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以西結書 20

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1 以色列人在埃及的罪行第七年五十日,有幾個以色列的長老求問耶和華,他們在我的面前。

2 耶和華的臨到我說:

3 “人子啊!你要告訴以色列的長老,對他們:‘耶和華這樣:你們求問我嗎?我指著我的永生起誓,我必不讓你們求問我。這是耶和華的宣告。’

4 人子啊,你要審問他們嗎?要審問他們嗎?你要使他們知道他們列祖那些可憎的事,

5 對他們:‘耶和華這樣:在我揀選以色列的日子,我向雅各家的後裔舉起誓,又在埃及地向他們顯現。我向他們舉起誓:我是耶和華你們的

6 那日,我向他們舉起誓,要把他們從埃及地領出來,到我為他們所選定的流奶與蜜之地,就是萬邦中最榮美的地。

7 我對他們:你們各要拋棄你們眼中那些可憎的像,不可因埃及偶像玷污自己:我是耶和華你們的

8 但是他們背叛了我,不肯從我;他們各沒有拋棄他們眼中那些可憎的像,沒有離棄埃及偶像。“‘那時我,我要把我的烈怒傾倒在他們身上,在埃及地向他們完全發盡我的怒氣。

9 然而我為了我名的緣故沒有這樣作,免得我的名在他們寄居的列國的人眼中被褻瀆,我把他們從埃及地領出來,在列國的人眼前向他們顯現。

10 在曠野的罪行“‘這樣我把他們從埃及地領了出到曠野。

11 我把我的律例賜他們,把我的典章指示他們;人如果遵行,就必因此活著。

12 我又把我的安息日他們,作我與他們之間的憑據,使他們知道我是使他們分別為耶和華

13 可是以色列家在曠野背叛了我,沒有遵行我的律例,棄絕了我的典章(人如果遵行這些,就必因此活著),大大褻瀆了我的安息日,那時我我要把我的烈怒倒在他們身上,在曠野把他們滅絕。

14 然而我為了我名的緣故沒有這樣作,免得我的名在列國的人眼中被褻瀆;我曾在他們眼前把以色列人領出來。

15 我在曠野也曾經向他們舉起誓,必不領他們到我賜他們的流奶與蜜之地,就是萬邦中最榮美的地。

16 因為他們棄絕了我的典章,沒有遵行我的律例,褻瀆了我的安息日;他們的隨從自己的偶像

17 雖然這樣,我的眼還是顧惜他們,不毀滅他們;我沒有在曠野把他們滅絕。

18 “‘我在曠野對他們的兒女:不要遵行你們祖先的律例,不要謹守他們的典章,也不要因他們的偶像玷污自己。

19 我是耶和華你們的;你們要遵行我的律例,謹守我的典章,把它們實行出來。

20 你們要把我的安息日分別為,作我與你們之間的憑據,使你們知道我是耶和華你們的

21 可是他們的兒女背叛了我,沒有遵行我的律例,也沒有謹守實行我的典章(人如果遵行這些律例典章,就必因此活著),褻瀆了我的安息日;那時我我要把我的烈怒倒在他們身上,在曠野向他們發盡我的怒氣。

22 然而我為了我名的緣故縮,沒有這樣作,免得我名在列國的人眼中被褻瀆;我曾在他們眼前把以色列人領出來。

23 我在曠野也曾經向他們舉起誓,要把他們分散在列國,四散在萬邦;

24 因為他們沒有遵守我的典章,棄絕了我的律例,褻瀆了我的安息日,他們的眼目注視著他們祖先的偶像

25 因此,我也把不的律例和不能藉以存活的典章賜他們;

26 他們使所有頭生的都經火作供物,所以我讓他們玷污自己,好叫他們驚惶,知道我是耶和華。’

27 在迦南的罪行“因此,人子啊!你要告訴以色列家,對他們:‘耶和華這樣:你們的列祖在對我不忠的這事上褻瀆了我。

28 我領他們到了我曾經舉起誓要賜他們的那地,他們見各山和茂盛的林,就在那裡獻祭,在那裡奉上惹我發怒的供物,也在那裡獻上馨香的祭,並且在那裡澆上他們的奠祭。’

29 我問他們:‘你們所去的那處是甚麼地方?’於是那處的名字巴麻,直到今日。

30 因此,你要對以色列:‘耶和華這樣:你們還照著你們祖先所行的玷污自己嗎?仍隨著他們可憎的偶像行邪淫嗎?

31 你們奉上供物,使你們的兒子,用你們的一切偶像玷污自己,直到今日。以色列家啊,我怎能讓你們向我求問呢?耶和華:我指著我的永生起誓:我決不讓你們向我求問。這是耶和華的宣告。

