, signifies assault from infernal love. This is evident from the signification of "beast," as being the affection of the natural man in both senses (of which presently; also from the signification of "the abyss," as being hell (of which above, n. 538; also from the signification of "to make war," as being to assault, for by "wars," in the Word, such wars as are in our world are not meant, but such as are in the spiritual world, all of which are combats of falsities from evil against truths from good; that such is the signification of "wars" in the Word will appear in what follows, where wars are again mentioned. From this it can be seen that "the beast that cometh up out of the abyss shall make war with them," that is, the witnesses, signifies that infernal love from the falsities of evil shall assault the truths of good.

(Odkazy: Jeremiah 38:14; Revelation 11:7; The Apocalypse Explained 538)


[2] It has been shown before that a "beast" signifies a love or affection of the natural man; let something now be said about assault. Infernal love is especially the love of self, for the love of self is the love of what is man's own [proprium], and what is man's own is nothing but evil; consequently so far as a man is in that love he is against the Lord, and thus against the good of love and charity, and against the truth of doctrine and faith, thus against these "two witnesses;" for this reason, the hells where the love of self reigns are more direful and malignant than others, and are directly opposed to the Lord, and thence unceasingly assault the goods of love and faith, because these are from the Lord alone, and are the Lord with man and angel. That these hells are more direful than the others can be seen from this, that they continually breathe forth the destruction of those who confess the Divine of the Lord, therefore of those who are in the good of love and the good of faith in the Lord from the Lord.

[3] These hells are more malignant than the rest because so far as man is in the love of self, and at the same time in the love of self-intelligence, his natural lumen is in a kind of brightness, as it were, for the love of self is like a fire that kindles that lumen; it is from this that men can ingeniously think and reason against the Divine and against all things of heaven and the church. I have sometimes been astonished when I have listened to such, and have thought that they above all others were capable of being led to receive faith, but I perceived that this was impossible, for so far as they were enlightened in corporeal, worldly, and natural things they were in thick darkness in respect to celestial and spiritual things. This thick darkness was seen to be exceedingly dusky, with something fiery intermixed. This I could confirm by much experience, if this were the place for describing experiences. The love of self is what is here meant in particular by "the beast coming up out of the abyss," which made war with the two witnesses and killed them.

[4] That a "beast" signifies the love and affection of the natural man in both senses can be seen from very many passages in the Word; and this has heretofore been unknown, and as it may seem strange that "beasts" should signify the love or affection of the natural man, it is necessary to confirm this from the Word. Natural affections are signified by "beasts" because these affections are altogether similar to the affections of beasts, consequently a man who 1 is not imbued with spiritual affections through the goods and truths of heaven differs little from beasts. For man has above the beasts the superadded faculty to think and thence to will spiritually, which gives him the eminent faculty to see and perceive abstract things; but if this spiritual faculty is not vivified by the knowledges of truth and good, and afterwards by faith and the life of faith, he is no better than the beasts, except merely that by virtue of that higher faculty he is able to think and speak.

[5] Because the affections of the natural man are signified by "beasts," when those affections are presented to be seen in the spiritual world in forms like those animals, they appear altogether as the forms of various beasts; as for instance, lambs, sheep, she-goats, kids, he-goats, young cattle, oxen, cows; also as camels, horses, mules, asses; and also as bears, tigers, leopards, lions; likewise as dogs and serpents of various kinds. But such things are only appearances of the affections that are with spirits; and when these are made apparent it is also known there not only that the appearances are from these affections, but also from whom they are; but as soon as the affections with such cease, these appearances also cease. From this it can also be seen why "beasts" are so often mentioned in the Word.

[6] But let us proceed to the confirmations from the Word. In David:

Thou madest him to have dominion over the works of Thy hands. Thou hast put all things under His feet, the flock and herds, yea, the beasts of the fields, the bird of heaven, and the fishes of the sea (Psalms 8:6-8).

This whole psalm treats of the Lord and His dominion over all things of heaven and the church; the things of heaven and the church are meant here and elsewhere in the Word by "the works of the hands of Jehovah;" and as it is over these things that the Lord has dominion, and as spiritual things in the Word are expressed by natural things, for the Word in its bosom is spiritual, so by "flock," "herds," "the beasts of the field," "the birds of heaven," and "the fishes of the sea," these are not meant, but the spiritual things of heaven and the church. "Flock and herds" signify spiritual things and natural things that are from a spiritual origin, a "flock," that is, lambs, kids, she-goats, sheep, and rams, signifying spiritual things, and "herds," which are bullocks, oxen, cows, and camels, natural things from spiritual things; "beasts of the field" signify the affections of the natural man, "birds of the heavens" thoughts therefrom, and "fishes of the sea," the knowledges [scientifica] of the sensual-natural man. Except for this meaning, why should the Lord's dominion over these be described?

[7] In the same:

O God, Thou makest the rain of good will to drop down; Thou shalt strengthen Thine inheritance when it is weary; Thy wild beast (Thy congregation) shall dwell in it (Psalms 68:9, 10).

Here evidently "wild beast" stands for a people that receives the influx of Divine truth from the Lord, for of God's "inheritance," which signifies the church, it is said, "Thy wild beast (Thy congregation) shall dwell in it;" "the rain of good will" signifies the influx of Divine truth from Divine clemency.

(Odkazy: Psalms 68:9-10)


[8] In the same:

Jehovah, who sendeth forth springs into the brooks; they run between the mountains, they give drink to every wild beast; the wild asses quench their thirst, by them the bird of the heavens dwells, from among the boughs they give forth their voice; who causeth the grass to spring forth for the beast, and the herb for the service of man, that he may bring forth bread out of the earth. Thou appointest the darkness that there may be night, in which every wild beast of the forest goeth forth. The sea great and wide in spaces, wherein is the creeping thing without number, the wild beasts, the small with the great (Psalms 104:10-12, 14, 20, 25).

This, too, is said of the Lord, and these words describe the establishment of the church among the nations; therefore "wild beasts," "beasts," and "birds" signify such things as are with the man of the church.

[9] It is to be known that in many passages sometimes it is said "beast," and sometimes "wild beast," also that the term "wild beast" is not to be understood as it is commonly understood, for in the Hebrew "wild beast" [fera] is derived from a word that means life, therefore in some passages "animal" would be a better rendering than "wild beast," as can be seen from this, that the four animals that were seen as cherubim and that signify Divine Providence and protection in Ezekiel (chaps. 1, 10) are called "animals" [ferae]; likewise the cherubim are meant by "the four animals about the throne" which are described by John in Revelation. Nevertheless, in the Word "beast" and "wild beast" are carefully distinguished, "beasts" signifying the affections of the natural man that belong to man's will, and "wild beasts" the affections of the natural man that belong to man's understanding. As in the Hebrew "wild beast" is derived from a word that means life, Eve the wife of Adam had her name from the same word. This is said that it may be known what "wild beast" and "beast" signify in the proper sense.

