Daniel 7

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1 In the first year of Belshazzar king of Babylon, Daniel saw a dream and visions of his head upon his bed: then he wrote the dream; he told the sum of the matters.

2 Daniel spoke and said, I saw in my vision by night, and behold, the four winds of the heavens broke forth upon the great sea.

3 And four great beasts came up from the sea, different one from another.

4 The first was like a lion, and had eagle's wings: I beheld till its wings were plucked; and it was lifted up from the earth, and made to stand upon two feet as a man, and a man's heart was given to it.

5 And behold, another beast, a second, like unto a bear, and it raised up itself on one side; and [it had] three ribs in its mouth between its teeth; and they said thus unto it: Arise, devour much flesh.

6 After this I saw, and behold, another, like a leopard, and it had four wings of a bird upon its back; and the beast had four heads; and dominion was given to it.

7 After this I saw in the night visions, and behold, a fourth beast, dreadful and terrible, and exceeding strong; and it had great iron teeth: it devoured and broke in pieces, and stamped the rest with its feet; and it was different from all the beasts that were before it; and it had ten horns.

8 I considered the horns, and behold, there came up among them another, a little horn, before which three of the first horns were plucked up by the roots; and behold, in this horn were eyes like the eyes of a man, and a mouth speaking great things.

9 I beheld till thrones were set, and the Ancient of days did sit: his raiment was white as snow, and the hair of his head like pure wool; his throne was flames of fire, [and] its wheels burning fire.

10 A stream of fire issued and came forth from before him; thousand thousands ministered unto him, and ten thousand times ten thousand stood before him: the judgment was set, and the books were opened.

11 I beheld therefore, because of the voice of the great words that the horn spoke; I beheld till the beast was slain, and its body destroyed, and it was given up to be burned with fire.

12 As for the rest of the beasts, their dominion was taken away; but their lives were prolonged for a season and a time.

13 I saw in the night visions, and behold, there came with the clouds of heaven [one] like a son of man, and he came up even to the Ancient of days, and they brought him near before him.

14 And there was given him dominion, and glory, and a kingdom, that all peoples, nations, and languages should serve him: his dominion is an everlasting dominion, which shall not pass away, and his kingdom [that] which shall not be destroyed.

15 As for me Daniel, my spirit was grieved in the midst of my body, and the visions of my head troubled me.

16 I came near unto one of them that stood by, and asked him the certainty of all this. And he told me, and made me know the interpretation of the things:

17 These great beasts, which are four, are four kings, [that] shall arise out of the earth.

18 But the saints of the most high [places] shall receive the kingdom, and they shall possess the kingdom for ever, even to the ages of ages.

19 Then I desired to know the certainty concerning the fourth beast, which was different from them all, exceeding dreadful, whose teeth were of iron, and its nails of brass; which devoured, broke in pieces, and stamped the rest with its feet;

20 and concerning the ten horns that were in its head, and the other that came up, and before which three fell: even that horn that had eyes, and a mouth speaking great things, and whose look was more imposing than its fellows.

21 I beheld, and that horn made war with the saints, and prevailed over them;

22 until the Ancient of days came, and judgment was given to the saints of the most high [places]; and the appointed time arrived, and the saints possessed the kingdom.

23 He said thus: The fourth beast shall be a fourth kingdom upon the earth, which shall be different from all the kingdoms, and shall devour the whole earth, and shall tread it down, and break it in pieces.

24 And as to the ten horns, out of this kingdom shall arise ten kings; and another shall arise after them; and he shall be different from the former, and he shall subdue three kings.

25 And he shall speak words against the Most High, and shall wear out the saints of the most high [places], and think to change seasons and the law; and they shall be given into his hand until a time and times and a half time.

26 And the judgment shall sit, and they shall take away his dominion, to consume and to destroy it unto the end.

27 But the kingdom and the dominion, and the greatness of the kingdoms under the whole heavens, shall be given to the people of the saints of the most high [places]. His kingdom is an everlasting kingdom, and all dominions shall serve and obey him.

28 So far is the end of the matter. As for me Daniel, my thoughts much troubled me, and my countenance was changed in me; but I kept the matter in my heart.