32 你們:我們要像列國的人,像列邦的各族一樣去事奉頭和石頭。你們心裡所起的這意念,必不能成就。

33 重歸故土的應許“‘我指著我的永生起誓:我必用大能的,伸出來的膀,以及倒出來的烈怒,統治你們。這是耶和華的宣告。

34 我必用大能的,伸出來的膀,以及倒出來的烈怒,把你們從萬族中領出來,從你們所分散到的列邦招聚你們。

35 我要把你們到萬族的曠野,在那裡當面審判你們。

36 我怎樣在埃及地的曠野審判你們的祖先,也必怎樣審判你們。這是耶和華的宣告。

37 我必使你們從牧人的杖經過,使你們進入盟約的約束。

38 我必從你們中間除淨那些背叛和得罪我的人,我雖把他們從寄居之地領出,可是他們不得進入以色列地;這樣,你們就知道我是耶和華

39 以色列家啊,至於你們,耶和華這樣:你們各去事奉自己的偶像吧!只是將來你們必要從我,不可再以你們的供物和偶像褻瀆我的名。

40 在我的,就是在以色列的以色列全家所有的人都要在那地事奉我;我要在那裡悅納他們;在那裡向你們要舉祭和初熟的土產,以及一切物。這是耶和華的宣告。

41 我從萬族中把你們領出來,從你們所分散到的列邦召集你們的時候,我必悅納你們,好像悅納馨香的祭一樣。我要在列國的人眼前,在你們中間顯為

42 我領你們進入以色列地,就是進入我曾經舉起誓要賜你們祖先的地以後,你們就知道我是耶和華

43 在那裡你們要想起你們玷污自己的所作所為,又要為了自己所行的一切惡事而厭惡自己。

44 以色列家啊!為了我名的緣故,我沒有照著你們的惡行和敗壞的行為待你們,這樣,你們就知道我是耶和華。這是耶和華的宣告。’”

45 焚燒樹林的比喻耶和華的臨到我說:

46 “人子啊!你要面向南方,向南面發言,說預言攻擊地田野的樹林,

47 地的:‘你要耶和華的耶和華這樣:看哪!我要在你中間點起來,吞滅你中間所有青綠和枯乾的;猛烈的燄必不熄滅;從遍地都要燒焦。

48 所有的人都必見是我耶和華使這火燃起來;這火必不熄滅。’”

49 於是我:“啊,耶和華啊!人都指著我:‘這人不是在比喻嗎?’”(本章第45~49節在《馬索拉抄本》為21:1~5)

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Hlavní výklad ze Swedenborgových prací:

The Inner Meaning of the Prophets and Psalms 143


Další odkazy Swedenborga k této kapitole:

天堂的奥秘 349, 566, 574, 795, 878, 925, 1260, ...

Apocalypse Revealed 278, 316, 400, 401, 543, 546, 586, ...

婚姻之爱 156

The Lord 28, 48

真實的基督徒信仰 156, 468


References from Swedenborg's unpublished works:

Apocalypse Explained 97, 109, 183, 324, 376, 405, 412, ...

Scriptural Confirmations 9, 74

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Word/Phrase Explanations

以色列人
'Israel,' in Jeremiah 23:8, signifies the spiritual natural church. The children of Israel dispersed all the literal sense of the Word by falsities. 'The children...


'A month' has respect to the state of truth in a person. 'A month' signifies a full state. Month,' as in Genesis 29, signifies the...

長老
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If you think about sitting, it seems fair to say that where you're sitting is more important than that you're sitting. Sitting in a movie...


'Word,' as in Psalms 119:6-17, stands for doctrine in general. 'The Word,' as in Psalms 147:18, signifies divine good united with divine truth. 'Word,' as...


Like "say," the word "speak" refers to thoughts and feelings moving from our more internal spiritual levels to our more external ones – and ultimately...


The Lord, in the simplest terms, is love itself expressed as wisdom itself. In philosophic terms, love is the Lord's substance and wisdom is His...

宣告
'To tell' signifies perceiving, because in the spiritual world, or in heaven, they do not need to tell what they think because they communicate every...

知道
Like so many common verbs, the meaning of "know" in the Bible is varied and dependent on context. And in some cases – when it...

雅各
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Scientists believe that one of the most crucial developments in the evolution of humans was bipedalism – walking on two legs. That left our hands...

埃及
'Mizraim' signifies the same thing as Egypt.


The relationship between men and women is deep and nuanced, and one entire book of the Writings – Conjugial Love or Love in Marriage –...


Idols of stone signify worship from falsities of doctrine. Idols of wood signify worship from evils of doctrine. Idols of silver signify worship from what...


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Like other common verbs, the meaning of "give" in the Bible is affected by context: who is giving what to whom? In general, though, giving...

安息日
In Exodus 31:13, 'verily my Sabbaths ye shall keep,' signifies continuous holy thought about the union of the Lord’s divine with His human.


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分散
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名字
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'To proclaim' signifies exploration from influx of the Lord.

兒子
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統治
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進入
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厭惡
'To loathe' denotes aversion.

向南
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耶利米書 44:17

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17 我們中說過的一切我們一定去作,我們要向后燒香,澆奠祭,我們自己和我們的列祖,以及我們的君和領袖,在猶大的各城和耶路撒冷的街上所行的一樣。那時我們吃得飽,得享福樂,不見災禍。

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Hlavní výklad ze Swedenborgových prací:

The Inner Meaning of the Prophets and Psalms 110


Další odkazy Swedenborga k tomuto verši:

天堂的奥秘 4581

Apocalypse Revealed 53, 316, 323, 501, 778


References from Swedenborg's unpublished works:

Apocalypse Explained 324, 376, 401, 433

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Word/Phrase Explanations

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Heavens are celestial and spiritual things. Consequently, they are inmost things, both of the Lord's kingdom in heaven the and in the earth. This also...


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猶大
City of Judah,' as in Isaiah 40:9, signifies the doctrine of love towards the Lord and love towards our neighbor in its whole extent.

耶路撒冷
Jerusalem first comes to or attention in II Samuel, chapter 5 where King David takes it from the Jebusites and makes it his capital. In...

