Daniel 7

English: Darby Version         

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1 In the first year of Belshazzar king of Babylon, Daniel saw a dream and visions of his head upon his bed: then he wrote the dream; he told the sum of the matters.

2 Daniel spoke and said, I saw in my vision by night, and behold, the four winds of the heavens broke forth upon the great sea.

3 And four great beasts came up from the sea, different one from another.

4 The first was like a lion, and had eagle's wings: I beheld till its wings were plucked; and it was lifted up from the earth, and made to stand upon two feet as a man, and a man's heart was given to it.

5 And behold, another beast, a second, like unto a bear, and it raised up itself on one side; and [it had] three ribs in its mouth between its teeth; and they said thus unto it: Arise, devour much flesh.

6 After this I saw, and behold, another, like a leopard, and it had four wings of a bird upon its back; and the beast had four heads; and dominion was given to it.

7 After this I saw in the night visions, and behold, a fourth beast, dreadful and terrible, and exceeding strong; and it had great iron teeth: it devoured and broke in pieces, and stamped the rest with its feet; and it was different from all the beasts that were before it; and it had ten horns.

8 I considered the horns, and behold, there came up among them another, a little horn, before which three of the first horns were plucked up by the roots; and behold, in this horn were eyes like the eyes of a man, and a mouth speaking great things.

9 I beheld till thrones were set, and the Ancient of days did sit: his raiment was white as snow, and the hair of his head like pure wool; his throne was flames of fire, [and] its wheels burning fire.

10 A stream of fire issued and came forth from before him; thousand thousands ministered unto him, and ten thousand times ten thousand stood before him: the judgment was set, and the books were opened.

11 I beheld therefore, because of the voice of the great words that the horn spoke; I beheld till the beast was slain, and its body destroyed, and it was given up to be burned with fire.

12 As for the rest of the beasts, their dominion was taken away; but their lives were prolonged for a season and a time.

13 I saw in the night visions, and behold, there came with the clouds of heaven [one] like a son of man, and he came up even to the Ancient of days, and they brought him near before him.

14 And there was given him dominion, and glory, and a kingdom, that all peoples, nations, and languages should serve him: his dominion is an everlasting dominion, which shall not pass away, and his kingdom [that] which shall not be destroyed.

15 As for me Daniel, my spirit was grieved in the midst of my body, and the visions of my head troubled me.

16 I came near unto one of them that stood by, and asked him the certainty of all this. And he told me, and made me know the interpretation of the things:

17 These great beasts, which are four, are four kings, [that] shall arise out of the earth.

18 But the saints of the most high [places] shall receive the kingdom, and they shall possess the kingdom for ever, even to the ages of ages.

19 Then I desired to know the certainty concerning the fourth beast, which was different from them all, exceeding dreadful, whose teeth were of iron, and its nails of brass; which devoured, broke in pieces, and stamped the rest with its feet;

20 and concerning the ten horns that were in its head, and the other that came up, and before which three fell: even that horn that had eyes, and a mouth speaking great things, and whose look was more imposing than its fellows.

21 I beheld, and that horn made war with the saints, and prevailed over them;

22 until the Ancient of days came, and judgment was given to the saints of the most high [places]; and the appointed time arrived, and the saints possessed the kingdom.

23 He said thus: The fourth beast shall be a fourth kingdom upon the earth, which shall be different from all the kingdoms, and shall devour the whole earth, and shall tread it down, and break it in pieces.

24 And as to the ten horns, out of this kingdom shall arise ten kings; and another shall arise after them; and he shall be different from the former, and he shall subdue three kings.

25 And he shall speak words against the Most High, and shall wear out the saints of the most high [places], and think to change seasons and the law; and they shall be given into his hand until a time and times and a half time.

26 And the judgment shall sit, and they shall take away his dominion, to consume and to destroy it unto the end.

27 But the kingdom and the dominion, and the greatness of the kingdoms under the whole heavens, shall be given to the people of the saints of the most high [places]. His kingdom is an everlasting kingdom, and all dominions shall serve and obey him.

28 So far is the end of the matter. As for me Daniel, my thoughts much troubled me, and my countenance was changed in me; but I kept the matter in my heart.

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Daniel's First Vision: 4 Beasts and the Little Horn      

By Rev. Dr. Andrew T. Dibb


This opening verse of the prophecies of Daniel has a resounding similarity to the opening verses of most of the preceding chapters of the book of Daniel. Like them, it places the vision in a context, we are shown the point of our regeneration at which the Lord is directing us: the first year of Belshazzar, king of Babylon.

In the internal sense, time is an indication of state. This means that the events and prophecies of Daniel do not follow in a strict chronological order, but rather happen on different levels at the same time. While Nebuchadnezzar is king of Babylon, representing selfishness in our inner self, Belshazzar rules our outer self. The work of overcoming selfish motives has to go hand in hand with the removal of that very selfishness in our external—otherwise the exercise is purely intellectual. Daniel’s visions in the last six chapters of the book, indicate the process by which we become aware of the effects of selfishness in our daily lives: when Belshazzar is king.

In spiritual development, we sometimes delude ourselves that change follows effort without delay. Nothing could be further from the truth. Our habits are very powerful—often we are not even aware that we have them. Yet "regeneration" literally means "re-birth," which entails casting out each and every obstacle in the path of our spiritual development. This can only be done by examining the exterior motives in our lives, and getting to the very bottom or root of our behaviors.

Daniel’s vision traces this exploration for us. Each of the four beasts he saw rising up from the sea depict the states of an evil life in us, with the added twist in their relationship to the religious principles a person purports to hold. Each must be examined and rejected. Every detail of the vision, therefore is important.

As with all numbers in the Word, the number "four" has a special meaning vitally important to the exposition. "Four" represents a joining together, and so has the same meaning as the number "two," (Arcana Coelestia 1686, 9103, 9601) which is obvious since "four" is the result of two multiplied into itself.

In a general sense, when the term "four winds" is mentioned in the Word, it means "all things of good and of truth, thus all things of heaven and of the church" (Arcana Coelestia 9642:10) flowing into a person, for "wind" means the influx of life from the Lord (Apocalypse Revealed 343). Thus the Lord breathed life into Adam in the Garden of Eden, and again on His disciples, filling them with the Holy Spirit. In an ideal situation, the presence of the Lord, both in our will and our understanding, in equal measure, indicates a state of regeneration. In that state, we are as "four-square" as the New Jerusalem.