(Odkazy: Ezekiel 1:1, 10:1)


[10] What is signified by "Jehovah sendeth forth springs into the brooks, to run between the mountains, and give drink to every wild beast of the fields, the wild asses quench their thirst, and by them the bird of the heavens dwells," has been explained above n. 483. "Jehovah causeth the grass to spring forth for the beast, and the herb for the service of man, that he may bring forth bread out of the earth," signifies the instruction and nourishment of the natural and spiritual man by truths from the Word, that he may have thereby the good of love and charity; "grass" signifies the truth of the natural man, which is true knowledge (see above, n. 507; "beast" signifies affection for it which wishes to be instructed and spiritually nourished; "herb" signifies the truth of the spiritual man; "man" signifies intelligence therefrom and "bread" signifies the good of love and charity, which is nourished by truths. As "darkness" and "night" signify the lumen of the natural man, which compared to the light of the spiritual man is like night, "the wild beast of the forest" signifies the affection of knowledges, "the sea great and wide in spaces" the natural itself, "the creeping thing without number" knowledge therein, and "the wild beasts great and small" the various affections, it is evident what is signified by "Thou appointest the darkness that there may be night, in which every wild beast of the forest goeth forth; the sea great and wide in its spaces, wherein is the creeping thing without number, wild beasts the small with the great."

(Odkazy: The Apocalypse Explained 483, 507)


[11] In the same:

They shall sow fields and plant vineyards, and make fruit of increase, and He shall bless them so that they may be multiplied exceedingly; and He shall not diminish their beast; yet are they diminished and bowed down because of the vehemence of wickedness and grief (Psalms 107:37-39).

This entire psalm treats of the Lord's coming and of redemption by Him; that they will then have truths, by which the church will be implanted in them, is signified by "They shall sow fields and plant vineyards;" that in consequence they will have the goods of the church, and thence truths will increase, is signified by "shall make fruit of increase," and by "Jehovah shall bless them so that they shall be multiplied exceedingly;" that then every good affection of the natural man will remain with them is signified by "He shall not diminish their beast;" that otherwise these affections would not be destroyed by evils is signified by "they are diminished and bowed down because of the vehemence of wickedness and grief."

[12] In the same:

Praise Jehovah, ye whales and all deeps, wild beast and every beast, creeping thing and every bird of wing (Psalms 148:7, 10).

In this psalm very many things in the world that have no life, but that shall praise Jehovah, are enumerated, as "fire," "hail," "snow," "vapor," "the wind of tempest," "mountains," "hills," "trees," "fruits," "cedars," as also here, "wild beasts," "beasts," "creeping things," and "birds," which nevertheless cannot praise Jehovah. Who cannot see that the enumeration of such things in the Divine Word would be wholly unmeaning unless they signified something with man that can praise, that is, worship Jehovah? From a knowledge of correspondences it is known that "whales" signify the knowledges of the natural man in general, "deeps" and "seas" the natural itself where the knowledges are, "wild beast" and "beasts," the affections of the natural man as well those which belong to his understanding as those of his will, "the creeping things" the sensual, which is the ultimate of the natural man, and "birds of wing" the thinking faculty therefrom.

[13] In the same:

Jehovah who prepareth rain for the earth, who maketh grass to spring forth upon the mountains, who giveth to the beast his food, to the sons of the raven which call (Psalms 147:8, 9).

These particulars too, signify the spiritual things belonging to heaven and the church. Why else should the Word (which is given solely to teach man the way to heaven, by teaching him the truths of faith and the goods of love), speak of Jehovah as "preparing rain for the earth, making grass to spring forth upon the mountains, giving to the beast his food, and to the sons of the raven which call upon Him?" These things, however, are worthy of the Divine Word, when by "rain" the influx of Divine truth is meant, by "mountains" the good of love, by "making grass to spring forth" the instruction of the natural man by the knowledges from the Word, by "beasts" the affections of the natural man, which desire to be thus nourished. "To give food" signifies nourishment; and since "the sons of the raven" signify natural men who are in an obscure lumen from fallacies respecting Divine truths, as were many of the nations, it is said "He giveth to the sons of the raven which call," for such can call upon Jehovah, but not the sons of a raven.

(Odkazy: Psalms 147:8-9)


[14] In the same:

Every wild beast of the forest is Mine, the beasts upon a thousand mountains. I know every bird of the mountains, and the wild beast of My fields is with Me (Psalms 50:10, 11).

This is said of sacrifices, that the Lord does not delight in them, but in the confession of heart and calling upon Him; yet "the wild beast of the forest," "the beasts upon the mountains," and "the bird of the mountains," and "the wild beast of the fields," have a similar signification as above, namely, things pertaining to the man of the church.

(Odkazy: Psalms 50:10-11)


[15] In the same:

Thy righteousness is like the mountains of God, Thy judgments are a great deep; O Jehovah, Thou preservest man and beast (Psalms 36:6).

"Man and beast" signify interior affection, which is spiritual, from which is intelligence, and exterior affection, which is natural, from which is knowledge [scientia] corresponding to intelligence.

[16] "Man and beast" have a like signification in the following passages. In Jeremiah:

The God of Israel said, I have made the earth, the man and the beast that are upon the faces of the earth, by My great power (Jeremiah 27:5; 36:29).

In the same:

Behold the days shall come in which I will sow the house of Judah with the seed of man and with the seed of beast (Jeremiah 31:27).

In the same:

Yet again in this place, concerning which ye say, It is devastated so that there is no man nor beast, and in the cities of Judah and in the streets of Jerusalem that are devastated, so that there is no man, and no inhabitant, and no beast, there shall be heard the voice of joy and the voice of gladness (Jeremiah 33:10-12).

In the same:

The whole land shall be a desolation, so that there shall not be man or beast (Jeremiah 32:43).

In the same:

I will smite the inhabitants of this city, both man and beast; they shall die of a great pestilence (Jeremiah 21:6).

In the same:

A nation from the north cometh up against Babylon; this shall make her land a desolation, so that none shall dwell therein; from man even to beast they are dispersed, they have gone away (Jeremiah 50:3).

In the same:

My anger and My wrath is poured out upon this place, upon man and upon beast (Jeremiah 7:20).

In Ezekiel:

When the land shall sin against Me, I will break its staff of bread and I will send into it famine, and I will cut off from it man and beast (Ezekiel 14:13, 17, 19).

In the same:

I will stretch out My hand over Edom and will cut off from it man and beast (Ezekiel 25:13).

In the same:

I will destroy every beast of Egypt over many waters, so that the foot of man shall trouble them no more, nor shall the hoof of beast trouble them (Ezekiel 32:13).

In the same:

I will multiply upon you man and beast, that they may increase and be fruitful (Ezekiel 36:11).

In Zephaniah:

In consuming I will consume all things from upon the faces of the land. I will consume man and beast, I will consume the bird of the heavens and the fishes of the sea, and the stumbling-blocks with the wicked, and I will cut off man from the faces of the earth (Zephaniah 1:2, 3).

In Zechariah:

The angel who came to measure Jerusalem said, Run, speak, saying, Jerusalem shall inhabit the suburbs, by reason of the multitude of man and of the beast in the midst of it (Zechariah 2:3, 4).

Let your hands be strong, for the temple shall be built; for before those days there was no price for man nor any price for beast, for to him that went out and to him that came in there was no peace from the enemy (Zechariah 8:9, 10).