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Apocalypse Explained # 412

Apocalypse Explained (Whitehead translation)      

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412. And hide us from the face of Him that sitteth upon the throne, and from the anger of the Lamb, signifies lest they should suffer direful things from the influx of Divine good united to the Divine truth proceeding from the Lord. This is evident from the signification of "hide us," when it is said by those in whom the goods and truths of the church are destroyed by evils of life and falsities therefrom, as being lest they should suffer direful things (of which presently); also from the signification of "from the face of Him that sitteth upon the throne," as being the Lord in respect to Divine good in heaven; that "face," in reference to the Lord, means the Divine love, from which is Divine good in heaven, will be evident from the passages in the Word that will be cited presently; and that "He that sitteth upon the throne" means the Lord in respect to Divine good in heaven may be seen above (n. 297, 343). Also from the signification of "the anger of the Lamb," as being the casting into hell by the influx of Divine truth proceeding from the Lord.

That "the anger of Jehovah" or of the Lord signifies this, can be seen from passages in the Word to be cited in the following article. Moreover it may be seen above (n. 297, 343) that the Lord alone is meant by "Him that sitteth upon the throne," and by "the Lamb;" the Lord in respect to Divine good by "Him that sitteth upon the throne," and the Lord in respect to Divine truth by "the Lamb." The expression "the anger of the Lamb" does not mean that the Lord (who is meant by "Him that sitteth upon the throne" and by "the Lamb") is angry, for He is Divine good itself, and that cannot be angry, for anger has nothing to do with good itself; but it is so expressed in the sense of the letter of the Word, for reasons explained elsewhere; let it be merely shown here that "the face" of Jehovah, or of the Lord, signifies the Divine love, and thence Divine good in heaven and in the church; and in the contrary sense "to set His face against anyone," and "to hide or conceal His face," has a similar meaning as "wrath" and "anger;" also that "the face," in reference to man, means in both senses the interiors that belong to his mind and affection.

(Odkazy: Revelation 6:16; The Apocalypse Explained 297, The Apocalypse Explained 343)


[2] That "the face," in reference to Jehovah or the Lord, signifies the Divine love and the Divine good therefrom is evident from the following passages. In David:

Make Thy faces to shine upon Thy servant; save me because of Thy mercy (Psalms 31:16).

"To make the faces to shine" signifies to enlighten in Divine truth from Divine love; this is signified by "making the faces to shine," because Divine truth, which proceeds from the Lord as a sun in the angelic heaven, gives all the light there, and also enlightens the minds of the angels and fills them with wisdom; consequently the Lord's face, in a proper sense, is the sun of the angelic heaven; for the Lord appears to the angels of the interior heavens as a sun, and this from His Divine love, for love in the heavens when presented before the eyes appears as fire, but the Divine love as a sun. From that sun both heat and light proceed, that heat is Divine good, and that light is Divine truth. From this it can be seen that "Make Thy faces to shine upon Thy servant" signifies to enlighten with Divine truth from Divine good; therefore it is also added, "save me because of Thy mercy;" mercy is of the Divine good. (But of the sun in the angelic heaven, and the heat and light from it, see in the work on Heaven and Hell; of The Sun there, n. 116-125; and of The Heat and Light from it, n 126-140)

[3] In the same:

Many say, Who will show us good? Jehovah, lift up the light of Thy faces upon us (Psalms 4:6).

In the same:

They shall walk, O Jehovah, in the light of Thy faces (Psalms 89:15).

In the same:

Turn us back, O God, and cause Thy faces to shine, that we may be saved (Psalms 80:3, 7, 19).

And in the same:

God be merciful unto us and bless us, and cause His faces to shine upon Us (Psalms 67:1).

"The light of the faces" of Jehovah or of the Lord means Divine truth from Divine love (as above) and intelligence and wisdom therefrom, for both angels and men have all their intelligence and wisdom from Divine truth, or the Divine light in the heavens, therefore "make Thy faces to shine upon us," "lift up the light of Thy faces upon us," and "cause Thy faces to shine," in the above passages signify to enlighten in Divine truth, and to bestow intelligence and wisdom.

[4] The like is signified in the blessing of the sons of Israel in Moses:

Jehovah bless thee and keep thee; Jehovah make His faces to shine upon thee and be gracious unto thee; Jehovah lift up His faces upon thee and give thee peace (Numbers 6:24-26).

"To make the faces to shine and to be gracious" signifies to enlighten in Divine truth, and to bestow intelligence and wisdom; and "to lift up the faces and give peace" signifies to fill with Divine good and to bestow love. Both are necessary to make man wise, for everyone that is in the spiritual world is enlightened by the light that is from the Lord as a sun, and yet those only become intelligent and wise who are at the same time in love, because the good that is of love is what receives truth; for they are conjoined because they agree and love one another. Only such, therefore, as have love see the sun in heaven, the rest see merely the light. "To be gracious," which is said of making the faces to shine, is predicated in the Word of truth; and "peace," which is said of lifting up the faces, is predicated of good.

[5] Since the Lord's Divine love is seen as a sun in heaven, from which is the light there, so:

When the Lord was transfigured before Peter, James, and John, His face did shine as the sun, and His garments became as the light (Matthew 17:2).

Also when He was seen by John:

His face did shine as the sun in his power (Revelation 1:16).