As in so many cases in the book of Daniel, the symbolism needs to be reversed in order to see its full meaning. Daniel is in Babylon, a servant to the king, and thus anything usually relating to the Lord is inverted to relate to the king of Babylon, as selfishness: the opposite of love to the Lord.

The influx then is not goodness and truth, but evil and falsity, specifically love of self and control over others. The "sea" in this vision depicts the great restless tide of selfishness controlling our external being. The book of Daniel is a picture of a person whose conscience is restricted to thoughts and feelings, yet whose behavior, attitudes, and habits still reflect the old states of selfishness (Apocalypse Explained 316). Babylon reigns. In the vision that follows, the states and their effects are revealed.

The vision of the four beasts coming up from the sea tells our story when we cynically misuse truth to live selfishly, until evil completely takes over and would destroy us (Apocalypse Explained 556, Apocalypse Revealed 574). Evil will succeed unless the power of the truth, in our conscience, overcomes evil and allows us to reject it.

The first of these beasts was like a lion with eagle’s wings. Lions are mentioned many times in the Word, and usually describe the power of truth to destroy falsity and evil (Apocalypse Explained 556). But in this vision, describing Babylon, the lion takes on the opposite meaning: the lion represents the power of the love of self (Arcana Coelestia 6367), and the power of falsity to destroy truths.

The eagle's wings, representing human reason, were taken away from the lion, and he was made to stand on his two feet like a man, and a man’s heart was given to him. A person engrossed in selfishness loses their ability to appreciate religion, and weighted down by their own contrary thoughts, find themselves alienated from the truth.

Next, Daniel saw a bear raised up on one side. This posture indicates our eagerness to misinterpret the Word to suit our own means (Arcana Coelestia 781). This a vision of the human state when self love (Nebuchadnezzar) rules our internal being, and the expression of that selfishness (Belshazzar) controls our daily actions. The bear is the pleasure of justifying evil with our own 'superior' reasoning.

It is easy to be kind, while manipulating other people for our own benefit. It is easy to present oneself as a spiritual being in order to deceive other people. In such a life, charity is a dead form. Thus the bear had three ribs hanging from its mouth.

Daniel never tells who commanded the bear to 'arise, and devour more flesh,' but perhaps the urging comes from deeper states of selfishness which control our external actions. Whatever its origin, these words give voice to the heart of a person misusing the Word for his or her own gain.

A leopard is "a ferocious beast" which loves to "kill harmless animals." Its very appearance, black spots on white, illustrates the effect of falsity on truth (Apocalypse Revealed 57). But the leopard in Daniel also had four wings like a bird. As in the case of the lion which had the wings of an eagle, the wings here also signify our intellect destroying the truth. The four wings on the leopard depict "confirmations of what is false" (Apocalypse Revealed 574).

The leopard not only had four wings, but also four heads. This is a depiction of human degradation when falsity rules. It is a state of spiritual insanity, for when a selfish internal acts with a falsified external, there is nothing to prevent a person engaging in all kinds evil (Arcana Coelestia 1944:3). In this state, the conscience is enslaved, powerless to stop the madness.

The fourth beast, whose appearance is not described, signifies the "destruction of truth and good" (Apocalypse Revealed 574). Once a person reaches this state of degeneration, they stop at nothing to destroy any restraining influences. Falsity is used to destroy truth through denial or twisting it to suit one’s own ends. This process is described as "teeth like iron" devouring and breaking in pieces (see 1 explanation of Daniel 2 for a description of 'iron')(Apocalypse Revealed 556).

'A horn' is usually a symbol of power, and in the highest sense, the power of truth against falsity. But again, in this story the opposite sense applies, and the power here is of falsity for evil (Apocalypse Explained 316). These ten horns depict the complete power falsity has over the way we act.

The whole sordid description of the four beasts culminates on a little horn. This is the complete perversion of anything good and true drawn from the Word, and so represents the final profanation. If there was no counter-balancing conscience, a person would be irrevocably in hell.

The casting out of the three horns depicts the power of evil and falsity to destroy and remove the truths of the Word (Apocalypse Explained 316). The number "three" represents fullness or completeness, and thus the power of evil when brought into action to destroy all truths. Hence, the old saying 'when you break one of the Commandments, you break them all,' takes on a more powerful meaning.

The next image shifts: we see the thrones "cast down" signifying the falsities (Arcana Coelestia 8215) from the beasts, judged by the truths of the Word forming our conscience. All judgment begins with truth, for truth provides the balances upon which our lives are measured.

In the image of God’s throne, symbolizing judgment, it is important to remember that His judgment is always a product of love and mercy. But the Lord’s love should not be confused with license: just because He loves the human race, individually and collectively, this does not mean evil is permissible. Evil interferes with a person’s reception of the Lord, putting barriers between Him and ourselves. For the most part, the Lord permits evils, but does not will them, because they are useful reminding us to turn away from them (Divine Providence 275, 278). Yet there are times when human beings overstep the mark.

The judgment in this chapter must be seen in its context, which is in the reign of Belshazzar. It is the story of both the beasts and the fact that Belshazzar was weighed in the balances, found wanting, and killed by Darius. That in essence is a judgment on the external’s of our lives, on our behavior. and attitudes which have their origin in the Nebuchadnezzar states of our inner being.

Here, however, we see the origin of truth as "the Ancient of Days," sitting on the throne of judgment, heralding the destruction of one state and the beginning of another (Apocalypse Revealed 574). The "Ancient of Days" is an image of the love of the Lord (Arcana Coelestia 9470), and in a sense is the Divine counterpart to the love we are led to by means of truth. The object of all truth is to lead one to a love of God, and a love of the neighbor, and a life expressive of both. Our love for God is a reflection of His love for us.

In the Word, a garment corresponds to truth one knows and which forms a part of a person’s mind. Thus the garment of the Ancient of Days represents the truth veiling over the Divine Good. This truth is truth in our minds, in our conscious minds (Arcana Coelestia 9470, Apocalypse Explained 67). These garments were as white as snow to show us the quality of the intelligence and wisdom we can have from the Lord (Apocalypse Explained 195:18).

'Hair' means the most external parts of our lives—the natural thoughts and feelings we have which prompt us into action, all perfectly conscious. While we are in this world, this very external part of us seems to be vitally important, but in fact it is only driven by the inner things. If these are from the Lord, then our external will also appear as virgin wool.