(Odkazy: Zechariah 2:3-4, 8:9-10; Zephaniah 1:2-3)


[17] In these passages "man and beast" 2 signifies what is interior or spiritual, and "beast" what is exterior or natural; and therefore "man" signifies the spiritual affection of truth, from which is all intelligence, and "beast" the natural affection corresponding to the spiritual. What is exterior or natural is signified by "beast," because man, in respect to his external or natural man is nothing but a beast; for he enjoys like desires and also pleasures, appetites and senses, so that in these respects man is entirely similar to the beast; therefore the natural man may be called the animal man. But what is internal or spiritual is signified by "man," because it is in respect to his internal or spiritual that man is man; this enjoys the affections of good and truth such as are with the angels of heaven, also because by means of this with him man rules his natural or animal man, which is a beast.

[18] Because the spiritual man and the natural man are signified by "man and beast" in the history of creation (Genesis 1), it is related that the beasts and also man were created on the same day, namely, the sixth; and afterwards, that to man was given dominion over the beasts. Of the creation of the beasts and man on the same day, and of man's dominion over the beasts, we thus read in Genesis:

God said, Let the earth bring forth the living soul according to its kind, and what moveth itself, and the wild beast of the earth according to its kind; and it was so. And God made the wild beast of the earth according to its kind, and the beast according to its kind, and everything that creepeth upon the ground according to its kind. And God said, Let us make man in our image, after our likeness; and they shall have dominion over the fishes of the sea, and over the bird of the heavens, and over the beast, and over all the earth, and over every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth. And there was evening and there was morning, the third 3 day (Genesis 1:24-31).

In the spiritual sense of this chapter, by "the creation of heaven and earth" the new creation or regeneration of the man of the Most Ancient Church is described; for this reason "beast" here signifies the external or natural man, and "man" the internal spiritual, and "dominion over the beasts" here means the dominion of the spiritual man over the natural.

(Odkazy: Genesis 1:1)


[19] That it was granted to the man of that church to know all the affections of the natural man, in order that he might have dominion over them, is signified by these words in Genesis:

Out of the ground Jehovah God formed every beast of the field, and every bird of the heavens, and brought unto the man, to see what he would call it; and whatsoever man called it, the living soul, that was its name; and the man called the names to every beast, and to the bird of the heavens, and to every wild beast of the field (Genesis 2:19, 20).

"To call the name" signifies in the spiritual sense to know the quality of a thing, or what it is, so here to know the qualities of all the affections, desires, pleasures, appetites, also the thoughts and inclinations of the natural man, and how they agree and correspond to the affections and perceptions of the spiritual man. For it was granted to the spiritual man from creation to see all things of the natural man, and at the same time to perceive its agreement or disagreement with the spiritual, in order that he might rule the natural and accept such things as agree and reject those that disagree, and thus might become spiritual even as to effects, which are wrought by means of the natural man. (But this may be seen more fully explained in Arcana Coelestia 142-146.)

(Odkazy: Arcana Coelestia 142, Genesis 2:19-20)


[20] Because "man" in the Word signifies properly the internal or spiritual man, and "beast" the external or natural man, by command of God all beasts and birds were brought into the ark with Noah; of which it is thus written in Genesis:

Jehovah said to Noah, Of every clean beast thou shalt take to thee seven and seven, male and female; and of the beast that is not clean two, male and female. And he took of the beast that was clean, and of the beast not clean, and of the bird, and of everything that creepeth upon the earth; two and two entered unto Noah into the ark, male and female (Genesis 7:1-9).

"Noah's flood" describes in the spiritual sense the destruction of the Most Ancient Church, and also the Last Judgment upon the men of that church; and by "Noah and his sons" in the same sense, the church that followed is meant and described, which is called the Ancient Church. From this it follows that the "beasts" brought into the ark with Noah mean the affections of the natural man, corresponding to spiritual affection, which the men of that church had (but these things may be seen explained in Arcana Coelestia).

[21] Since "man" signifies the internal spiritual man, and "beast" signifies the external or natural, and "Egypt" signifies the natural man separated from the spiritual, which has altogether perished and is no longer a man but a beast, so where the destruction of Egypt is treated of it is related that:

Jehovah made hail to rain with which fire was mingled, and smote everything that was in the fields, from man even to beast (Exodus 9:22-25).

(See respecting this also in Arcana Coelestia.) For the purpose of representing and thus signifying the same thing it is also written that:

Jehovah smote all the firstborn in the land of Egypt, from man even to beast (Exodus 12:12, 29).

But on the other hand, the sons of Israel, by whom the church was represented, were commanded:

To sacrifice to Jehovah all the firstborn of man and of beast (Numbers 12:15).

Because such things were represented and thus signified by "man and beast," from a holy rite received in the Ancient Church:

The king of Nineveh proclaimed a fast, and commanded that neither man nor beast should taste or drink anything, and that man and beast should be covered with sackcloth (Jonah 3:7, 8).

(Odkazy: Jonah 3:7-8; Numbers 18:15)


[22] Because "beasts" signify the affections in both senses it was forbidden to make the figure of any beast; of which it is thus written in Moses:

Ye shall not make to you the figure of any beast that is on the earth, the figure of any winged bird that flieth under heaven, the figure of anything that creepeth on the ground, the figure of any fish that is in the waters under the earth (Deuteronomy 4:17, 18).

This was because the posterity of Jacob, who were called, because of the representation of the church with them, "the sons of Israel," were in externals without an internal, that is, were for the most part merely natural; if, therefore, they had made to themselves the figure of any beast or bird, which signified the affections and the like, they would have made idols for themselves, and would have worshiped them. This, too, was why the Egyptians, who had more knowledge of representatives than any other people, made for themselves figures of beasts, as of calves, serpents, and many other kinds; yet at first not with reference to worship, but on account of their signification; but their posterity, who from internal became external, and thus merely natural, did not look upon these as representative and significative, but as holy things of the church, and thus they offered to them idolatrous worship. It was for this reason that the posterity of Jacob, who were altogether external men, and thence in heart idolatrous, were forbidden to make to themselves any figure of these things.

(Odkazy: Deuteronomy 4:17-18)


[23] As for example: they worshiped calves in Egypt, and afterwards in the wilderness, because a "calf" signifies the first affections of the natural man, together with its good of innocence. The Gentiles here and there worshiped serpents because a "serpent" signifies the sensual, which is the ultimate of the natural man and its prudence, and so with the rest.

[24] Because "beasts" signified the various things of the natural man it was also sometimes commanded when cities or regions were given to the curse that the beasts also should be slaughtered, for the reason that "the beasts" represented the evil and profane things with the men who were given to the curse. Because all kinds of beasts signify the various things pertaining to the men of the church, laws were enacted respecting beasts, which ones might be eaten and which might not be eaten (Leviticus 11). Those that might be eaten signified goods, and those that might not be eaten signified evils; for the church at that time was a representative church, and therefore every particular prescribed for them was representative and significative, especially the beasts; of this we thus read in Moses:

Ye shall distinguish between the clean beast and the unclean, and between the unclean bird and the clean, that ye may not make your souls abominable by beast or by bird; and ye shall be holy unto Me (Leviticus 20:25, 26).