"The garments which became as the light" signify Divine truth, for "garments" in the Word signify truth, and this because all angels are clothed by the Lord according to their reception of Divine truth; and their garments are moreover from the light of heaven, and are shining and brilliant therefrom, and the light of heaven, as was said, is Divine truth. This makes clear why the Lord's garments when He was transfigured "became as the light." (But on these things more may be seen in the work on Heaven and Hell 177-182; also above, n. 64, 195, 271, 395.)

(Odkazy: The Apocalypse Explained 64, The Apocalypse Explained 195, The Apocalypse Explained 271, The Apocalypse Explained 395)


[6] In Matthew:

Jesus said of the child whom He had placed in the midst of the disciples, See that ye despise not one of these little ones; I say unto you, that their angels in the heavens do always behold the face of My Father who is in the heavens (Matthew 18:10).

It is said "their angels behold," because with every man there are spirits and angels, and the spirits and angels are such as the man is. With infant children there are angels from the inmost heaven; these see the Lord as a sun, for they are in love to Him and in innocence; this is meant in the nearest sense by "their angels behold the face of My Father;" "the face of the Father" meaning the Divine love which was in the Lord, consequently the essential Divine which is Jehovah; for the Father was in Him, and He in the Father, and they were one, as He Himself teaches. But these same words in the purely spiritual sense signify that the Lord in respect to His Divine good is in the good of innocence, for this is signified by "infant child" in the spiritual sense, and "the face of the Father" signifies the Lord's Divine good. Of "the servants of the Lord," by whom are meant those who are in Divine truths because they are in the good of love and charity, the same is said in Revelation:

The throne of God and of the Lamb shall be in the New Jerusalem; and His servants shall do Him service; and they shall see His face 1 (Revelation 22:3-4).

But on this see the explanation in the following.

[7] In Isaiah:

In all their distress He was distressed, and the angel of His faces saved them; because of His love and His pity He redeemed them; and He carried them and lifted them up all the days of eternity (Isaiah 63:9).

This treats of the Lord, who is called "the angel of the faces" of Jehovah from Divine truth which is from His Divine love; for "angel" in the Word signifies Divine truth; this is why the angels are called "gods" (see above, n. 130, 200, 302); and "the faces of Jehovah" mean the Divine love which is in the Lord, therefore it is also said, "because of His love and His pity He redeemed them; and He carried them and lifted them up all the days of eternity;" all this is of the Divine love. The Lord in respect to His Human was Divine truth, and from this He combated with the hells, and by it subjugated them; for this reason He is called "an angel," that is, in respect to His Divine Human. This chapter evidently treats of the Lord, and of His combats with the hells and of their subjugation.

(Odkazy: The Apocalypse Explained 130, The Apocalypse Explained 200, The Apocalypse Explained 302)


[8] In David:

Thou hidest them 2 in the hiding place of Thy faces from the elations of man; Thou concealest them in Thy covert from the strife of tongues (Psalms 31:20).

"To hide them in the hiding place of Thy faces" means in the Divine good that does not appear before others; and "to conceal in Thy covert" means in the Divine truth; "the elations of man" and "the strife of tongues" mean the evils of falsity and the falsities of evil; for "elations" are predicated of evils because they are of self-love, and "man" signifies truth and falsity; "the strife of tongues" means the falsity of evil. (What the evil of falsity and the falsity of evil are, see The Doctrine of the New Jerusalem 21.)

[9] In the same:

Thou hast set our iniquities before Thee, and our hidden things in the light of Thy faces (Psalms 90:8).

"The light of Thy faces" means the light of heaven from the Lord as the sun there. Because this light is Divine truth itself, from which is all intelligence and wisdom, whatever comes into this light has its quality exhibited as in clear day; for this reason when the evil come into this light they appear just as they are, deformed and monstrous according to the evils concealed with them. This makes clear what is meant by "Thou hast set our iniquities before Thee, and our hidden things in the light of Thy faces."

[10] In Jeremiah:

Proclaim these words towards the north, and say, Return, thou backsliding Israel; I will not cause My faces to fall upon you, for I am merciful (Jeremiah 3:12).

Here, too, "My faces" signify the Divine love, and every good that is of love; and "not causing the faces to fall" signifies not to let it be lowered or cease, for when the countenance falls then it ceases to look, which makes clear what is signified by "I will not cause My faces to fall upon you," so it is also said, "for I am merciful," mercy being the Divine love towards the miserable. "Proclaim towards the north" signifies towards those who are in falsities and in evils therefrom; so it is also said, "Return, thou backsliding Israel." "The north" signifies such, because those who are in falsities and in evils therefrom dwell in the northern quarter in the spiritual world. (Of falsities and the evils therefrom, see in The Doctrine of the New Jerusalem 21.) The bread upon the table in the tabernacle was called "the bread of faces," and the table itself "the table of faces" (Exodus 25:30; Numbers 4:7), because "the bread" there, the same as "the faces of Jehovah" signified the Divine good of the Divine love (see The Doctrine of the New Jerusalem 212-213, 218).