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Hlavní výklad ze Swedenborgových prací:

Arcana Coelestia 1326, 10455

Apocalypse Revealed 748

De Verbo (The Word) 5

The Inner Meaning of the Prophets and Psalms 178

Scriptural Confirmations 4, 37

Další odkazy Swedenborga k této kapitole:

Arcana Coelestia 49, 934, 1066, 1607, 1990, 2547, 2832, ...

Apocalypse Revealed 24, 36, 47, 49, 101, 166, 229, ...

Conjugial Love 26, 81, 193

Divine Providence 134

The Lord 4, 6, 10, 26, 42, 48, 52

Sacred Scripture 49, 86

Life 61

Heaven and Hell 171

True Christian Religion 1, 113, 157, 223, 251, 262, 288, ...

References from Swedenborg's unpublished works:

Apocalypse Explained 36, 63, 67, 70, 175, 195, 199, ...

On the Athanasian Creed 41

Canons of the New Church 37

Coronis (An Appendix to True Christian Religion) 3

De Verbo (The Word) 10, 15, 25

An Invitation to the New Church 10

Marriage 0, 1, 113

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Arcana Coelestia # 2832

Arcana Coelestia (Elliott translation)      

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2832. 'By its horns' means with all its power as regards the truths of faith. This is clear from the meaning of 'horns'. Horns are mentioned in various places in the Word, in which places they mean the power of truth which springs from good, and in the contrary sense the power of falsity which springs from evil. In this place the meaning is that those who are spiritual, meant by 'the ram', were entangled in natural knowledge with all their power as regards truth, and that as a consequence they were bereft of the power to perceive truths. For the more anyone relies on natural facts and keeps his mind (animus et mens) fixed on these where truths of faith are concerned, the more he loses the light of truth; and when he loses this light he loses the life of truth as well. Anyone may recognize this, if he stops to reflect, from his experience of people who say they are unable to believe anything unless they grasp that it is so through sensory evidence or through factual knowledge. If you probe into what they are really like you will discover that they believe nothing at all, and what is more that to them nothing seems wiser than to ascribe every single thing to natural forces. There are also many who say that they believe even though they do not apprehend. But secretly within themselves these reason no less than others from sensory evidence and factual knowledge regarding the truths of faith whether the thing is so. These either possess a kind of persuasive belief infused into them from self-love and love of the world, or else they do not have any belief at all. Their true nature is evident from their life. Both groups of people are indeed within the Lord's spiritual Church, yet they are not of the Church. They are of the Church however when the life of good is present in them and they have faith in truths. But spiritual people have faith in no other truths than those which have been impressed on them from early childhood and which after that they have confirmed for themselves from doctrine or some other source. Such is the state of those who are spiritual, a state which is described here by 'a ram caught in the thicket by its horns' - see immediately above in 2831.

[2] A horn means the power of truth that springs from good.

This is clear from the following places: In David,

You are the splendour of their strength, and in Your good pleasure You will exalt our horn. For our shield belongs to Jehovah, and our king to the Holy One of Israel. My truth and My mercy will be with him, and in My name his horn will be exalted. And I will set his hand on the sea, and his right hand on the rivers. Psalms 89:17-18, 24-25.

Here 'our horn' and 'his horn' plainly stand for the power of truth. The subject is the Lord's spiritual kingdom. 'Our king belongs to the Holy One of Israel' stands for the fact that Divine Truth is the Lord's 'a king' being truth, and the Lord's kingship Divine Truth, see 1672, 1728, 2015, 2069. 'Setting his hand on the sea, and his right hand on the rivers' stands for the fact that strength resides in knowledge and in cognitions of truth - 'hand' and 'right hand' being strength, 878, and 'sea' and 'river' knowledge and cognitions, 28, 2702. In the same author,

I will love You, O Jehovah, my strength. Jehovah is my rock (petra), and my fortress, and my deliverer, my God, my rock (rupee) in which I trust, a shield and the horn of salvation. Psalms 18:1-2; 2 Samuel 22:2-3.

'The horn of salvation' stands for truth as regards its power, and here 'strength', 'rock' (petra), 'fortress', 'God', 'rock' (rupee), and 'shield' all mean spiritually the power of truth.

(Odkazy: Psalms 89:24)

[3] In the same author,

In Zion I will make the horn of David to spring forth, I will make ready a lamp for My anointed. His enemies I will clothe with shame. Psalms 132:17-18.