(Odkazy: Leviticus 11:1, Leviticus 20:25-26)


[25] From this it can now be seen why sacrifices of beasts of various kinds were permitted, as of lambs, sheep, kids, goats, bullocks, oxen, also of pigeons and turtledoves; namely, because they signified things spiritual, and things natural from a spiritual origin; as "lambs" innocence, "sheep" charity, "bullocks and oxen" the affections of the natural man corresponding to the affections of the spiritual man. It was on this account that the beasts for the sacrifices varied according to the reasons for which they were offered; this would not have been unless each particular sacrifice of beasts had signified something belonging to the church.

(Odkazy: Leviticus 20:25-26)


[26] As the man of the church at the present day can hardly be led to believe that "beasts" and "wild beasts" signify in the Word the affections of good and truth which belong to the man of the church, and this because it seems so strange that anything belonging to beasts should signify anything belonging to man, I will here cite more passages from the Word in the way of confirmation. In Ezekiel:

Speak unto the king of Egypt and to his multitude, Whom art thou like in thy stature? Behold Asshur, a cedar in Lebanon, beautiful in branch and with shady foliage; his stature was higher than all the trees of the field, and his branches were multiplied because of many waters; in his branches all the birds of the heavens built their nests; and under his branches every wild beast of the field has brought forth, and in his shade have dwelt all great nations; he was beautiful in his greatness. But because thou art lifted up in height he should be cut down; upon his ruin every bird of the heavens shall dwell, and every wild beast of the field shall be upon his branches (Ezekiel 31:2, 3, 5-7, 10, 12, 13).

"The king of Egypt and his multitude" signify the natural man with the knowledges therein; "Asshur, the cedar in Lebanon," signifies the rational which is formed by knowledges on the one part and by the influx of spiritual truth on the other; "beautiful in branch and with shady foliage" signifies intelligence through rational truths by means of knowledges.

(Odkazy: Ezekiel 31:2-3, 31:12-13)


[27] "His stature was higher than all the trees of the field" signifies elevation even to the interior rational which is from the spiritual; "branches multiplied because of many waters" signify abundance through spiritual truths which are from the cognitions of truth from the Word; "the fowl of the heavens that built their nests in his branches" signify spiritual thoughts in things rational, for the rational is the medium between the internal spiritual man and the external natural; "every wild beast of the field that brought forth under his branches" signifies the affections of knowledges rationally perceived.

[28] "The great nations" that dwelt in his shade signify the goods of the affections in the natural man; "beautiful in greatness" signifies intelligence; while "the bird of the heavens and the wild beast of the field that shall dwell upon his ruin and in his branches" signify the falsities of thoughts, and the evils of desires which one has because he is "lifted up in height," that is, has become proud from the love of self-intelligence. Thoughts of truth and affections for it are signified evidently by "birds of the heavens and the wild beasts of the field," for it is said that "great nations dwelt in his shade."

[29] In Daniel:

Behold a tree in the midst of the earth, and the height thereof was great; it reached even to heaven, and the sight thereof unto the end of the earth; the leaf thereof was fair, and the flower thereof much, and in it was food for all; the beast of the field had shadow under it, and the birds of heaven dwelt in its branches; and all flesh was nourished from it. A watcher and holy one came down from heaven, crying, Hew down the tree and cut off his branches, shake off his leaf, scatter his flower; let the beast flee from under him, and the birds from his branches; but leave the stump of his roots in the earth, even with a band of iron and brass, with the herbage of the field; and let him be wet with the dew of the heavens, and let his portion be with the beast in the grass of the earth; they shall change his heart from man's and the heart of a beast shall be given to him (Daniel 4:10-16).

This was the dream of Nebuchadnezzar, king of Babylon, and it describes the establishment of the celestial church and its increase even to its culmination, and afterwards its overthrow because of its domination even over the holy things of the church, and its claiming to itself a right over heaven.

[30] "The tree in the midst of the earth" signifies that church; its "height" signifies the extension of perception and thus of wisdom; "its sight unto the end of the earth" signifies its extension even to the ultimates of the church; "the leaf thereof was fair, and the flower thereof much," signifies the knowledges and affections of truth and good, and intelligence therefrom; "in it was food for all" signifies heavenly nourishment which is from good and from truths thence; "the beast of the field had shadow under it, and the birds of the heavens dwelt in its branches," signifies the affections of good and the consequent thoughts and perceptions of truth; and as these pertain to spiritual food it is said that "all flesh was nourished from it."

[31] But because of its domination, from the love of self, over the holy things of heaven and the church, which the Babylonians at length claimed control of, a description of its overthrow follows: "A watcher and holy one came down from heaven, crying, Hew down the tree and cut off his branches, shake off the leaf, scatter the flower; let the beast flee from under him and the birds from his branches;" for the love of self and the consequent elation of mind increases with such even to their claiming a right over the holy things of the church, yea, over heaven itself; and when this is done everything of the church perishes, even all perception and the knowledge of good and truth; for the internal of the mind where the spiritual resides is closed up, and the external where the natural resides has dominion, and thus man becomes sensual, until he differs but little from the beasts.

[32] The "stump of the roots which should be left in the earth" signifies the Word, only the letter of which is understood, and which is merely something known, held in the memory and going forth therefrom into speech; "bands of iron and brass" signify the interior truths and goods closed up and held bound in ultimates, "iron" meaning truth in ultimates, and "brass" good in ultimates, and these when separated from the interiors are falsities and evils. And as the man of the church then becomes almost like a beast in respect to the understanding and to the will, since the evils of the affections and the falsities of the thoughts have rule, it is said that "his portion shall be with the beast in the grass of the earth, and his heart shall be changed from man's, and the heart of a beast shall be given him." That this change and inversion took place on account of their claiming the right over the holy things of the church, and at length over heaven, is evident from vers es 30-32 of this chapter, where are these words:

The king said, Is not this the great Babylon which I have built for the house of the kingdom by the might of my power and for the glory of mine honor? While the word was in the king's mouth there fell a voice from the heavens, saying, The kingdom shall pass away from thee, and they shall drive thee from man, and thy dwelling shall be with the beast of the field; they shall make thee to eat the herb as oxen, until thou dost know that the Most High ruleth in the kingdom of man, and giveth it to whomsoever He will.

(Odkazy: Daniel 4:30-32)


[33] That "Nebuchadnezzar," as king of Babylon, signifies in the beginning a celestial church and its increase even to the pinnacle of wisdom, is evident also from Daniel, where treating of the statue seen by Nebuchadnezzar in a dream it is said:

The God of the heavens hath given into thine hand the sons of man, the beast of the field, and the bird of the heavens, and hath made thee to rule over all; thou art the head of the statue which is of gold (Daniel 2:37, 38).

"The head of the statue, which was of gold," signifies the celestial church, which is the first of all. That church is signified by "the king of Babylon" at first, because the church that finally becomes Babylon or Babylonia begins with the worship of the Lord and from love to Him, and there then prevails with it a zeal for extending and perfecting the church by means of the holy goods and truths of heaven, but this from a motive as yet hidden, namely, a love of exercising dominion, which however breaks forth only by degrees. But more will be said about this when Babylon is treated of.

(Odkazy: Daniel 2:37-38)


[34] In Hosea:

In that day will I make a covenant for them with the wild beast of the field and with the bird of the heavens and with the creeping thing of the earth, and I will break the bow and the sword and the war from the earth, and I will make them to lie down securely; and I will betroth thee to Me forever (Hosea 2:18, 19).