(Odkazy: Jeremiah 3:9)


[11] Because "the faces of Jehovah," or of the Lord, signify the Divine good united to Divine truth going out and proceeding from His Divine love, therefore also "the faces of Jehovah" signify the interiors of the church, of the Word, and of worship, for Divine good is in the interior of these; the exteriors of the church, of the Word, and of worship are only the effects and works therefrom. The interiors of the church, of the Word, and of worship are signified by "seeing," "seeking," and "entreating the faces of Jehovah." In Isaiah:

What is the multitude of your sacrifices unto Me? when ye shall come to see the faces of Jehovah? (Isaiah 1:11-12)

In Zechariah:

The inhabitants of one city shall go to another, saying, In going let us go to entreat the faces of Jehovah, and to seek Jehovah of Hosts; thus many peoples and numerous nations shall come to seek Jehovah of Hosts in Jerusalem, and to entreat the faces of Jehovah (Zechariah 8:21-22).

In David:

My heart said unto thee, Seek ye my faces; Thy faces, O Jehovah, I do seek (Psalms 27:8).

We will make a joyful noise unto the Rock of our salvation; we will come before His faces with confession (Psalms 95:1, 2).

In Malachi:

Entreat the faces of God that He may be gracious unto us (Malachi 1:9).

In David:

My soul thirsteth for God, for the living God; when shall I come to appear before the faces of God? Hope thou in God, for I shall yet confess to Him; His faces are salvations (Psalms 42:2, 5).

In these passages, "faces of Jehovah," "of God," or "of the Lord," mean the interiors of the church, of the Word, and of worship, because Divine good and Divine truth, thus the Lord Himself, are in these interiors, and from them in externals; but are not in externals, namely, of the church, of the Word, and of worship apart from these.

(Odkazy: Psalms 95:1-2)


[12] As it was the duty of all who went to Jerusalem to the feasts to carry with them such things as pertained to worship, and all worship is from the interiors which are of the heart and faith, and these interiors are signified by the gifts offered to the Lord, so it was commanded that everyone should offer some gift, which is meant by:

They shall not see My faces empty (Exodus 23:15).

The interiors of the church, of the Word, and of worship, are also signified by these words in Moses:

Jehovah spoke unto Moses, My faces shall go until I shall give thee rest. Then Moses said, If Thy faces go not make us not go up hence (Exodus 33:14-15).

This was said to Moses, because with that nation the Word was to be written, and also in the historical parts of the Word that nation was to be treated of, for with that nation a church was to be instituted which would be a representative church consisting of external things that corresponded to things internal; on this account it was said, "My faces shall go." (Respecting this see further in Arcana Coelestia 10567-10568, where it is explained.)

[13] But because that nation was only in the externals of the Word, of the church, and of worship, and not at all in the internals, therefore it was not granted to Moses to see the Lord's face, but only His back, according to these words in Moses:

Moses said, I pray Thee show me Thy glory; to whom He said, I will make all My good to pass before thee, and I will proclaim the name of Jehovah before thee; thou canst not see My faces, for man shall not see Me and live. I will put thee in a hole of the rock, and will cover thee with My hand until I shall have passed by; and when I shall take away My hand thou shalt see My hinder parts, but My faces shall not be seen (Exodus 33:18-23).

Here Moses represented that nation, what was its quality in respect to the understanding of the Word, and thence in respect to the church and worship, namely, that it was in externals only without internals. These externals were represented and signified by "the hinder parts" of Jehovah which were seen by Moses, and the internals by the front parts and "the face." That the internals that are in the externals of the Word, of the church, and of worship, were not seen and could not be seen by that nation, was represented and signified by Moses being placed in the hole of a rock, and by his being covered with the hand of Jehovah while He passed by. (But this has been more fully explained in Arcana Coelestia 10573-10584.)

(Odkazy: Arcana Coelestia 10573)


[14] Furthermore, since "the faces of Jehovah" or the Lord mean the internals of the Word, of the church, and of worship, they mean especially the externals in which are internals; since internals make themselves to be seen in externals, as the internals of man do in his face and features. But the Jewish nation was such that it looked to externals only, and to internals not at all; and to look at externals and not at the same time at internals, or at externals without internals, is like looking at the image of a man that is without life; but to look at externals and at the same time at internals, or at externals from internals, is like looking at a living man; this therefore is, in the proper sense, "to see the face of Jehovah," or "to entreat His faces," in the passages cited above.

[15] Since the internals of the Word, of the church, and of worship, appear in the externals, or present themselves to be seen in externals, comparatively as the internals of man do in the face, it is evident what is signified in the internal sense by "seeing Jehovah" or the Lord "face to face," in the following passages. In Moses:

I have seen God face to face, and yet my soul is delivered (Genesis 32:30).

Jacob said this after he had wrestled with God, who appeared to him as an angel. In the book of Judges:

Gideon said, I have seen the angel of Jehovah face to face. And Jehovah said unto him, Peace be unto thee; fear not, thou shalt not die (Judges 6:22-23).

So, too, with Manoah and his wife (Judges 13:21-23).

And respecting the Israelitish people:

Jehovah spoke with you face to face from the mount, out of the midst of the fire (Deuteronomy 5:4).

Respecting which it is further said:

Jehovah hath made [us] to see His glory and His greatness, and we have heard His voice out of the midst of the fire; we have seen this day that God doth talk to man and he remaineth alive (Deuteronomy 5:24).

And respecting Moses:

Jehovah spoke unto Moses face to face, as a man speaketh to his companion (Exodus 33:11; Deuteronomy 34:10).

