922. Verse 20. And the wine-press was trodden without the city, signifies the bringing forth of falsity from evil out of hell. This is evident from the signification of "treading the wine-press," as being to bring forth truth from good, and in the contrary sense to bring forth falsity from evil, since "grapes," from which wine is made in the wine-press, signify the good of charity, and in the contrary sense evil; and from good truth is brought forth, and from evil falsity. That this, as well as falsifications of the Word, are signified by "the great wine-press of the anger of God," can be seen from the preceding article n. 920. The above is evident also from the signification of "without the city," as being from hell, for "city" signifies the doctrine of truth from the Word (see above, n. 223, while "without the city" signifies the doctrine of falsity from the Word falsified; and as the falsification of the Word is from hell, "without the city" means out of hell. In the Word "city" signifies doctrine, and "the city of David," that is, Zion, and "the city of Jerusalem," signify the church as to the Word and as to doctrine from the Word, therefore "without the city" signifies, not from the Word and doctrine from the Word; and what is not from the Word and from doctrine therefrom is from hell. "Without the city" has a like signification as "without the camp" of the sons of Israel in the desert, for their "camp" signified heaven and the church, and "without the camp," signified hell. For this reason the lepers and all that were unclean were sent out of the camp (Leviticus 13:46; Numbers 5:1-6); and the excrements, by which things infernal were signified, were left without the camp (Deuteronomy 23:13, 14).
Deuteronomy 13:13-14, 23:12-13, 23:13-14; Revelation 14:20; The Apocalypse Explained 223, The Apocalypse Explained 920)
 That the "wine-press" and "treading it" signify the bringing forth of falsity from evil and the bringing forth of truth from good, can be seen from the Word where "wine-press" is mentioned. That it signifies the bringing forth of falsity from evil can be seen from the following passages. In Lamentations:
The Lord hath prostrated all my strong ones in the midst of me, He hath proclaimed against me an appointed time for breaking my young men; the Lord hath trodden the wine-press for the daughter of Judah (Lamentations 1:15).
This treats of the end of the church with the Jewish nation; and "the strong ones whom the Lord hath prostrated in the midst thereof" signifies the destruction of the love of good; those who are in love of good are called in the Word "strong ones," because good from its love prevails over the hells, and is therefore "strong." "In the midst" signifies all and everywhere. "To break the young men" signifies the destruction of all the understanding of truth; "an appointed time" means when both the goods and the truths of the church were all devastated with that nation; this time was when the Lord came into the world, and is what is meant by "the fullness of times." So "the Lord hath trodden the wine-press for the daughter of Judah" signifies the perversion of the church and the adulteration of the Word that is brought forth from evils of life and falsities of doctrine, "the daughter of Judah" being the church from the doctrine of truth from the Word, and "wine-press" being the bringing forth of falsity from evil, and the consequent adulteration of the Word and overthrow of the church. In the sense of the letter this is attributed to the Lord; but this is reversed in the spiritual sense, in which it is meant that this was done by that nation itself.
 In Joel:
Send forth the sickle, for the harvest is ripe; come, get ye down, for the wine-press is full, the vats have overflowed; for their wickedness is great (Joel 3:13.)
The devastation of the church as to good and as to truth is thus described; and "the wine-press is full and the vats have overflowed" signifies that there was nothing except falsities from evil. (The rest may be seen explained, n. 911.
Be not glad, O Israel, over a likeness, like the nations: for thou hast committed whoredom under thy God; thou hast loved the reward of whoredom upon all corn-floors; the floor and the wine-press shall not feed them, and the new wine shall be false to her (Hosea 9:2).
This treats of the falsification of the Word; "the floor and the wine-press shall not feed them" signifies that they will not draw from the Word the goods and truths that nourish the soul. (But this passage also has been explained above, n. 695
Hosea 9:1-2; The Apocalypse Explained 695, The Apocalypse Explained 911)
 In Jeremiah:
Upon thy vintage hath the spoiler fallen; therefore gladness and joy are gathered out of Carmel, and out of the land of Moab; and I have caused the wine to cease from the wine-presses; none shall tread with shouting; the shouting shall be no shouting (Jeremiah 48:32-34).
What is signified by "the vintage" upon which the spoiler hath fallen, and what by "the gladness and joy" that were gathered, may be seen above n. 919; that there is no longer any truth because there is no good is signified by "I have caused the wine to cease from the wine-presses;" and that there is no longer any joy from any spiritual love is signified by "none shall tread with shouting," "shouting" meaning the rejoicing of those that tread the wine press.
The Apocalypse Explained 919)
 In Isaiah:
Who is this that cometh from Edom, His garments sprinkled from Bozrah, He that is honorable in His apparel, walking in the multitude of His strength? I that speak in justice, mighty to save. Wherefore art Thou red in Thy garment, and Thy garments as of one that treadeth in the wine-press? I have trodden the wine-press alone; and of the people not a man was with Me; therefore have I trodden them in mine anger, and trampled them in My wrath; therefore their victory is sprinkled upon My garments, and I have stained all My raiment (Isaiah 63:1-3).