This is said of the establishment of a New Church by the Lord, which is here treated of. Evidently Jehovah, that is, the Lord, will then make a covenant, not with the wild beast of the field, the bird of the heavens, and the creeping thing of the earth, but with the men in whom the church will be established. These things, therefore, signify such things as are with man, namely, the "wild beast of the field" the affection of the knowledges of truth, the "bird of the heavens" rational thought from what is spiritual, the "creeping thing of the earth" the knowledge [scientificum] of the natural man, in particular sensual knowledge. That He will then "break the bow and the sword from the earth" signifies that He will destroy the falsities that fight against the truths of doctrine; and that there will be no longer any contention between truths and falsities and goods and evils is signified by "I will betroth thee to Me forever."

(Odkazy: Hosea 2:18-19)


[35] In Isaiah:

The wild beast of the field shall honor Me, the dragons and the daughters of the owl; because I will give waters in the wilderness and rivers in the desert, to give drink to My people, My chosen (Isaiah 43:20).

Evidently "the wild beast of the field," "the dragons," and "the daughters of the owl," do not mean here a wild beast of the field, dragons and owls, for these cannot honor Jehovah. That the men of the church are meant is clear from what follows, since it is said, "to give drink to My people, My chosen. " "The wild beast of the field" signifies therefore the affections of the knowledges of truth, "dragons" natural ideas, and "daughters of the owl" sensual affections; for the sensual is affected by truths and sees them in the darkness as owls see objects at night.

[36] This being the signification, it is evident that the Gentiles with whom a New Church was to be established are meant, for before they were reformed these were in such obscure affection and natural thought. "To give waters in the wilderness and rivers in the desert" signifies to imbue with truths and thence with intelligence those who before were in ignorance, "waters" meaning truths, "rivers" intelligence, and "wilderness and desert" ignorance; "to give drink to the people of Jehovah and to His chosen" signifies to instruct those who are in the truths of faith and in the good of charity; those who are in the truths of faith are called "people," and those who are in the good of charity are called "chosen. "

[37] In Joel:

Is not the food cut off before our eyes from the house of our God, gladness and joy? The beast groaneth, the droves of cattle are perplexed, because they have no pasture; also the droves of the flock are made desolate. The beast of the field panteth after thee, because the channels of waters are dried up, and fire hath devoured the habitations of the wilderness (Joel 1:16, 18, 20).

This describes the state of the church when there are no longer in it any truths of doctrine or good of life. "The food cut off from the house of God" signifies spiritual nourishment, which is from truths that are from good, "the house of God" signifying the church; "the beast groaneth, the droves of cattle are perplexed" signifies the lack of the affections of truth and thence of knowledges in the natural man, and grief on that account, "droves of cattle" signifying the things of the natural man in the whole complex.

[38] That there is "no pasture" signifies no instruction; "the droves of the flock are made desolate" signifies the lack of spiritual truth and good which are of faith and charity; "the beast of the field panteth after thee" signifies the grief of those who are in natural affection, and consequently in a longing for the knowledges of truth and good; "the channels of waters are dried up" signifies the truths of doctrine dissipated by natural love; "fire hath devoured the habitations of the wilderness" signifies that love and thence the destruction of the knowledges of truth, "the habitations of the wilderness" meaning the things of the understanding and the will in such a man, which would otherwise receive the truths and goods of the church.

[39] In the same:

Fear, 4 O earth, rejoice and be glad, for Jehovah hath done great things; fear not, ye beasts of My fields, for the habitations of the wilderness are made full of herbs, for the tree shall bear her fruit, the fig tree and the vine shall yield their strength. Sons of Zion, rejoice and be glad in Jehovah (Joel 2:21-23).

This is said of the establishment of the church by the Lord; and the "earth which will fear, but rejoice and be glad" signifies the church and its delight; its establishment by the Lord is signified by "Jehovah hath done great things;" therefore "the beasts of His fields" mean those who are in the affections of good and long for instruction from the Word, "beasts" meaning those who are in the affections of good belonging to the natural man, and "fields" the doctrinals from the Word.

[40] "The habitations of the wilderness are made full of herbs" signifies that there will be the knowledges of truth and good with those with whom there were none before; "the tree shall bear her fruit" signifies the bringing forth of the good of life through these knowledges, for a "tree" signifies the man of the church, and in particular a mind imbued with knowledges, and "fruit" signifies the good of life; "the fig tree and the vine shall yield their strength" signifies the bringing forth of the effect from natural good and spiritual good together. Because "beasts of the fields," "tree," "fig tree," and "vine," signify such things as are with the man of the church it is said, "Sons of Zion, rejoice and be glad in Jehovah," "sons of Zion" meaning those who are of the celestial church, while "to rejoice" is predicated of the delight of good; and "to be glad" of the pleasantness of truth.

[41] In Ezekiel:

In that day Gog shall come upon the land of Israel; and then shall be a great earthquake upon the land of Israel; and the fishes of the sea, and the bird of the heavens, and the wild beast of the field, and every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth, and every man who is upon the faces of the earth, shall tremble before Me (Ezekiel 38:18-20).

"Gog" signifies external holiness without internal holiness, thus those who are in such holiness; an "earthquake" signifies a change of the state of the church; "the fishes of the sea, and the bird of the heavens, the wild beast of the field, the creeping thing of the earth, and every man, shall tremble" signifies that all things of man, in respect to what belongs to the church with him, shall be changed; "the fishes of the sea" meaning the knowledges, "the birds of the heavens" thoughts therefrom, "the wild beasts of the field" the affections therefrom, "the creeping thing of the earth" the thoughts and affections in the corporeal-sensual, and "man" all these from first to last. Why otherwise should these be said to tremble before Jehovah?

[42] In Zechariah:

There shall be in that day a great tumult, Judah shall fight against Jerusalem and so shall be the plague of the horse, of the mule, of the camel, and of the ass, and of every beast that shall be in those camps; afterwards everyone remaining shall go up to Jerusalem (Zechariah 14:13-15).

This describes the last state of the old church, and the beginning of the new. The last state of the old church is described by "a great tumult, when Judah shall fight against Jerusalem," which means the change at that time, and the fight of the love of evil against the truths of the doctrine of the church; "the plague of the horse, of the mule, of the camel, of the ass, and of every beast" signify such things as hurt and destroy the church and the spiritual life of the men of the church, "horses, mules, camels, and asses" signifying the things of their understanding and of their will, thus the things of their knowledges and affections. But what is signified in particular by "horse, mule, camel, and ass," has been told elsewhere; here it is stated merely that "beast" signifies the affection of the natural man, and "the plague of beast" the hurting and destroying of that affection.

(Odkazy: Zechariah 14:13-16)


[43] In Jeremiah:

How long shall the land mourn, and the herb of every field dry up? For the wickedness of them that rule 5 therein the beasts and the bird shall be consumed (Jeremiah 12:4).

The "land" means the church; "the herb of the field" signifies the truth of the church that has sprung up and that is springing up; "to mourn and to dry up" signifies to perish and to be dissipated by lusts; "the beasts and the bird that shall be consumed" signify the affections of good and the thoughts of truth therefrom. The result is that these will perish by reason of the evils in the church; therefore it is said, "for the wickedness of them that dwell in the land."