The fire of the throne is the appearance of the Lord's love. The wheels represents the wisdom and intelligence we have from the Lord, which are full of love and so are described as "burning."

All judgment is done by the Lord. The Lord’s birth in Bethlehem was the beginning of a last judgment on the ancient churches, and that judgment from love by means of wisdom, came about through the life and death of Jesus Christ, the Divine Human of the Lord.

In Daniel’s vision, there is a similar relationship between the Ancient of Days, seated on His throne, and the Son of Man to whom was given all power. The Ancient of Days represents the Lord, and in that vision we saw the unity of the Divine love and Divine wisdom in the fiery throne upon which He sat.

Once the presence of the Lord has been established in us by the overthrow of evil and falsity, we will continue to develop in goodness and truth. This spiritual growth is described in the words that 'the Son of Man was given an everlasting dominion,' a theme repeated in verses 18 and 27. The kingdom of the Son of Man extended over "all peoples, nations and tongues," representing the different states of the human mind which will be made subject to truth from the Word. "Peoples" are the truths of doctrine—in this case, the false ideas which affect our behavior to be judged against the truth introduced into our minds by the conscience. "Nations" mean the evils of life, overthrown in the process of judgment (Apocalypse Revealed 483, Apocalypse Explained 175, 455). Thus in the process of judgment, both our habitual thoughts and feelings will be confronted by truth, and replaced by feelings drawn from the goodness and truth of the Lord. Finally, "tongues" signify the actions drawn from evil feelings and false thoughts—these too will be brought down in our personal "last judgment."

The "time, times, and half a time" are the states of temptation and combat we need to go through in order to regenerate. Yet each minute of that combat is a temptation, and temptation only takes place within the framework or regeneration. Thus a person being tempted, who resists the evil, sits in judgment on that evil, and from the power of the Lord will eventually prevail over it.

These final verses are a vision of things yet to come. This is before our entrance into the Lord’s kingdom, before the power of falsity is broken. We still have growing to do. There are still states we need to face and overcome. Even with this marvelous promise of ultimate victory, Daniel found that his thoughts still troubled him.




Hlavní výklad ze Swedenborgových prací:

Arcana Coelestia 1326, 10455

Apocalypse Revealed 748

De Verbo (The Word) 5

The Inner Meaning of the Prophets and Psalms 178

Scriptural Confirmations 4, 37

Další odkazy Swedenborga k této kapitole:

Arcana Coelestia 49, 934, 1066, 1607, 1990, 2547, 2832, ...

Apocalypse Revealed 24, 36, 47, 49, 101, 166, 229, ...

Conjugial Love 26, 81, 193

Divine Providence 134

The Lord 4, 6, 10, 26, 42, 48, 52

Sacred Scripture 49, 86

Doctrine of Life 61

Heaven and Hell 171

True Christian Religion 1, 113, 157, 223, 251, 262, 288, ...

References from Swedenborg's unpublished works:

Apocalypse Explained 36, 63, 67, 70, 175, 195, 199, ...

On the Athanasian Creed 41

Canons of the New Church 37

Coronis (An Appendix to True Christian Religion) 3

De Verbo (The Word) 10, 15, 25

An Invitation to the New Church 10

Marriage 0, 1, 113

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Apocalypse Explained # 675

Apocalypse Explained (Whitehead translation)      

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675. And the tenth part of the city fell, signifies that no truths of doctrine any longer existed with those who remained. This is evident from the signification of "ten," as being all persons and all things, also many persons and many things, and of "the tenth part," as being all and much (of which presently); also from the signification of "city," as being doctrine and also the truth of doctrine, for a doctrine, that it may be a doctrine of the church, must consist of truths from the Word (that a "city" signifies doctrine see above, n. 223. It is evident also from the signification of "to fall," as being to be separated, consequently to have no existence; to be separated and to have no existence is predicated of truths of doctrine when "to fall" is predicated of a city.

(Odkazy: Revelation 11:13; The Apocalypse Explained 223)

[2] For every particular thing has allotted to it its analogous and proper expression, according to the correspondence of the subject in the natural sense with the subject in the spiritual sense; and here the subject in the natural sense is a city, while the subject in the spiritual sense is the truth of doctrine. That no truths existed with those that remained follows from what has been said in the preceding article, namely, that when the good are taken away from a society in which the good and the evil have been together, and are carried up into heaven, no truths of doctrine any longer remain with the evil, because they are then deprived of their communication with the good which enabled them as to the external to be as it were in truths, and thence to speak about truths from doctrine.

[3] For in the spiritual world there is a communication of the affections and thence of the thoughts, and from such communication one is held by another, thus all in the same society mutually, in a like affection and accordingly in a like good; thus are the evil also held by the good. But these evil were such as were able in external form to put on an appearance of sanctity, of piety, of intelligence, of zeal for the church and its doctrine, also in the life an appearance of being just and sincere from the heart, and yet interiorly in themselves they possessed nothing of such good. Such were the evil, with whom there could no longer exist any truths of doctrine, after the good were taken away, who are meant by "the two witnesses" that went up by command into heaven.

[4] It is to be known that there were in the spiritual world many societies formed of such, and that these societies taken together are meant by "the first heaven" which passed away (Revelation 21:1). (Respecting these societies or that heaven, many things are related in the small work on The Last Judgment.) In these societies were such evil persons as have been described, and the good associated with them; and so long as these were conjoined in one society the evil appeared in externals like the good; but when they had been separated, then the external good in them, which was only simulated and hypocritical, was separated, and their interiors were laid open, which were infernal, filled with mere evils and falsities therefrom. Such a separation and such a consequent state existed in the spiritual world a little before the Last Judgment; this, therefore, is the state that is here described; for the last time of the church, when the universal judgment is at hand, is here treated of.

[5] That "ten" signifies all persons and all things, also many persons and many things, can be seen from the passages in the Word where that number occurs. As in Moses:

Jehovah hath commanded unto you His covenant which He covenanted 1 you to do, the ten words which He wrote upon two tables of stone (Deuteronomy 4:13).

And again:

Jehovah wrote upon the tables according to the former writing, the ten words which Jehovah spake unto you in the mount out of the midst of the fire (Deuteronomy 10:4).

There were "ten words" or "ten commandments" constituting the Decalogue, because "ten" signifies all things, therefore "the ten words" mean the law in its whole complex.