(Odkazy: Exodus 34:10-12, 34:10; Judges 13:22-23)


[16] But it should be known that no man, nor even any angel, can see the Lord's face, since it is Divine love, and no one can sustain the Divine love such as it is in itself; for to see the Lord's face would be like letting the eye into the very fire of the sun, whence it would instantly perish. Such also is the Lord's Divine love viewed in itself; therefore to those in the interior heavens the Lord appears as a sun, and that sun is encompassed by many radiant circles, which are envelopments one after another, in order that the Divine love may proceed to the angels in heaven tempered and moderated, and thus the angels may sustain it; the Lord therefore appears as a sun to the angels of the higher heavens only, while to the angels of the lower heavens He appears merely as light, and to the rest as a moon. Nevertheless, in heaven the Lord appears to the angels, but under an angelic form; for He fills an angel with His aspect, and thus with His presence from afar, and this He does in various places, but everywhere in accommodation to the good of love and of faith with those to whom He appears. Thus the Lord was seen by Gideon, and by Manoah and his wife, also by Moses, and the Israelitish people. This, therefore, is what is meant by "seeing Jehovah face to face," and by "seeing Jehovah and not dying." It is clearly evident that the face itself in respect to the interiors which are of His Divine love was not seen, for it was said to Moses:

That no one can see Jehovah's face and live (Exodus 33:20).

Yet it is said that "they saw Jehovah face to face;" which shows clearly that "seeing the faces of Jehovah" in the passages cited above signifies seeing Him in the interiors of the Word, of the church, and of worship, which nevertheless is seeing Him in externals from internals. That the Jewish nation was in the externals of the Word, of the church, and of worship, apart from internals, may be seen in The Doctrine of the New Jerusalem 248); what the external is apart from the internal, and what the external is in which is the internal, see n. 47).

[17] That the Jewish nation was such, was also represented and signified by:

Their covering the Lord's face, striking it, and spitting in it (Matthew 26:67; Mark 14:65; Luke 22:64);

for all things related in the Word respecting the Lord's passion represent and signify arcana of heaven and the church, and in particular the quality of the Jews in respect to the Word, the church, and worship. (That this is so, see above, n. 64, 83, 195 c.)

(Odkazy: The Apocalypse Explained 64, The Apocalypse Explained 83, The Apocalypse Explained 195)


[18] It can be known from what has been thus far explained, what "the face" of Jehovah or the Lord signifies, namely, the Divine love, and all good in heaven and in the church therefrom; and from this it can be known what is signified by "hiding" or "concealing the faces," in reference to Jehovah or the Lord, namely, that it is to leave man in what is his own [proprium] and thus in the evils and falsities that spring forth from what is his own [proprium]; for man viewed in himself is nothing but evil and falsity therefrom, and that he may be in good he is withheld from these by the Lord, which is effected by being elevated out of what is his own [proprium]. From this it can be seen that "hiding and concealing the faces," in reference to the Lord, signifies to leave in evils and falsities; as in the following passages. In Jeremiah:

For all their evil I have covered My faces from this city (Jeremiah 33:5).

In Isaiah:

Your sins have hid God's faces from you, that He hath not heard (Isaiah 59:2).

In Ezekiel:

My faces will I turn away from them, that they may profane My secret, and that the violent may enter into it and profane it (Ezekiel 7:22).

The nations shall know that for their iniquity the sons of Israel were carried away; and therefore will I hide My faces from them (Ezekiel 39:23).

In Lamentations:

The face of Jehovah hath divided them; He will no more regard them (Lamentations 4:16).

In Micah:

Jehovah will hide His faces from them, even as they have made their works evil (Micah 3:4).

In David:

Thou didst hide Thy faces, I was troubled (Psalms 30:7).

Wherefore hidest Thou Thy faces, and forgettest our affliction and our oppression? (Psalms 44:24).

Thou hidest Thy faces, they are affrighted; Thou gatherest in their spirit, they expire, and return to their dust (Psalms 104:29).

In Moses:

My anger shall glow against the people in that day, and I will forsake them, and will hide My faces from them. In hiding I will hide My faces in that day because of all the evil which they have done (Deuteronomy 31:17-18).

I will hide My faces from them; they are a generation of perversions (Deuteronomy 32:20).

In Isaiah:

I will tarry for Jehovah, although He hideth His faces from the house of Jacob (Isaiah 8:17).

In David:

How long wilt Thou forget me, O Jehovah? how long wilt Thou hide Thy faces from me? (Psalms 13:1).

Hide not Thy faces from me; put not Thy servant away in anger (Psalms 27:9).

Hide not Thy faces from Thy servant, for I am in distress; hasten, answer me (Psalms 69:17).

O Jehovah why casteth Thou off my soul? Why hidest Thou Thy faces from me? (Psalms 88:14).

Hide not Thy faces from me in the day of my distress (Psalms 102:2).

Answer me, O Jehovah; hide not Thy faces from me, lest I become like them that go down into the pit (Psalms 143:7).

In Ezekiel:

When I shall have brought together the sons of Israel upon their own ground, then will I not hide My faces any more from them, for I will pour out My spirit upon the sons of Israel (Ezekiel 39:28-29).

In David:

He hath not despised nor abhorred the affliction of Israel; neither hath He hid His faces from him; but when he cried aloud unto Him He heard (Psalms 22:24).