[44] In Isaiah:

The bird of the mountains and the beast of the earth shall be left together; 6 but the bird shall loathe it, and every beast of the earth shall despise it (Isaiah 18:6).

This is said of "the land shadowed with wings," by which the church is meant which, because of the obscurity it is in, catches at imaginary things for spiritual truths, and thus from ignorance comes into a denial of these truths. "Bird and beast" signify here the thoughts of truth and the affections of good, both rational and natural, which are said "to loathe and despise." Evidently it is not the bird and every beast that will loathe and despise, but the affections of good and the thoughts of truth, that is, those who are in these.

[45] In Hosea:

They commit robbery, bloods touch bloods, and everyone that dwelleth therein shall languish, even to the wild beast of the field and the bird of the heavens, yea, the fishes of the sea shall be gathered up (Hosea 4:2, 3).

Here again "the wild beast of the field," "the bird of the heavens," and "the fishes of the sea," have a similar signification as above.

(Odkazy: Hosea 4:2-3)


[46] In Ezekiel:

Thou son of man, say to every bird of every wing, and to every wild beast of the field, Gather yourselves together and come, gather yourselves from every side to My sacrifice that I sacrifice for you, a great sacrifice upon the mountains of Israel, that ye may eat flesh and drink blood; ye shall eat the flesh of the mighty, and drink the blood of the princes of the earth, rams, lambs, and kids, 7 the bullocks, all of them fatlings of Bashan; ye shall eat fat to satiety, and drink blood to drunkenness, of My sacrifice which I sacrifice for you; and ye shall be satiated at My table with horse and chariot, with the mighty, and with every man of war; so will I give My glory among the nations (Ezekiel 39:17-21).

This is said of the calling together of the Gentiles to the church, and the reception by them of the truth of doctrine in the good of love, which is the good of life, and of their consequent intelligence in spiritual things. Therefore "the bird of every wing and every wild beast of the field" which shall be gathered from every side to the great sacrifice upon the mountains of Israel, mean all in whatever state they may be in respect to the perception of truth and the affection of good, "the bird of every wing" meaning all in whatever kind of perception of truth they may be, and "every wild beast of the field" all in whatever kind of affection of good they may be; "to gather together from every side" signifies those outside the church from every quarter.

(Odkazy: Ezekiel 39:17-22)


[47] "The great sacrifice" signifies the worship of the Lord from faith and love, for that is what "sacrifices" in general represented; and "the mountains of Israel" signify the goods of spiritual love. "To eat flesh and drink blood" signifies to appropriate to oneself the good of love and the truth of that good; "to eat the flesh of the mighty and drink the blood of the princes of the earth" signifies such appropriation, "the mighty" (or oxen) signifying the affections of the natural man, and "the princes of the earth" the chief truths of the church; "rams, lambs, kids, 7 bullocks, fatlings of Bashan" signify all things of innocence, love, charity, and good, "the fatlings of Bashan" meaning the goods of the natural man from a spiritual origin.

[48] From this it is clear what is signified by "eating flesh to satiety, and drinking blood to drunkenness," namely, to be filled with every good of love and truth of faith; "to be satiated at the table of the Lord with horse and chariot, with the mighty, and with every man of war" signifies to be fully instructed from the Word, "horse" signifying the understanding of truth, "chariot" the doctrine of truth, "the mighty and the man of war" the truth of good fighting against the falsity of evil, and destroying it. Because this is said of the calling together of the Gentiles to the church of the Lord, it is added, "so will I give my glory among the nations," "glory" signifying the Divine truth in light.

[49] That such is the signification of "bird of every wing and beast of the field" can be seen from passages before explained, also from these words in Isaiah:

The saying of the Lord Jehovih, who gathereth the outcasts of Israel, I will yet gather them to his gathered ones; every wild beast of My fields, come ye to devour, every wild beast in the forest (Isaiah 56:8, 9).

"The outcasts of Israel," whom the Lord will gather, signify all in the church who are in truths from good separated from those therein who are in falsities from evil; these are meant also by "the wild beasts of the fields of the Lord Jehovih," "fields" signifying the church in reference to the implantation of the truth of doctrine; but the Gentiles that are without the church are signified by "the wild beast in the forest," the "forest" signifying the natural and sensual man, and "the wild beast" its knowledge [scientia] and obscure intelligence therefrom. This evidently is the signification of "the wild beast of the field" and "the wild beast in the forest," for it is said, "Come ye to devour, every wild beast of My fields and every wild beast in the forest," "to devour" signifying instruction and appropriation.

(Odkazy: Isaiah 56:8-9)


[50] As most things in the Word have also a contrary sense, so also have "beast" and "wild beast," in which sense "beasts" signify evil affections, which are the cupidities of adulterating and destroying the goods of the church, and "wild beasts" the cupidities of falsifying and thus destroying the truths of the church.

[51] In this sense "beasts" and "wild beasts" are mentioned in the following passages. In Ezekiel:

I will raise up over them one shepherd, who shall feed them, My servant David; he shall be to them for a shepherd; then I will make with them a covenant of peace, and will cause the evil wild beast to cease out of the land, that they may dwell trustingly in the wilderness and sleep in the forest; they shall be no more a prey to the nations, and the wild beast of the earth shall not devour them, but they shall dwell trustingly, and none shall make afraid (Ezekiel 34:23, 25, 28).

This is said of the Lord's coming and of the blessed state of heaven and of those of the church who will come into the new heaven. "The servant David, the shepherd whom Jehovah will raise up," means the Lord, who is called a "servant" from serving and ministering, that is, performing uses (see above, n. 409; "to make with them a covenant of peace" signifies conjunction with the Lord through the Divine things proceeding from Him, which are the goods of love and the truths of doctrine from the Word, thus through the Word; "to cause the evil wild beast to cease out of the land" signifies that evil cupidities and lusts will no more invade and destroy them.

(Odkazy: The Apocalypse Explained 409)


[52] "To dwell trustingly in the wilderness and to sleep in the forests" signifies that they will be safe from infestation by cupidities and lusts, although they are in them and among them, "wilderness" and "forest" meaning where such things and such persons are (these having a similar meaning as in Isaiah 11:7-9). Because the man of the church is destroyed by the cupidities of evil and falsity it is said "they shall no more be a prey to the nations, and the evil wild beast shall not devour them," "nations" signifying the cupidities of evil, and "wild beasts of the earth" the cupidities of falsity.

[53] In Jeremiah:

Mine heritage is become as a lion in the forest, she hath given forth her voice against Me, therefore I have hated her; the bird Zabuah is Mine heritage, about it is the bird; gather together every wild beast of the field, come ye to devour; many shepherds have destroyed My vineyard (Jeremiah 12:8-10).

This is said of the vastation of the church by the falsities of evil. "Heritage" signifies the church; "the lion out of the forest which hath given forth his voice against God" signifies the falsity of evil in the whole complex; "the bird Zabuah" signifies reasonings from falsities; "the wild beast of the field which shall be gathered to devour" signifies the cupidities of destroying the truths of the church by falsities; and because the church that is so destroyed is meant it is said, "many shepherds have destroyed My vineyard," "vineyard" signifying the spiritual church, or the church in reference to the affection of truth; and as a "vineyard" signifies the church it follows that "a wild beast of the field" signifies the cupidity of falsifying and thus destroying the truths of the church.