This refers to the Lord, who is 'David', 1888. 'Horn' stands for the power of truth, 'a lamp' for the light of truth. In Samuel,

My heart has exulted in Jehovah, my horn has exalted itself in Jehovah. My mouth has been enlarged against my enemies because I have rejoiced in Your salvation. Jehovah will give strength to His king, and will exalt the horn of His anointed. 1 Samuel 2:1, 10.

In this prophecy of Hannah 'horn' stands for the power of truth.

[4] In Moses,

The firstborn of his cattle has honour, and his horns are unicorn horns. 1 With them he will thrust 2 the peoples together to the ends of the earth. Deuteronomy 33:17.

In this prophecy of Moses concerning Joseph 'unicorn horns' stands for the mighty power of truth, as is also evident from the statement that 'with them he will thrust the peoples to the ends of the earth'. Similarly in David,

You will exalt my horn like that of a unicorn. Psalms 92:10.

And in the same author,

O Jehovah, save me from the mouth of the lion, and from the unicorn horns 1 answer me. Psalms 22:21.

Divine truths, on account of their height, are called 'unicorn horns'. It is for this reason that mention is made so many times of a horn being exalted, for exaltation means power derived from what is interior. As regards what is internal being expressed as that which is high, see 1735, 2148.

[5] In Jeremiah,

The Lord has cut down in fierce anger the whole horn of Israel, He has drawn back His right hand from before the enemy. Lamentations 2:3.

'Cutting down the whole horn of Israel' stands for deprivation of truth which possesses power. This is also the meaning of 'drawing back the right hand from before the enemy'. In Ezekiel,

On that day I will make a horn grow up for the house of Israel, and I will give you an opening of the mouth in the midst of them. Ezekiel 29:21.

'Making a horn grow up for the house of Israel' stands for multiplying the truths of the spiritual Church, meant by Israel, 'an opening of the mouth' for the confession of those truths.

(Odkazy: Revelation 17:9)

[6] In Habakkuk,

God will come out of Teman, and the Holy One from Mount Paran. His fame has covered the heavens, and the earth has been filled with His praise. And His brightness will be as the light; He has horns going out of His hand, and there the hiding-place of His strength will be. Habakkuk 3:3-4.

This refers to the Lord. 'Horns going out of His hand' and 'there the hiding-place of His strength will be', it is plain, stands for the power of truth. 'Mount Paran' is the Divine spiritual or Divine Truth of the Lord's Human - see 2714 - which is also 'the brightness' and 'the light'.

[7] The Divine Truth of the Lord's Human is described in John as follows,

I looked, and behold, in the midst of the throne and of the four living creatures, a Lamb standing as though it had been slain, having seven horns, which are the seven spirits of God sent out into all the earth. Revelation 5:6.

'Seven horns' stands for holy, or Divine, truths - 'seven' meaning that which is holy, see 716, 881. 'The seven spirits sent out into all the earth' are the holy proclaimings of those same truths.

[8] The horns of altars meant nothing other than truth which possessed power, being spoken of in Moses as follows,

You shall make horns on the four corners of the altar; its horns shall be of one piece with it. Exodus 27:2; 38:2.

In a similar way the altar of incense was to have them on it; and it is said that the horns were to be of one piece with it, Exodus 30:2; 37:25. For the altar was the chief representative of the Lord, and of worship of Him, see 921. 'The altar' was a representative of His Divine Good, 'the horns' representatives of His Divine Truth. The derivation of truth from good was represented by the horns being protrusions from it, that is, from the altar. For the consideration that no other truth exists except that which is derived from good, see 654, 1068, 3 1162, 1176, 2063, 2261, 2417. From all this it is evident that 'horns' in the genuine sense means the power of truth that springs from good.

(Odkazy: Arcana Coelestia 2429)

[9] Truths springing from good were meant in the following instances:

When Aaron and his sons were being admitted into their function, they were to take some of the blood of the young bull and place it with their finger on the horns of the altar. Exodus 29:12; Leviticus 8:15.

Aaron was to make atonement once a year on the horns of the altar. Exodus 30:10.

When a priest sinned he was to offer a young bull, and to place some of the blood on the horns of the altar of incense. Leviticus 4:3, 7.