(Odkazy: Luke 19:15-21)

[6] As "ten" signifies all persons:

The Lord compared the kingdom of the heavens to ten virgins having lamps with which to go forth to meet the bridegroom, of whom five were prudent and five foolish (Matthew 25:1, 2, et seq.). "The ten virgins" to whom the kingdom of the heavens is likened signify all who are of the church, for "ten" signifies all, and "virgins" the church; but "five" signifies some, or some part, for some of the church were prudent and some foolish. Such is the signification of the number "five" in the Word. "Lamps" signify the knowledges of truth and good, here from the Word, also the truths of doctrine and of faith; "oil" signifies the good of love and of charity; the "bridegroom" means the Lord, and the "wedding" means heaven and the church, which are called a "wedding" from the marriage of good and truth; and as where there is not this marriage there is neither heaven nor the church, therefore those are called "foolish" who know the truths of faith and have no good of love, while those who have the good of love are called "prudent;" for, as has been said, "lamps" here mean the truths of faith, and "oil" the good of love. "Virgins" signify the church, because "virgin" and "daughter" in the Word signify the affection of good and truth, and it is because of that affection that the church is a church. This is why "the virgin and daughter of Zion," "the virgin and daughter of Jerusalem," "the virgin and daughter of Israel" and "of Judah," are mentioned in so many passages, these everywhere meaning the church.

(Odkazy: Matthew 25:1-2)

[7] As "ten" signifies all as also many:

The Lord said of the nobleman who went into a far country, that he called his ten servants and gave them ten pounds [minas] to trade with; and after they had traded, one said that his pound had gained ten pounds; to him he said, Thou shalt have authority over ten cities; and the second said, Thy pound hath made five pounds; to him he said, Be thou over five cities; and of the third, who laid up his pound in a napkin, and did not trade, he said, Take from him the pound, and give it to him that hath ten pounds (Luke 19:12-14, 16-20, 24).

Here, too, the numbers "ten" and "five" are employed because "ten" signifies all persons and all things, and "five" some persons and some things. "The ten servants" whom the nobleman going into a far country called to him, mean all who are in the world, and in particular, all who are of the church; for the "nobleman" means the Lord, and "going into a far country" means the Lord's departure out of the world and His then seeming to be absent; "the ten pounds that he gave to the ten servants to trade with" signify all the knowledges of truth and good from the Word, with the ability to perceive them; for a "pound" [mina], which was silver and was money, signifies the knowledges of truth and the ability to perceive; and "to trade" signifies by means of these to acquire intelligence and wisdom; those who acquire much are meant by the servant who from a pound gained ten pounds; and those who acquire some are meant by him who from a pound gained five pounds; the "cities which are said to be given them" signify the truths of doctrine, and "to possess them" signifies intelligence and wisdom, and life and happiness therefrom. Thence it is clear what is signified by "ten cities" and by "five cities." As those who acquire nothing of intelligence are like the "foolish virgins" (of whom just above), and as these possess truths in the memory only and not in the life, after their departure from this world they are deprived of truths, while those who possess truths both in the memory and in the life enrich themselves in intelligence to eternity, so it is said that "they should take away the pound from him who gained nothing with it, and should give it to him who had ten pounds."

(Odkazy: Luke 19:12-13, Luke 19:15-21)

[8] It is similar with those:

To whom talents were given, to one five, to another two, and to a third one; the first of whom from his five talents gained another five; and the second from two talents gained other two; and the third laid away his talent in the earth, of whom the Lord said, Take from him that hath not traded and gained, and give to him that hath ten talents, for unto everyone that hath shall be given that he may abound, and from him that hath not even that which he hath shall be taken away (Matthew 25:14-30).

Here, too, "five" and "ten" also signify something and much; thus, that the first from some knowledges of truth and good acquired much wisdom. It is taken away from him who has acquired nothing of intelligence and is given to him who has much, because when man after death becomes a spirit he carries with him all things, and every single thing that he has drawn from the Word and from the doctrine of the church. But those who through these have acquired nothing of intelligence are interiorly evil, and therefore misuse the truths and goods of heaven and the church, which they possess in the memory only, in exercising dominion over the simple good who are in the lowest heaven, and in doing evil to them. This is why these truths and goods are taken away from them and are given to those who have many, since these do not misuse them, but from them perform uses.

[9] Those who do not acquire spiritual intelligence in the world through the knowledges of truth and good from the Word are evil, as can be seen from this, that all are born into evils of every kind, and these evils are removed only by means of Divine truths from the Word, that is, by applying truths to uses, and thus receiving them in the life. So to those who have gained it is said:

Good and faithful servants, ye have been faithful over a few things, I will set you over many things; enter ye into the joy of your Lord (verses 2 Matthew 25:21, 23);

and to him who had gained nothing:

Cast ye out the unprofitable servant into the outer darkness, there shall be wailing and gnashing of teeth (verse 30).

(Odkazy: Matthew 25:30)

[10] Because "ten" signifies all and much, therefore that number is used by the Lord also in other passages, where all and much must be understood. As in Luke:

Of the woman having ten drachmas, if she lose one, doth she not light a candle and sweep the house and seek carefully till she find it? (Luke 15:8)

"Ten" here signifies much. This is said of a "woman," and that "she would light a candle and sweep the house" because of the spiritual sense in every particular of the Word. In that sense a "woman" signifies the church in respect to the affection of truth, thus also the affection of truth itself which belongs to the church; the "drachma" signifies truth; "to lose the drachma" signifies to lose one of the truths or the knowledges of truth; "to light a candle" signifies self-examination from affection; "to sweep the house" signifies to traverse the whole mind and to examine every particular where the truth lies hidden. This is the spiritual sense of these words. "A hundred" has the same signification as "ten," namely, much; therefore a similar parable speaks of:

A hundred sheep, if one is lost (Matthew 18:12, 13; Luke 15:3-7).

(Odkazy: Matthew 18:12-13)

[11] "Ten" signifies all and much also in the following passages. In Isaiah:

Many houses great and fair 2 shall become a waste without inhabitant; for ten acres of vineyard shall yield one bath (Isaiah 5:9, 10).

This is said of the desolation of truth with those who are of the church. "Many houses which shall become a waste" signify the men of the church, and in particular, such in respect to truths from good; "great and fair," that is, houses, signifies the affection of good and the understanding of truth, for "great" is predicated of good and its affection, and "fair" is predicated of truth and its intelligence; "ten acres of vineyard shall yield one bath" signifies that in all things of the church with man there is scarcely any truth from good, for a "bath" has also a similar signification as wine, namely, truth from good; therefore "ten acres of vineyard" signify all things of the church with man.