[54] In Isaiah:

No lion shall be there, the ravenous of the wild beast shall not go up thereon, it shall not be found there (Isaiah 35:9).

This treats of the Lord's coming and of His kingdom in the heavens and on the earths; and the "lion" and "the ravenous of the wild beasts" have a similar signification as above. It must be clear to everyone that "wild beast" here does not mean a wild beast.

[55] In Hosea:

I will encounter them as a bear that is bereaved, and I will rend the caul of their heart, and I will devour them like a huge lion; the wild beast of the field shall tear them (Hosea 13:8).

Here again, "lion" and "the wild beast of the field" have a similar signification as above.

[56] In Zephaniah:

Jehovah will stretch out His hand over the north and will destroy Assyria, and will make Nineveh a waste, a dry place like the wilderness; and the droves shall lie down in the midst of her, every wild beast of the nation; both the pelican and the bittern shall lodge nightly in her chapiters; a voice shall sing in the window, a drought shall be in the threshold, because the cedar thereof shall be made bare; such is the rejoicing city that dwelleth securely, saying in her heart, I and none other besides me. How is she become a waste, a place for the wild beast to lie down in; everyone that passeth over her hisseth and moveth his hand (Zephaniah 2:13-15).

This describes the vastation of the church by the falsities of doctrine which are from self-intelligence. The "north over which Jehovah will stretch out His hand" signifies the church that is in falsities; "Assyria which Jehovah will destroy" signifies the reasonings from falsities; "Nineveh which He shall make a waste, a dry place like the wilderness" signifies the falsities of doctrine; "droves," "the wild beast of the nation," the "pelican," and the "bittern," signify the affections of falsities, and falsities themselves interior and exterior.

[57] The "chapiters in which these shall rest" signify the knowledges of truth from the Word falsified; "the voice in the window" signifies the proclamation of falsity; "the drought in the threshold" signifies the total desolation of truth; the "cedar which is made bare" signifies the rational destroyed; "the rejoicing city dwelling securely" signifies the doctrine of falsity, with which they are delighted and in which they rest; "saying in her heart, I and none other besides me" signifies the pride of self-intelligence; "the place for the wild beast to lie down in" signifies the state of the church vastated in respect to truths; "everyone that passeth over her hisseth and moveth his hand" signifies contempt for such and rejection of them by those who are in truths and goods of doctrine.

[58] In Moses:

I will give peace in the land, so that ye may lie down securely and none make afraid, and I will cause the evil wild beast to cease out of the land, and the sword shall not pass through your land (Leviticus 26:6).

"Peace in the land, so that they may lie down securely and none make afraid" signifies protection by trust in the Lord from the breaking in of falsity into the church; "to cause the evil wild beast to cease out of the land" signifies freedom from the affection and cupidity of falsity; and "the sword shall not pass through the land" signifies that falsity shall no longer destroy truth.

[59] In the same:

I will send the hornet before thee, and it shall drive out the Hivite, the Canaanite, the Hittite before thee; I will not drive him out from before thee in one year, lest the land be a solitude, and the wild beast of the field be multiplied upon thee; by little and little will I drive him out from before thee, until thou be fruitful and inherit the land (Exodus 23:28-30.)

"I will send the hornet before thee" signifies the dread of those who are in falsities from evil; "and it shall drive out the Hivite, the Canaanite, and the Hittite" signifies the flight of falsities that are from evils; "I will not drive him out from before thee in one year" signifies a hasty flight or removal of these; "lest the land be desolate" signifies lest there be a lack of spiritual life or but little of it; "and the wild beast of the field be multiplied upon thee" signifies a flowing in of falsities from the delights of the love of self and of the world; "by little and little will I drive him out from before thee" signifies removal by degrees according to order; "until thou be fruitful" signifies according to the increase of good; "and inherit the land" signifies when one is in good and is regenerated. (But these things may be seen further explained in Arcana Coelestia 9331-9338.)

[60] There is a like signification in these words in Moses:

Jehovah God will drive out these nations from before thee by little and little; thou canst not destroy them at once, lest the wild beast of the field be multiplied against thee (Deuteronomy 7:22).

The "nations" driven out and to be driven out of the land of Canaan by the sons of Israel signify evils and falsities of every kind, "the land of Canaan" signifying the church, and "the sons of Israel" the men of the church; therefore "the wild beast of the field" which would be multiplied against them signify the cupidities of falsity from evil; for a man who is reformed and regenerated to the extent that the church may be in him is reformed and regenerated by little and little; for he is conceived anew, is born, and is educated, and this is done so far as the evils and their falsities that are in him from birth and hereditarily are removed, which is not effected in a moment, but through a considerable course of life. This makes clear what is signified in the spiritual sense by "the nations shall not be driven out in one year, but by little and little, lest the wild beast of the field be multiplied against thee;" for if evils and the falsities thence were removed all at once man would have scarcely any life, since the life into which he is born is a life of evil and consequent falsity from cupidities, which are removed only so far as goods and truths enter, for by these they are removed.

[61] Because "wild beast" signifies 8 in the spiritual sense the cupidities of falsity from evil, and "birds" signify thoughts and reasonings from them, and because through these the man of the church spiritually perishes, so here and there in the Word, where the vastation of the church is treated of, it is said that "they were given to the wild beasts and the birds to be devoured," as in the following passages. In David:

The boar in the forest treadeth under foot the vine, and the wild beast of the fields doth feed on it (Psalms 80:13).

In Hosea:

I will lay waste her vine and her fig tree, and I will make them a forest, and the wild beast of the field shall devour them (Hosea 2:12).

In Ezekiel:

I will send upon you famine and the evil wild beast, and they shall make thee bereaved (Ezekiel 5:17).

This is said of Jerusalem, by which the church is meant. In the same:

I will give him to the wild beast to be devoured (Ezekiel 33:27).

In the same:

The sheep were scattered, without a shepherd, and were for food for every wild beast of the field (Ezekiel 34:5, 8).

In the same:

I have given thee for food to the wild beast of the land and to the bird of the heavens (Ezekiel 29:5).

In the same:

I will cast thee forth upon the faces of the field, and I will cause every bird of the heavens to dwell upon thee, and with thee I will satisfy the wild beast of all the earth (Ezekiel 32:4).

In Jeremiah:

Their carcass shall be for food to the bird of the heavens and to the beast of the earth (Jeremiah 16:4; 19:7; 34:20).

In Ezekiel:

I have given thee for food to the swift bird of every wing, and to the wild beast of the field (Ezekiel 39:4).

In David:

The dead body of Thy servant have they given to the bird of the heavens, the flesh of Thy saint to the wild beast of the earth (Psalms 79:2).

In Jeremiah:

I will visit upon them with four kinds, with the sword to kill, and with dogs to drag about, and with birds of the heavens and with the beasts of the earth to devour and to destroy (Jeremiah 15:3).

