373. And he that sat upon him had a balance in his hand, signifies the estimation of truth from the Word in that state of the church. This is evident from the signification of "he that sat upon the horse," as being the Word (see above, n. 355, 356, 365); also from the signification of "balance in his hand," as being the estimation of truth from the Word; for all measures and weights mentioned in the Word, signify the estimation of the thing treated of in respect to good and in respect to truth, the numbers adjoined determining the estimation in respect to the quality and quantity thereof; as here "a measure of wheat for a denarius, and three measures of barley for a denarius" (of which presently).
There were many measures in the representative church, as the omer, the homer, the ephah, the bath, the hin (about which see Arcana Coelestia 10262); and besides there were balances and scales, by which weighings and balancings were made, and these in a particular sense signified the estimations of anything in respect to truth. For this reason also the weights of the scales were stones, or made of stones, "stones" in the Word signifying truths. That the weights were stones, or made of stone, appears from Leviticus 19:36; Deuteronomy 25:13; 2 Samuel 14:26; Isaiah 34:11; Zechariah 4:10. (That "stones" in the Word signify truths, see Arcana Coelestia 643, 3720, 6426, 8609, 10376.) Here, therefore, "a balance in the hand of him that sat upon the black horse" signifies the estimation of truth from the Word.
 It has been shown above that "he that sat upon the horses"-the white, the red, the black, and the pale horse-signifies the Word, and the "horses," according to their colors, signify the understanding of the Word, "the red horse" the understanding of the Word destroyed in respect to good, and "the black horse" the understanding of the Word destroyed in respect to truth. But as it is difficult to comprehend that "he that sat upon the horses" signifies the Word, in consequence of the red and the black horses signifying the understanding of the Word destroyed in respect to good, and in respect to truth, it shall be explained how it is. The Word in itself is Divine truth, but the understanding of it is according to the state of the man who reads it. A man who is not in good perceives nothing of the good in it, and a man who is not in truths sees nothing of the truth in it; the cause of this, therefore, is not in the Word, but in him who reads it. This makes clear that "he that sat upon the horses" signifies the Word, although the horses themselves signify the understanding of the Word destroyed in respect to good and in respect to truth. That "he that sat upon the white horse" signifies the Word is plainly evident in Revelation, where it is said:
The name of the one sitting upon that horse is called the Word of God (Revelation 19:13).
 That "a balance" or "scales" signify estimation, and also a just arrangement, which is effected by truths, is evident in Daniel:
A writing appeared upon the wall before Belshazzar the king of Babylon when he was drinking out of the vessels of gold and silver belonging to the temple of Jerusalem. Mene, Mene, Tekel, Perezin, that is, numbered, numbered, weighed, divided. This is the interpretation of these words: Mene, God hath numbered thy kingdom and brought it to an end. Tekel, Thou art weighed in the balance and art found wanting. Peres, Thy kingdom is divided and given to the Mede and the Persian (Daniel 5:25-28).
This history describes in the internal sense the profanation of good and truth, which is signified by "Babylon," for Belshazzar was king in Babylon, and a "king" in the Word signifies the same as the nation or kingdom itself over which he reigns. The profanation of the good and truth of the church is signified by "his drinking out of the vessels of gold and silver belonging to the temple at Jerusalem, and at the same time praising the gods of gold, silver, brass, iron, wood, and stone" (verses 3 and 4, 4). "The gold and silver vessels belonging to the temple at Jerusalem," signify the good and truth of heaven and the church, "gold" meaning good, and "silver" truth; and "praising the gods of gold, silver, brass, iron, wood, and stone," signifies idolatrous worship of every kind, thus external worship without any internal, such as is with those who are meant by Babylon. That there is no church at all with such, because there is nothing of the good and nothing of the truth of the church in them, is signified by the writing from heaven; for "numbered, numbered," signifies exploration in respect to good and in respect to truth; "weighed in the balance," signifies estimation in accordance with their quality, and judgment; "divided," signifies dispersion and expulsion from the good and truth of the church and separation therefrom; and "kingdom" signifies the church; from which it is clear that "weighed in the scale or balance," signifies estimation in accordance with their quality. (That "to divide" signifies to disperse, to expel, and to separate from good and truth, see Arcana Coelestia 4424, 6360, 6361, 9093.) "Kingdom" means the church, because the Lord's kingdom is where the church is, therefore those who are of the church are called "sons of the kingdom" (Matthew 8:12; 13:38).
 In Isaiah:
Who hath measured the waters in the hollow of His hand, and meted out the heavens with a span, and embraced the dust of the earth in a measure [of three fingers]; and weighed the mountains in a balance, and the hills in scales? (Isaiah 40:12).
These measures describe the just arrangement and estimation of all things in heaven and in the church according to the quality of good and truth. The measures here are, "the hollow of the hand," "the span of the hand," "the measure [of three fingers]," "the balance" and "the scales:" "waters" signify truths; "the heavens" interior or spiritual truths and goods; "the dust of the earth" exterior or natural truths and goods, both of heaven and of the church; "mountains" the goods of love; "hills" the goods of charity; and "to weigh" means to estimate and arrange in accordance with their quality. That such is the signification of these words, no one can see except from a knowledge of correspondences.
 As a just estimation and exploration of good and truth are signified in the Word by "measures," it was commanded that the measures should be just, with no fraud about them. In Moses:
Ye shall not do perversity in judgment, in measure, in weight, or in dimension. Just balances, just stones, a just ephah, and a just hin shall ye have (Leviticus 19:35-36).
So justice, where it means the estimation and exploration of men in accordance with the quality of good and truth in them, is everywhere in the Word expressed by scales and balances of various kinds, and by "ephahs," "omers," "homers," "seas," "hins" (as in Job 6:2; 31:6); and injustice is expressed by "scales and balances of fraud and deceit" (as in Hosea 12:7; Amos 8:5; Micah 6:11).