(Odkazy: Isaiah 5:9-10)

[12] In Moses:

If ye will go contrary to Me I will break for you the staff of bread, that ten women may bake your bread in one oven, and I will bring back your bread by weight (Leviticus 26:23, 26).

"To break the staff of bread" signifies to deprive of spiritual food, and thus of spiritual nourishment, for "bread" means everything that nourishes the soul, and in particular the good of love; therefore "ten women shall bake your bread in one oven" signifies that in all things of the church with man there is so little of good and truth as to be scarcely anything; "ten women" signify all things of the church; "bread" signifies good and truth that nourish the soul; and "oven" signifies where spiritual food is prepared, thus the man with whom it is; "to bring back the bread by weight" signifies the lack and want of such things as spiritually nourish.

[13] In Zechariah:

Many peoples and numerous nations shall come to seek Jehovah of Hosts in Jerusalem, and to entreat the faces of Jehovah. In those days ten men out of all the tongues of the nations shall take hold of the skirt of a man, a Jew, saying, We will go with you, for we have heard that God is with you (Zechariah 8:22, 23).

This is said of the calling together of the Gentiles and their admission to the church by the Lord; and "ten men out of all tongues" signify all from whatever religion, namely those "who come to seek Jehovah of Hosts in Jerusalem," that is, who wish to be admitted to the church and to confess the Lord, therefore "ten men" mean all such, and "the tongues of the nations" mean their religious principles. But this with the rest of the passage may be seen explained above n. 433, where it is shown that "Jerusalem" does not mean Jerusalem, nor "Jew" any Jew.

(Odkazy: The Apocalypse Explained 433; Zechariah 8:22-23)

[14] In Amos:

Jehovah said, I hate the pride of Jacob and his palaces; therefore I will shut up the city and the fullness thereof; if there remain ten men in one house they shall die (Amos 6:8, 9).

"The pride of Jacob and his palaces which Jehovah hates," signify the love of falsity and belief in it with those who are of the church, "pride" meaning the love of falsity, and "palaces" the falsities themselves, which are called "palaces" because they belong to the proud, and because the falsities of such are embellished in external form so as to appear magnificent, although they are most vile, like huts full of rubbish and filth; "to shut up the city and the fullness thereof" signifies to condemn the doctrine, because it is full of the falsities of evil, and is possessed by them, "city" meaning doctrine, and "fullness" the falsities of evil; therefore "if there remain ten men in one house they shall die" signifies that all the truths of good with everyone shall perish, "ten men" meaning all truths, "house" man in respect to good, and "to die" to perish.

(Odkazy: Amos 6:8-9)

[15] In Zechariah:

The prophet saw a flying roll, the length thereof twenty cubits, and the breadth thereof ten cubits; this is the malediction that goeth forth over the faces of the whole land (Zechariah 5:2, 3).

"The flying roll," which meant "the malediction that goeth forth over the faces of the whole land," was twenty cubits in length and ten in breadth because "twenty" and "ten" signify all, here all good changed into evil and all truth into falsity; "twenty" is predicated of good and everything of it, and "ten" of truth and everything of it; moreover, "length" also signifies good, and "breadth" truth (see above, n. 355, 627, 629, and in the work on Heaven and Hell 197).

(Odkazy: The Apocalypse Explained 355, The Apocalypse Explained 627, 629; Zechariah 5:2-3)

[16] As "ten" signifies all things and many things, so "ten times" signifies so many times and always, in the following passages. In Daniel:

Among them all was found none like Daniel, Hananiah, Mishael, and Azariah; 3 in every word of the wisdom of intelligence which the king sought of them, he found them ten times better than all the astrologers and diviners that were in all his kingdom (Daniel 1:19, 20).

In Moses:

All the men who have seen My glory and My signs which I wrought in Egypt and in the wilderness, and who have tempted Me these ten times, they shall not see the land (Numbers 14:21-23).

And in Job:

Ten times ye have dishonored Me, ye are not ashamed, ye harden yourselves (Job 19:3).

"Ten times" in these passages signifies at all times or always, and so many times.

(Odkazy: Acts of the Apostles 19:3; Daniel 1:19-20)

[17] In Daniel and in Revelation horns are attributed to the beasts, to some ten, to some seven, and to some three, and the "horns" of these beasts signify the power of falsity against truth, and of evil against good, and "ten horns," the highest power. In Daniel:

The fourth beast coming up out of the sea had ten horns; as to the ten horns out of this kingdom shall ten kings arise (Daniel 7:7, 20, 24).

"The ten horns" of the beast here signify the highest power of falsity against truth; "ten kings" signify falsities in the whole complex, and "kingdom" signifies that church perverted. In Revelation:

The dragon had seven heads and ten horns, and upon the heads seven diadems (Revelation 12:3).


The beast coming up out of the sea had seven heads and ten horns, and upon his horns ten diadems (Revelation 13:1).

And again:

The woman sitting upon the scarlet beast, full of names of blasphemy, had seven heads and ten horns; the ten horns that thou sawest are ten kings which have not yet received a kingdom; yet they shall receive power as kings one hour with the beast (Revelation 17:3, 7, 12).

What is signified there in particular will be seen in the explanations further on.

[18] As "ten" signifies all persons and all things, it follows that "the tenth part" signifies everything. It is from this that "tenths" and "tithings" derived their origin, and these signified that everything was holy and blessed when the tenth part of the threshing floor and of the wine press, or of the corn and wine, was given to the Levites; likewise for the Levites when the tenth part was again tithed and given to Aaron. Of these it is thus written in the Word:

Tithing thou shalt tithe all the increase of thy seed that is brought forth in the field year by year (Deuteronomy 14:22).

Say unto the Levites, that the tenths must be given to them for an inheritance, and that they must offer up a heave offering of them to Jehovah, a tenth of the tenths, and this from the corn of the threshing floor and from the fullness of the wine vat; and the tenth of the tenth they must give to Aaron the priest (Numbers 18:24-28).

[19] That the "tenth" signified a blessing in all things, thus that everything was holy and blessed, is evident in Malachi:

Bring ye all the tithes to the house of treasure, that there may be food in My house; then prove ye Me in this, if I will not open you the windows of heaven and pour you out a blessing until there be no room for more (Malachi 3:10).