[62] In these passages, "wild beasts and birds" signify falsities from the cupidity of evil and from reasoning. And as the "nations" in the land of Canaan signify the evils and falsities of religion and of worship, the sons of Jacob did not bury the dead bodies of the nations which they slew in war, but left them to be devoured by birds and wild beasts; but this was not by Divine command, but from the inborn cruelty of that people, thus by permission, in order that such things might be represented.

[63] In David:

The enemy hath reproached Jehovah, and a foolish people hath contemned Thy name. Give not the soul of Thy turtledove unto the beast; forget not the life of Thine afflicted ones perpetually (Psalms 74:18, 19).

The "enemy" who reproached Jehovah signifies hell and evil therefrom; the "foolish people" who contemned His name signify the falsities which are opposed to the truths of doctrine; those who are in truths are called a "people," and in the contrary sense those who are in falsities, and these are a "foolish people;" the "name of Jehovah" signifies every truth of doctrine and of the church; "give not the soul of Thy turtledove to the beast" signifies not to give spiritual good to those who are in the cupidities of evil; "the life of Thine afflicted ones" signifies spiritual life oppressed by evils and falsities.

(Odkazy: Psalms 74:18-19)


[64] In Habakkuk:

The violence of Lebanon hath covered thee, and the devastation of the beasts shall dismay them, because of the blood of men and the violence of the land, of the city, and of all that dwell therein (Habakkuk 2:17).

The "violence of Lebanon" signifies the violence done to the truths perceived by the rational man from the Word, for "Lebanon" signifies the church in respect to the perception of truth from the rational man; "the devastation of the beasts" which shall dismay them signifies the destruction of truths by the cupidities of evil; "bloods" signify the violence offered to the truths of the Word by evils; and "violence of the land, of the city, and of all that dwell therein" signifies violence done to the truths and goods of the church and to its doctrine from the Word by falsities.

[65] In Moses:

The tooth of beasts I will send upon them, with the poison of the creeping things of the earth (Deuteronomy 32:24).

"The tooth of beasts" signifies the sensual in respect to the cupidities of evil, for "tooth" corresponds to the ultimate of man's life, which is the sensual; "the poison of the creeping things of the earth" signifies the falsities therefrom, which cunningly pervert truths by means of the fallacies of the sensual man.

[66] In Ezekiel:

When I went in and I saw an abomination, and behold every form of creeping thing and of beast, and all the idols of the house of Israel painted upon the wall round about (Ezekiel 8:10).

These and many other things that were shown to the prophet signify the direful cupidities and falsities in which the Israelites were, because they were in externals and not at all in internals; and those who were such turned all representatives into things idolatrous; this was the source of their idolatries and also of the idolatries of many other nations; and then the "beasts and creeping things," images of which they made for themselves because these signified the affections of good and of prudence, became the representatives of the direful cupidities of evil and falsity. This is what takes place when the natural man separated from the spiritual looks upon things holy; this is why these are called the "idols of the house of Israel." "The wall round about" upon which they were seen painted signifies the interiors everywhere in the natural man, for the "roof" signifies the inmost, the "floor" or "pavement" the outmost, the "walls" the interiors, and the "house" the man himself in respect to the things of his mind. The natural man is interior and exterior, and the interior natural is where the filthy things of man reside and these the exterior does not divulge but puts on the semblance of things good, just, and sincere.

[67] As "wild beasts" and "beasts" signify the goods of the understanding and the goods of the will which are of the affections, and as the ancients who knew correspondences made representative and significative figures of these, which at first they did not worship, but their posterity, who from internal became merely external, worshiped them as divine in themselves, so wild beasts and beasts became idols. This is evident in Isaiah:

Bel bowed down, Nebo stooped, their idols are to the wild beast and to the beast (Isaiah 46:1).

In Isaiah there is a prophecy respecting:

The beasts of the south (Isaiah 30:6, et seq.);

which signify the adulterations of good and the falsifications of truth, from which arise evils and falsities of every kind with those of the church who are merely in externals; they are called "the beasts of the south" because they are with those who have the Word, from which they are able to be in the light of truth from the Word, and this is the "south."

[68] In Daniel:

He saw in vision, when it was night, four beasts coming up out of the sea; the first was like a lion but had eagle's wings, the second like a bear, the third like a leopard which had four wings, and the fourth was dreadful and terrible (Daniel 7:2-7).

"The beast out of the sea" here signifies the love of dominion, which the holy things of the Word and the church are made to serve as means; and "the four beasts" signify the gradual increase of the love of dominion, therefore the last beast is called "dreadful and terrible." (But this may be seen explained in part above, n. 316, 556.)

(Odkazy: The Apocalypse Explained 316, The Apocalypse Explained 556)


[69] Nearly the like things are signified in Revelation by:

The beast coming up out of the sea (Revelation 13:1-10);

The beast coming up out of the earth (Revelation 13:11-18);

The scarlet beast (Revelation 17:3);

The beast out of the abyss (Revelation 17:8).

(Respecting these beasts more is said in Revelation 19:19, 20, and Revelation 20:10.)

But what cupidities of evil and falsity each beast signifies will be seen below, where these beasts are treated of.

(Odkazy: Revelation 19:19-20)


[70] From this it will now appear what is meant by these words in Mark:

The spirit urging Jesus caused Him to go into the wilderness, and He was in the wilderness forty days; and He was with the beasts, and angels ministered unto Him (Mark 1:12, 13).

The Lord's being in the wilderness forty days represented the duration of all those most direful temptations which He, above all others in the whole world, endured and withstood; for "forty days" signify the entire period and duration of temptations, thus not that He was tempted at that time only, but from childhood even to the end of His life in the world; His last temptation was in Gethsemane. For by temptations He subjugated all the hells and also glorified His Human (but respecting the Lord's temptations seeThe Doctrine of the New Jerusalem 302). Because temptations arise through evil spirits and genii who are from hell, thus through the hells, from which evils and falsities and their cupidities and lusts arise, so the "beasts" here, with which the Lord was, do not mean beasts, but the hells and the evils that rise out of them; and the "angels" who ministered unto Him do not mean angels, but Divine truths, through which from His own power He overcame and subjugated the hells. (That "angels" signify in the Word Divine truth, see above, n. 130, 200, 302, 593)

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Footnotes:

1.  The Latin for "who" has "because;" "quia" for "qui."

2.  The Latin "et bestiam," "and beast," seems here superfluous.

3.  The Hebrew here has "sixth," as found in Arcana Coelestia 60.

4.  The Hebrew has "not" which is here omitted.

5.  The Hebrew has "dwell" as also in the explanation which follows.

6. the Hebrew has "they shall be left to the bird. . . and to the beast," as found in 1100.

7. The Hebrew has "he-goats," as found in Arcana Coelestia 47 35.

8. The photolithograph has "removes" for signifies.

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(Odkazy: Ezekiel 39:17-22; Mark 1:12-13; Numbers 18:15; Revelation 11:7; The Apocalypse Explained 130, 200, 302, The Apocalypse Explained 593; Zechariah 14:13-16)

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References from Swedenborg's unpublished works:

Apocalypse Explained 648, 654, 695, 701, 730, 768, 774, 827, 982, 1022, 1029, 1038, 1100


Thanks to the Swedenborg Foundation for their permission to use this translation.


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