(Odkazy: Psalms 27:8-9, Psalms 102:1-2)


[19] In these passages it is said that Jehovah, that is, the Lord, conceals and hides His faces on account of iniquities and sins, and He is entreated not to conceal or hide them, and yet He never conceals or hides, that is, His Divine good and His Divine truth; for the Lord is Divine love itself and mercy itself, and desires the salvation of all; therefore He is present with all and with each one, even with those who are in iniquities and sins, and by this presence He gives them the freedom to receive Him, that is, truth and good from Him, consequently they also do receive if from freedom they desire to. Reception must be from freedom, in order that goods and truths may abide with man, and be with him as his own; for what a man does from freedom he does from affection, for all freedom is of affection, and affection is man's will; therefore what is received in freedom, or from man's affection, enters his will and endures. It then endures because the will is the man himself and in the will his life primarily resides, but secondarily in the thought or the understanding. This therefore is why man ought to receive Divine good and Divine truth, with which the Lord is always present.

[20] This is what is meant by:

Behold I stand at the door and knock; if any man hear My voice and open the door, I will come in to him and will sup with him (Revelation 3:20).

But when man from freedom chooses evil he shuts the door to himself, and thus does not let in the good and truth that are from the Lord; consequently the Lord then appears to be absent. It is from this appearance that it is said that Jehovah conceals and hides His faces, although He does not conceal and hide. Moreover man as to his spirit then turns away from the Lord, and consequently does not perceive the good or see the truth, which are from the Lord; this is why it appears as if the Lord did not see him; and yet the Lord sees each and every thing pertaining to man. It is from this appearance also that the Lord is said to conceal and hide His faces, and also is said to set [ponere et dare] His faces against them, also that He regards them with the back of the neck and not with the faces, as in the following passages. In Jeremiah:

I have set My faces against this city for evil, and not for good (Jeremiah 21:10).

In the same:

I set My faces against you for evil, to cut off all Judah (Jeremiah 44:11).

In Ezekiel:

I will set My faces against that man, and I will lay him waste, and I will cut him off from the midst of My people (Ezekiel 14:8).

In the same:

I will set My faces against them; let them go forth from the fire and the fire shall devour them, when I shall have set My faces against them (Ezekiel 15:7).

In Moses:

He that shall eat any blood, I will set My faces against that soul, and I will cut him off (Leviticus 17:10).

In Jeremiah:

As the east wind will I scatter them before the enemy; with the back of the neck, and not with the face, will I regard them (Jeremiah 18:17).

That it is man who sets his face against the Lord and who turns himself away from the Lord, whence evil comes to him, is evident also from the Word. As in Jeremiah:

They have turned unto Me the back of the neck, and not the faces (Jeremiah 32:33).

In the same:

They have made their faces harder than a rock; they have refused to return (Jeremiah 5:3).

In the same:

They have gone away in their own counsels, in the hardening of their evil heart, and they have become turned backwards and not forwards (Jeremiah 7:24).

And in Isaiah:

Your sins have hid God's faces from you (Isaiah 59:2).

(Odkazy: Ezekiel 14:7-8)


[21] That the evil turn away their face from the Lord does not mean that they do it with the face of the body, but with the face of their spirit. Man can turn his face whatever way he pleases, since he is in a state of freedom to turn himself either towards heaven or towards hell, and moreover a man's face is taught to deceive for the sake of the appearance before the world; but when man becomes a spirit, which he does immediately after death, then he who had lived in evils turns the face altogether away from the Lord (as can be seen from what has been said and shown in the work on Heaven and Hell 17, 123, 142, 144-145, 151, 153, 251, 272 , 511, 552, 561). This is what is meant by "they have turned unto Me the back of the neck, and not the face," and "they have become turned backwards and not forwards." And because such then come into the evil of punishment and hell, those who have turned themselves away suppose that this is from the Lord, and that He regards them with a stern countenance, and casts them down into hell, and punishes them just as an angry man would do, when yet the Lord regards no one in any other way than from love and mercy. It is from that appearance that these things are said in the Word. In Isaiah:

When Thou shalt do fearful things that we look not for, the mountains shall flow down before Thee (Isaiah 64:3).

In David:

It is burned with fire, it is cut down; they have perished at the rebuke of Thy faces (Psalms 80:16).

In the same:

The faces of Jehovah are against them that do evil, to cut off the remembrance of them from the earth (Psalms 34:16).

In Moses:

Behold I send an angel before thee. Take ye heed of his faces; for he will not bear your transgression (Exodus 23:20-21).

In Ezekiel:

I will lead you into the wilderness of the peoples, and I will have judgment with you face to face (Ezekiel 20:35).

In Moses:

When the ark set forward, Moses said, Arise O Jehovah, let Thine enemies be scattered; and let them that hate Thee flee before Thy faces (Numbers 10:35).

In Revelation:

I saw a throne high and great, and Him that sat on it, from whose face the earth and the heaven fled away (Revelation 20:11).

(Odkazy: Psalms 80:17)


[22] These things are said respecting the signification of the face in reference to Jehovah or the Lord. The face in reference to man signifies his disposition and affection, and consequently the interiors which belong to his mind, and this because the disposition and affections, or the interiors that belong to man's mind, present themselves to be seen in the face; this is why the face is said to be an index of the mind; the face also is an effigy of the interiors of man, for it represents them, and his countenance corresponds to them. That "faces" in reference to man signify affections of various kinds, can be seen from the following passages. In Isaiah:

They say, Turn aside out of the way, decline out of the path, cause the Holy One of Israel to cease from our faces (Isaiah 30:11).

"Cause the Holy One of Israel to cease from our faces" signifies to cause the Lord to cease from the thought and affection, thus everything of the church, "the Holy one of Israel" meaning the Lord; to withdraw from the truth and good of the church, which is from the Lord and in which is the Lord, is signified by "Turn aside out of the way, decline out of the path," "way" and "path" meaning the truth and good of the church.