"To open the windows and pour out a blessing" signifies the inflowing Divine from which is intelligence and life eternal; the like as is signified by "rain" above n. 644; and this also is properly meant by the "blessing" that would be given if the tithes were brought; so "tithes" here signify that everything was thus blest. That all things might be blest that Abraham took from his enemies, it is said:

That he gave to Melchizedek, who was king in Salem and at the same time priest to God Most High, tithes of all (Genesis 14:18, 19).

Jacob likewise promised and vowed:

That if he returned in peace unto his father's house everything that Jehovah gave him tithing should be tithed (Genesis 28:21, 22).

From these passages, as well as others, it can be seen what is signified in the Word by "ten" and "the tenth part."

(Odkazy: Genesis 14:18-19, Genesis 14:18-20, 28:21-22; The Apocalypse Explained 644)

[20] The reason that "ten" signifies all things is derived from heaven itself; for heaven in the whole and every part answers to a man, and is therefore called the Greatest Man. All the forces of life of this Greatest Man or heaven close in the two hands and the two feet, and the hands close in ten fingers, and the feet in ten toes; for this reason, all things of man in respect to power and support are lastly gathered into ten fingers and toes, so these signify all things of man; moreover, ultimates signify in the Word all.


1.  The Hebrew has "He declared unto you His covenant, which He commanded," as found in Arcana Coelestia 1288, 6804, 9396.

2.  The Hebrew here has "good," as also found in Arcana Coelestia 1488.

3.  The Latin here has "Ananiah."


(Odkazy: Genesis 14:18-20; Luke 19:12-13, Luke 19:15-21; Revelation 11:13)

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References from Swedenborg's unpublished works:

Apocalypse Explained 672, 687, 716, 777, 849, 1069

Thanks to the Swedenborg Foundation for their permission to use this translation.

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Apocalypse Explained # 687

Apocalypse Explained (Whitehead translation)      

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687. Verse 16. And the twenty-four elders who sit before God upon their thrones, signifies the higher heavens in light and power from the Lord to separate the evil from the good before the day of the Last Judgment which is to come shortly. This is evident from the signification of "the twenty-four elders," as being the higher heaven (see above, n. 322, 362, 462); and also from the signification of "to sit upon thrones," that it is to be in the work of judging, for "thrones" signify the heavens, and "to sit upon thrones" signifies to judge. Since the angels of heaven do not judge, but the Lord alone, and since the Lord arranges those heavens by His influx and presence for effecting judgment therefrom upon those who have been gathered together below the heavens, therefore these words signify that the higher heavens are in light and power from the Lord, to separate the evil from the good before the day of the Last Judgment.

(Odkazy: Revelation 11:16; The Apocalypse Explained 322, The Apocalypse Explained 362, The Apocalypse Explained 462)

[2] That this is the internal sense of these words is evident from what follows in this chapter, also from what has been said above on this subject. From what follows in this chapter it is evident that the higher heavens are in light and power from the Lord, for this is why "they fell upon their faces and worshipped the Lord, and gave thanks that He had taken His great power and entered upon the kingdom," and afterwards "the temple was opened in heaven, and there was seen in the temple the ark of the covenant," this signifying the light there, and the former signifying the power there, from the Lord alone. It is also clear that it means to separate the evil from the good before the day of the Last Judgment, for it is said that "the nations were angered, and Thy anger is come, and the time of the dead to be judged;" and afterwards that "there were lightnings and voices and thunders and an earthquake and great hail," which signifies the separation of the evil from the good, and is a sign of the presence of the Last Judgment. As these are the things treated of, and as "the twenty-four elders sitting before God upon the thrones" mean the higher heavens arranged for effecting therefrom the Last Judgment, it follows that all this is what is involved in these words.

[3] From what has been said above upon this subject, it is evident that the higher heavens before the Last Judgment were brought into a state of light and power, that there might be effected influx from them into the lower parts, whereby the evil might be separated from the good and the evil finally cast down into hell (see above, n. 411, 413, 418, 419, 426, 493, 497, 674, 675, 676).

(Odkazy: The Apocalypse Explained 411, 413, The Apocalypse Explained 418-419, 426, The Apocalypse Explained 493, 497, The Apocalypse Explained 674-675, 676)

[4] That a "throne" signifies heaven in general, and in particular the heavens where the Lord's spiritual kingdom is, and in an abstract sense Divine truth proceeding from the Lord, and that it is predicated of judgment, may also be seen above (n. 253, 297, 343, 460, 482), where it is also shown that although it is said that the twenty-four elders "sat upon thrones," likewise that "the apostles would sit upon twelve thrones judging the twelve tribes of Israel," and also that "angels would come with the Lord to judgment," yet it is the Lord alone who will judge, for "the twenty-four elders," "the twelve apostles," and the "angels," mean all the truths of the church, and in brief, the Divine truth from which is judgment. And as by these Divine truth is meant, and all Divine truth proceeds from the Lord, therefore judgment belongs to the Lord alone. Who cannot see that to judge myriads of myriads, each one according to the state of his love and faith both in his internal and in his external man, would be impossible for any angel, and would be possible only for the Lord from the Divine that is in Him and that proceeds from Him; also that to judge all in the heavens and in the earths belongs to infinite wisdom and infinite power, not the least part of which falls to finite beings such as the angels are, and such as the elders of Israel and the apostles of the Lord were? These taken together would not be able to judge even a single man or a single spirit. For he who is to judge must see every state of the man who is to be judged from infancy to the end of his life in the world, and afterward what the state of his life is to be to eternity. For in every view and in each and every particular of judgment, there must be what is eternal and infinite, and that is in the Divine alone, and from the Divine alone, because it is infinite and eternal.

(Odkazy: The Apocalypse Explained 253, The Apocalypse Explained 297, The Apocalypse Explained 343, The Apocalypse Explained 460, The Apocalypse Explained 482)

[5] The expressions "to walk before God," "to stand before God," and as here "to sit before God," are used in the Word; what "to stand before God" signifies may be seen above (n. 414); and what "to walk before God" signifies n. 97. What "to sit before God" signifies, as here in reference to "the twenty-four elders," can be seen from passages in the Word where the expression "to sit" occurs. For in the spiritual world all things that pertain to man's movement or rest signify the things pertaining to his life, because they proceed from his life. Walking and journeying pertain to man's movements, and thence signify progression of life, or progression of the thought from an intention of the will; but standing and sitting pertain to man's rest, and thence signify the being [esse] of life, from which is its existence [existere]; thus they signify making to live. Therefore "to sit upon thrones," in reference to judgment, signifies to be in the function of judging, thence also to judge; from which comes the expression "to sit in judgment," which means to execute judgment. So "to sit upon a throne," when concerning a kingdom, signifies to be a king or to reign.