This is said of the Lord, and of His combats against all the hells; and as He fought against them from the Human, in which was the Divine Itself, it is said, "Who is this that cometh from Edom, His garments sprinkled from Bozrah?" which signifies fighting from the good of love and from truth, which are from the Divine; for Edom means red, and Bozrah gathering the vintage; and "red" is predicated of good, and "gathering the vintage" of truth; and because this is what Edom and Bozrah mean, the expressions "red" and "as one treading in the wine-press" are afterwards used. And as the Divine good and the Divine truth that are here meant are the Word in the letter, and this is what is signified by the Lord's "garments" it is said, "garments sprinkled," also "honorable in His apparel." And as all strength in the Word is in the letter it is said, "walking in the multitude of His strength." Judgment from His Divine upon the good and upon the evil and consequent salvation, is meant by "I that speak in justice, mighty to save." The violence offered to the Word by the Jewish nation is signified by "Wherefore art Thou red in Thy garments, and Thy garments as of one that treadeth in the wine-press?" "Red in garment" is predicated of the violence offered to the Divine good of the Word, which is meant above by "Edom," and "garments as of one that treadeth in the wine-press" is predicated of the violence offered to Divine truth in the Word, which is meant above by "Bozrah." "The Lord's garments" signify the Word in the letter, to which violence was offered through adulterations and falsifications of it. The casting down of the hells and of their falsities by His own power is signified by "I have trodden the wine-press alone, and of the people not a man was with Me." The casting down into the hells of those who were in direful evils and in falsities therefrom is signified by "I have trodden them in Mine anger and trampled them in My wrath;" "anger" is predicated of evils, and "wrath" of falsities; and these are attributed to the Lord; although it is those who are in evils and in falsities therefrom that are angry and wrathful against the Lord. And as the judgment by which the hells were subjugated was accomplished by the Lord by means of temptations admitted into His Human, even to the last, which was the passion of the cross, it is said, "therefore their victory is sprinkled upon My garments, and I have stained all My raiment." For by all things of His passion and by the last temptation on the cross the Lord represented the violence offered by the Jewish nation to the Word, that is, to Divine truth (see above, n. 183, 195, 627, 655, 805).
The Apocalypse Explained 183, 195, The Apocalypse Explained 627, 655, The Apocalypse Explained 805)
 That "wine-press" and "treading it" signify the bringing forth of truth from good, because "the grape" signifies spiritual good, and "wine from the grape" truth from that good, can be seen from the following passages.
Rejoice, ye sons of Zion, the floors are full of corn, and the winepresses overflow with new wine and oil (Joel 2:23, 24).
"Sons of Zion" signify those who are in wisdom from the Divine truth; "the floors are full of corn" signifies that they have celestial good in abundance; "the wine-presses overflow with new wine and oil" signifies that from the good of charity they have truth and its delight.
 In Matthew:
A man, a householder, planted a vineyard, and set a hedge about it, and digged a wine-press in it, and built a tower; and let it out to husbandmen, who slew the servants sent to them, and finally the son (Matthew 21:33).
The "vineyard" which the householder planted signifies the church that was instituted with the sons of Jacob; the "hedge" which he set about it signifies protection from the falsities of evil, which are from hell; "and digged a wine-press in it" signifies that it had spiritual good; "and built a tower" signifies interior truths from that good which looked to heaven; "and let it out to husbandmen" signifies to that people; "they slew the servants that were sent to them" signifies that they slew the prophets; "and finally the son" signifies the Lord.
 In Isaiah:
My beloved had a vineyard in a horn of a son of oil, which he fenced and gathered out the stones, and planted it with a noble vine, and built a tower in the midst of it, and also hewed out a wine-press in it; and he looked that it should bring forth grapes, but it brought forth wild grapes (Isaiah 5:1, 2).
"Vineyard," "tower," and "wine-press," have a like signification here as just above in Matthew. (The rest may be seen explained n. 918. In most passages, where "vintage" and "wine press" are mentioned, the "harvest" and "corn floor" are also mentioned (as in Hosea 9:1, 2; Joel 2:23, 24; 3:13; Numbers 18:26-30; Deuteronomy 15:14; 16:13; 2 Kings 6:27); and for the reason that "harvest" and "corn-floor," from "corn" and "bread" signify the good of celestial love, which is love to the Lord; and "vintage" and "wine-press," from the "grape" and the "wine," signify the good of spiritual love, which is love towards the neighbor; for these two loves make one, like an efficient cause and its effect. This has been said because here in Revelation the "harvest" is mentioned, and afterwards the "vintage" in the same way. (For the "harvest" see verses 14, 15; and the "vintage," verse 19.)
Hosea 9:1-2; Isaiah 5:1-2; Joel 2:23-24; Revelation 14:14-15, 14:19; The Apocalypse Explained 918)