Also, when a prince sinned he was to offer a burnt offering, and the blood was to be sprinkled over the horns of the altar of burnt offering. Leviticus 4:22, 25.

The same had to be done if a person 4 sinned - Leviticus 4:27, 30, 34 - and also when the altar was to be ritually cleansed. Leviticus 16:18-19.

Truths springing from good were meant, for all consecrations, inaugurations, and cleansings were effected by means of truths, because truths lead towards good, 2830. That 'the horns of the altar' meant truths springing from good may also be seen in John,

The sixth angel sounded, and I heard a voice from the four horns of the golden altar, which stood before God. Revelation 9:13.

'The horns of the golden altar' plainly stands for truths that spring from good, for it was from the horns that the voice came. 'Gold' means good, 113, 1551, 1552, and 'the golden altar' more especially so.

(Odkazy: Arcana Coelestia 1551-1552)

[10] In Amos,

On the day I visit Israel for his transgressions, I will visit the altars of Bethel; and the horns of the altar will be cut away and fall to the ground. Amos 3:14.

'The horns of the altar will be cut away' meant that in that place the representation of truth springing from good would remain no longer. 'Bethel' is Divine good, and is therefore called 'the king's sanctuary' and 'a house of the kingdom' in Amos 7:13. The practice of anointing kings with oil from a horn, 1 Samuel 16:1, 13; 1 Kings 1:39, in a similar way represented truth springing from good - 'oil' being the good, 886, 'horn' however the truth; the kingly office itself in the internal sense means truth such as this, 1782, 2015, which possesses power.

[11] A horn in the contrary sense means the power of falsity that springs from evil

This is clear from the following places: In Amos,

O you who rejoice in a thing of nought, saying, Have we not by our own strength acquired horns for ourselves? Amos 6:13.

'Home' here stands for the power of falsity. In Zechariah,

I lifted up my eyes and saw, and behold, four horns! And I said to the angel who talked to me, What are these? And he said to me, These are the horns which have scattered Judah, Israel, and Jerusalem. And Jehovah showed me four smiths, and I said, What are these coming to do? And He said, These are the horns which have scattered Judah so that no man raised his head, and these have come to terrify, to cast down the horns of the nations lifting up their horn against the land of Judah to scatter it. Zechariah 1:18-21.

'Horns' stands for the power of falsity that lays waste the Church. In Ezekiel,

You push with side and shoulder, and butt with your horns all the weak [sheep] until you have scattered them abroad. Ezekiel 34:21.

This refers to shepherds who mislead by means of falsities. 'Horns' stands for the power of falsity, 'shoulder' for all the power they had, 1085. In Jeremiah,

Jehovah has destroyed and not spared; and He has caused the enemy to rejoice over you. He has exalted the horn of your foes. Lamentations 2:17.

In the same prophet,

The horn of Moab has been cut off and his arm broken. Jeremiah 48:25.

'Horn' here stands for powerful falsity.

[12] In David,

I said to the boastful, Do not boast; and to the wicked, Do not lift up the horn, do not lift up your horn on high, do not speak with a stiff neck. All the horns of the wicked I will cut away; the horns of the righteous will be exalted. Psalms 75:4-5, 10.

'The horns of the wicked' stands for the power of falsity that springs from evil, 'the horns of the righteous' for the power of truth that springs from good.

[13] In Daniel,

A fourth beast appeared, terrible and dreadful, exceedingly strong, which had iron teeth. It devoured, and broke in pieces, and trampled on the residue with its feet. It had ten horns. I was considering the horns, and behold, another little horn came up among them and three of the first horns were plucked up from before it. And behold, there were eyes in this horn like the eyes of a man (homo), and a mouth speaking great things. I looked then because of the sound of the great words that the horn was speaking. I desired to know the truth about the fourth beast, and about the ten horns that were on its head, and about the other one that came up, and before which three of them fell, and about the same horn which had eyes, and a mouth speaking great things. As I looked this same horn made war with the saints, and prevailed over them until the Ancient of Days came and judgement was given to the saints. And he said, As for the fourth beast, it will be a fourth kingdom on the earth, which will be different from all the kingdoms and will devour the whole earth, and trample it down, and break it in pieces. As for the ten horns, out of that same kingdom ten kings will arise, and another will arise after them, who will be different from the previous ones, and he will put down three kings. He will speak words against the Most High, and wear out the saints. After this the judgement will sit. Daniel 7:7-8, 11, 19-26.