(Odkazy: The Apocalypse Explained 97, The Apocalypse Explained 414)

[6] What further is signified by "to sit" in the spiritual sense, can be seen from the following passages. In David:

Blessed is the man that walketh not in the counsel of the wicked, and standeth not in the ways of sinners, and sitteth not in the seat of scoffers (Psalms 1:1).

Here the expressions "to walk," "to stand," and "to sit," are used as following one another, for "to walk" pertains to the life of thought from intention, "to stand" to the life of the intention from the will, and "to sit" to the life of the will, thus it is life's being [esse]. Moreover, "counsel," of which "walking" is predicated, has respect to thought, "way," of which "standing" is predicated, has respect to the intention, and "to sit in a seat" has respect to the will, which is the being [esse] of man's life.

[7] As Jehovah, that is, the Lord, is the very being [esse] of everyone's life, therefore He is said "to sit." In David:

Jehovah shall sit to eternity (Psalms 9:7).

In the same:

Jehovah sitteth at the flood, and sitteth a King to eternity (Psalms 29:10).

In the same:

God reigneth over the nations; God sitteth upon the throne of His holiness (Psalms 47:8).

In Matthew:

When the Son of man shall come in His glory; and all His holy angels with Him, then shall He sit upon the throne of His glory (Matthew 25:31).

"To sit upon the throne of His glory" signifies to be in His Divine truth, from which is judgment. So again in the same:

When the Son of man shall sit on the throne of His glory ye also shall sit upon twelve thrones, judging the twelve tribes of Israel (Matthew 19:28; Luke 22:30).

Since "angels," as well as "the twelve apostles" and "the twelve tribes of Israel," signify all the truths of the church, and in the highest sense, Divine truth, therefore "to sit upon thrones" means not that they themselves will sit, but the Lord as to Divine truth, from which is judgment; and "to judge the twelve tribes of Israel" signifies to judge all according to the truths of their church. From this it is clear that "to sit upon a throne," in reference to the Lord, signifies one who judges, thus to judge. It is called "a throne of glory," because "glory" signifies Divine truth (see above, n. 33, 288, 345, 678).

(Odkazy: The Apocalypse Explained 33, The Apocalypse Explained 288, The Apocalypse Explained 345, The Apocalypse Explained 678)

[8] In the Gospels:

David said in the book of Psalms, The Lord said to my Lord, Sit Thou at My right hand, until I make Thine enemies the footstool of Thy feet (Luke 20:42, 43; Mark 12:36; Psalms 110:1).

"The Lord said to my Lord" signifies the Divine Itself, which is called the Father, to the Divine Human, which is the Son; "Sit Thou at My right hand" signifies Divine power, or omnipotence through Divine truth; "until I make Thine enemies the footstool of Thy feet" signifies until the hells are overcome and subjugated, and the evil are cast into them, "enemies" being the hells, and thus the evil, and "footstool of the feet" signifies the lowest region under the heavens, beneath which are the hells; for while the Lord was in the world He was the Divine truth, which is omnipotent, and by means of which He conquered and subdued the hells.

(Odkazy: Luke 20:42-43)

[9] In the same:

Jesus said, Henceforth shall ye see the Son of man sitting at the right hand of power, and coming on the clouds of heaven (Matthew 26:63, 64; Mark 14:61, 62; Luke 22:69).

"To sit at the right hand of power" signifies the Lord's Divine omnipotence over the heavens and over the earths, after He had subjugated the hells and glorified His Human; "to come upon the clouds of heaven" signifies by means of Divine truth in the heavens; for after the Lord united His Human to the Divine Itself, then Divine truth proceeds from Him, and He Himself with angels and with men is in Divine truth, because He is in the Word, which is Divine truth, in which and from which is Divine omnipotence.

(Odkazy: Mark 14:61-62; Matthew 26:63-64)

[10] And again:

The Lord, after He had spoken with them, was taken up into heaven, and sat down at the right hand of God (Mark 16:19).

"To sit at the right hand of God" has a like signification, namely, His Divine omnipotence by means of Divine truth. From this it is evident that "to sit" means to be, and "to sit at the right hand" means to be omnipotent. As "to sit" signifies to be, so "to sit upon a throne" signifies to be a king and to reign (Exodus 11:5; Deuteronomy 17:18; 1 Kings 1:13, 17, 20; Jeremiah 17:25; 22:2, 30; and elsewhere). Likewise:

To sit at the right hand and at the left (Matthew 20:21, 23; Mark 10:37, 40).

[11] In Isaiah:

Come down and sit upon the dust, O virgin daughter of Babylon; sit on the earth, there is no throne, O daughter of the Chaldeans. Sit thou in silence and enter into darkness, O daughter of the Chaldeans; for they shall no longer call thee the mistress of kingdoms. Hear this, thou voluptuous one, that sittest securely, saying, I shall not sit as a widow, neither shall I know bereavement (Isaiah 47:1, 5, 8).

This treats of the profanation of good and truth; for "daughter of Babylon" signifies the profanation of good, and "daughter of the Chaldeans" the profanation of truth; both for the reason that Divine goods and truths, which are in the Word and from the Word, are employed as means of gaining dominion; whence those who are "Babylonians and Chaldeans" regard themselves, that is, their own dominion, as ends, and the holy things of the church from the Word as means; thus they do not look to the Lord and His dominion, nor the neighbor and love towards the neighbor as the end. "Come down and sit upon the dust and on the earth" signifies to be in evils, and thence in damnation. "Sit thou in silence and enter into darkness" signifies to be in falsities, and thence in damnation. "To sit securely" signifies to be confident that their dominion will endure, and that they will not perish; "not to sit as a widow, and not to know bereavement," signifies to have no lack of followers, dependents, and worshipers; "there is no throne for thee, O daughter of the Chaldeans, they shall no longer call thee the mistress of kingdoms," signifies that they shall no longer have dominion, because of their overthrow and damnation in the day of the Last Judgment (of which this chapter also treats).

[12] In the same:

Thou hast said in thy heart, I will ascend into the heavens, I will exalt my throne above the stars of God, and I will sit on the mount of meeting, on the sides of the north (Isaiah 14:13).