This refers in the internal sense to the perverted state of the Church. The things mentioned here which Daniel saw - such as the beast, the iron teeth, the horn with eyes in it, and the horns that spoke; also the war these made with the saints, and [the king] speaking against the Most High - mean a state of falsity and of heresies inside the Church. For 'horns' means powerful and prevalent falsity, as may be seen merely from the consideration that 'eyes' - that is, the power of understanding, 2701 - are attributed to them, and that they spoke even against the Most High. By 'kingdoms' and 'kings' are not meant kingdoms and kings but doctrines that teach what is false, as may be seen from the meaning of them in the Word as doctrines teaching what is true, and in the contrary sense doctrines teaching what is false, see 1672, 2015, 2069, 2547.

[14] Elsewhere in Daniel when he saw a ram standing before the river, which had two horns, horns however which were high, yet one higher than the other, though the higher one had come up last,

I saw the ram butting 5 towards the west, and towards the north, and towards the south, so that no wild beast could stand before him, nor was there anyone to deliver out of his hand; therefore he did as he pleased and magnified himself. As I was considering, behold, a he-goat came from the west across the surface of the whole earth. This he-goat had a horn between his two eyes. He came to the two-horned ram 6 and ran at him in the fury of his might. He struck him and broke his two horns, and there was no strength in the ram to stand before him. After that the he-goat magnified himself exceedingly, but when he was strong, the great horn was broken, and there came up four horns in its place. Shortly after, out of one of them there came forth a little horn, and it grew exceedingly towards the south, and towards the east, and towards the glorious [land]. And it grew even towards the host of heaven, and cast down to earth some of the host, and of the stars, and trampled on them. The ram with the two horns is the kings of Media and Persia, the he-goat the king of Greece. The four horns in place of the one are four kingdoms from that nation. Daniel 8:1-end.

This refers in the internal sense to the state of the spiritual Church, meant by 'the ram', 2830; it describes how the state of that Church gradually deteriorated and was perverted. 'The he-goat' is those who have faith separated from charity, or truth separated from good, who start to raise themselves up against what is good and at length against the Lord. 'The horns of the ram' are the truths, internal and external, of the spiritual Church, 'the horns of the he-goat' truths which degenerate gradually into falsities. By 'kingdoms' and 'kings' here are not meant kingdoms and kings but truths and falsities, as stated just above. For essentially the Word of the Lord does not have to do with worldly and earthly matters but with spiritual and celestial.

(Odkazy: Daniel 8)

[15] In John,

Another sign appeared in heaven, for behold, a great fiery-red dragon having seven heads, and ten horns, and on his heads seven jewels. With his tail he drew a third part of the stars of heaven and cast them down to the earth. Revelation 12:3-4.

And elsewhere in the same book,

I saw a beast coming up out of the sea, which had seven heads, and ten horns, and on its horns ten jewels, and on its heads a blasphemous name. It was allowed to make war on the saints and to conquer them. Then I saw another beast coming up out of the earth, which had two horns like a lamb. Revelation 13:1-2, 7, 11.

Yet again in the same book,

I saw a woman sitting on a scarlet beast, full of blasphemous names. It had seven heads and ten horns. She was Babylon the great. The seven heads are seven mountains on which the woman is seated, and they are seven kings. The ten horns are ten kings. Revelation 17:3, 5, 7, 9-10, 12-13.

Here as in Daniel 'horns' clearly means the powers of falsity.


1. i.e. horns that are high and powerful, like the horn of a unicorn

2. literally, he will strike with the horn

3. The Latin is 1608.

4. literally, a soul

5. literally, striking with the horn

6. literally, to the ram, the lord of the horns


(Odkazy: Genesis 22:13, 23:8; Revelation 17:9)

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From Swedenborg's Works

Inbound References:

Arcana Coelestia 3009, 3448, 4402, 4489, 4769, 7456, 7729, 9065, 9081, 9494, 9719, 9930, 10182

Heaven and Hell 356

The New Jerusalem and its Heavenly Doctrine 51

References from Swedenborg's unpublished works:

Apocalypse Explained 176

Other New Christian Commentary

Thanks to the Swedenborg Society for the permission to use this translation.