This, too, is said of Babylon, which is here called "Lucifer," and of the lust of its profane love of ruling over all things of heaven. But what is meant in particular by "exalting the throne above the stars of God, and sitting on the mount of meeting and on the sides of the north," will be told in what follows, where Babylon will be treated of; here also "to sit" signifies to be, and has respect to dominion.

[13] In Ezekiel:

All the princes of the sea shall come down from their thrones, they shall sit upon the earth (Ezekiel 26:16).

This is said of Tyre, which signifies the church in respect to the knowledges of truth, but here of the church vastated, in which these knowledges are then falsified; therefore "all the princes of the sea shall come down from their thrones" signifies that the knowledges of truth shall reign no more with the men of that church, for all sovereignty belongs to Divine truth; "to come down from thrones" signifies from governing, and thus to cease to rule, and "princes of the sea" mean the knowledges of truth, and those who are in them. "They shall sit upon the earth" signifies that they will be in falsifications, thus in falsities; "upon thrones" signifies to be in the truths of heaven, but "to sit upon the earth" signifies to be in falsities, since under the lands in the spiritual world are the hells, from which evils and falsities are continually exhaling.

[14] "To sit" has a like signification in the following passages. In Luke:

Who sit in darkness and in the shadow of death (Luke 1:79).

In Isaiah:

To open the blind eyes, to lead him that is bound out of prison, and them that sit in darkness out of the prison house (Isaiah 42:7).

In Jeremiah:

I sat not in the council of mockers, and I rejoiced; I sat solitary because of Thy hand, for thou hast filled me with indignation (Jeremiah 15:17).

In David:

I have not sat with men of vanity, nor have I gone in with the hidden (Psalms 26:4).

In Luke:

That day shall come as a snare upon all that sit upon the face of the whole earth (Luke 21:35).

Since "to sit" signifies to be, and also to continue in one state and pertains to the will, it is said in David:

O Jehovah, Thou hast searched me and known me; Thou knowest my sitting and my rising, Thou understandest my thought afar off (Psalms 139:1, 2).

"To know his sitting" has reference to the being [esse] of one's life, which is the will, "rising" has reference to intention therefrom; and as thought follows from the intention of the will it is added, "Thou understandest my thought afar off."

(Odkazy: Psalms 139:1-2)

[15] In Micah:

Then shall he stand and feed in the name 1 of Jehovah; and they shall sit, for now shall he increase unto the ends of the earth (Mic. Micah 5:4).

This is said of the Lord and of the doctrine of Divine truth from Him, which is meant by "Then shall he stand and feed in the name of Jehovah;" that men of the church will be in that doctrine is signified by "they shall sit;" and that the doctrine of Divine truth will endure to eternity is signified by "he shall increase unto the ends of the earth."

[16] Likewise in Isaiah:

Shake thyself from the dust; arise, sit, O Jerusalem; loose thyself from the bands of thy neck, O captive daughter of Zion (Isaiah 52:2).

This is said of the establishment of a New Church by the Lord; that church with its doctrine is here signified by "Jerusalem" and "the daughter of Zion;" to reject falsities and evils and to be in truths and goods is signified by "shaking herself from the dust, arising, and sitting," also by "loose the bands of the neck, O captive daughter of Zion," "bands of the neck" signifying falsities that prevent the entrance of truths.

[17] That "to sit" is an expression significative of the being and permanence of state of a thing and of life, can be seen from those passages in the Word where the expressions "to sit before Jehovah," "to stand before Him," and "to sit 2 before Him" are used. "To sit before Jehovah" means to be with Him, thus to will and to act from Him; "to stand before Him" means to have regard for and to understand what He wills; and "to walk before Him" means to live according to His precepts, thus from Him. As such things are involved in "to sit," therefore the corresponding word in Hebrew means to remain and to dwell.

[18] Because of this signification of "to sit":

An angel of the Lord was seen sitting upon the stone which he had rolled away from the entrance to the tomb (Matthew 28:2).


Angels were seen in the tomb, sitting one at the head, and the other at the feet (John 20:12; Mark 16:5).

These things seen were representative of the Lord's glorification, and of introduction into heaven by Him; for the "stone" that was placed before the sepulcher, and that was rolled away by the angel, signifies Divine truth, thus the Word, which was closed up by the Jews, but opened by the Lord. (That "stone" signifies truth, and in the highest sense, Divine truth, may be seen above, n. 417, 3 and in the work on Heaven and Hell 534.) And as a "sepulcher," and preeminently the sepulcher where the Lord was, signifies in the spiritual sense resurrection and also regeneration, and "angels" signify in the Word Divine truth, therefore angels were seen sitting one at the head and the other at the feet; "the angel at the head" signifying Divine truth in things first, and "the angel at the feet" Divine truth in ultimates, both proceeding from the Lord; and when Divine truth is received regeneration is effected, and there is resurrection. (That "to be buried," "burial," and "sepulcher," signify regeneration and resurrection, may be seen above, n. 659; and that "angels" signify in the highest sense the Lord in respect to Divine truth, and in a relative sense the recipients of Divine truth, and thus in an abstract sense, Divine truths from the Lord, see above, n. 130, 200, 302.) Again, the expression "they sat before Jehovah" is used when there was great joy; they were also said "to sit" when there was great mourning, and for the reason that "to sit" has reference to the being [esse] of man, which belongs to his will and love. (That they wept and sat before Jehovah see Judges 20:26; 21:2.)


1.  The Hebrew has "strength," as also found in 482; Arcana Coelestia 5201, 9422.

2.  The Latin has here "sit," probably for "walk," as this is found immediately below.

3.  The Latin for "above, n. 417," etc., has "Heaven and Hell, 417, 534."


(Odkazy: John 20:12-13; The Apocalypse Explained 130, 200, The Apocalypse Explained 302, The Apocalypse Explained 417, The Apocalypse Explained 659)

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Sunday School Lesson | Ages 11 - 17

 The Book 0f Psalms 1
A New Church Bible story explanation for teaching Sunday school. Includes lesson materials for Primary (3-8 years), Junior (9-11 years), Intermediate (12-14 years), Senior (15-17 years) and Adults.
Teaching Support | Ages over 3

 The Resurrection
A New Church Bible story explanation for teaching Sunday school. Includes lesson materials for Primary (3-8 years), Junior (9-11 years), Intermediate (12-14 years), Senior (15-17 years) and Adults.
Teaching Support | Ages over 3

Thanks to the Swedenborg Foundation for their permission to use this translation.