[23] In Lamentations:

They have not accepted the faces of the priests, and they were not gracious unto the faces of the old (Lamentations 4:16).

Again:

Princes were hanged up by their hand; the faces of the old were not honored (Lamentations 5:12).

"Not to accept the faces of the priests" signifies to value as nothing the goods of the church, which are of love and faith; for "the priests" represented the Lord in respect to Divine good, and thus signified the good of the church, and "faces" signify all things thereof that have reference to love and faith. "Not to honor the faces of the old" signifies to account as nothing all things of wisdom, "the old" signifying wisdom, and "faces" all things thereof, because they signify interior things; "the princes hanged up by their hand" signify that all intelligence was rejected, "princes" meaning the primary truths from which there is intelligence.

[24] In Moses:

Jacob said respecting Esau, I will appease his faces with the present that goeth before me, and afterwards I will see his faces; peradventure he will accept my faces (Genesis 32:19-20).

"To appease his faces," signifies to captivate his mind; "afterwards to see his faces" signifies to know what the disposition is; "peradventure he will accept my faces" signifies, peradventure he will receive me with a kindly disposition; "to accept the faces" meaning to have good will towards anyone from affection. In the same:

Thou shalt not wrest judgment; thou shall not regard faces, neither take a gift (Deuteronomy 16:19).

"Not to regard faces" signifies not to have the mind better disposed towards superiors, the rich, and friends, than towards inferiors, the poor, and enemies, because what is just and right is to be regarded without respect to person.

(Odkazy: Genesis 32:20)


[25] In Malachi:

I have made you contemptible and lowly unto all the people, according as ye keep not My ways, and accept faces in the law (Malachi 2:9).

"Accepting faces in the law" has a similar signification as "regarding faces in judgment," quoted above, namely, to have the mind better disposed towards, and to show more favor to superiors, the rich, and friends, than to inferiors, the poor, and enemies. In Isaiah:

What mean ye? Ye crush the people, and grind the faces of the poor (Isaiah 3:15).

"To grind the faces of the poor" signifies to destroy the affections of knowing truths with those who are in ignorance of truth and yet wish to be instructed; "to grind" signifying to destroy, "faces" signifying the affections of knowing truths, and "the poor" those who are in ignorance of truth but wish to be instructed, for these are the spiritually poor.

[26] In David:

The daughter of Tyre shall bring an offering; the rich of the people shall entreat thy faces. The king's daughter is all glorious within; her vesture is inwrought with gold (Psalms 45:12-13).

"The king's daughter" signifies the spiritual affection of truth; "the daughter of Tyre" signifies the affection of the knowledges of truth and good; to be enriched with these is signified by "bringing an offering;" "the rich of the people" signify the intelligent, and in an abstract sense, the understanding of truth and good; to be gifted with these is signified by "entreating his faces;" for all things of intelligence dwell in the spiritual affection of truth, which therefore is signified by his "faces." (The rest may be seen explained above, n. 195

(Odkazy: The Apocalypse Explained 195)


[27] In the same:

Yet do I confess 3 Him, the salvations of my faces, my God (Psalms 42:11; 43:5).

"The salvations of my faces" signify all things that are within, thus those that are of the mind and the affections, accordingly those that are of love and faith; because these are what save they are called "salvations." Evil affections, which are lusts, are expressed by the same term, "faces," because they appear in the face, for the face is the external or natural form of the interiors, which are of the disposition and mind; and in the spiritual world these make one, for there it is not permitted to put on other faces than those that are from the affections, thus that correspond to the interiors which are of their mind. This is why the angels of heaven are radiant and lovely in face, while infernal spirits are dusky and misshapen in face.

[28] This, too is evidently the meaning of "faces" in the following passages. In Isaiah:

Throes and pangs seize them, they travail like a woman bringing forth; they are amazed every man at his companion; their faces are faces of flames (Isaiah 13:8).

This treats of the Last Judgment, when the evil are let into their interiors. The interiors of those who are in the love of self and the world, and thence in hatreds and revenges, are meant by "their faces are faces of flames;" and such also do they appear. Their torments from the influx of Divine good and Divine truth are signified by "throes and pangs seize them, they are in travail like a woman bringing forth." Their torments are likened to the throes and pangs of women bringing forth for the same reason that the comparison is used in Genesis 3:16; for evils and falsities are then conjoined; and when this is the case "pangs seize" when Divine good and truth flow in.

[29] In Ezekiel:

Say to the forest of the south, The flame of the grievous flame shall not be quenched, wherefore all faces from the south even to the north shall be burned therein (Ezekiel 20:47).

"The forest of the south" means falsity within the church, consequently those there who are in falsities; the church is signified by "the south" because it can be in the light of truth from the Word; and falsity from evil is signified by "forest;" the vastation and destruction of the church by the love of falsity from evil is signified by "the flame of the grievous flame, by which all faces shall be burned;" "all faces" meaning all the interiors of the men of the church in respect to the affections of truth and good, and the thoughts therefrom; "from the south even to the north" signifies all things of the church from first to last, or interior and exterior; "the south" meaning the interior or first things of the church, and "the north" the exterior or last things of the church; this is the signification of "the south" and "the north" because those who are in the light of truth from the Lord are in the southern quarter in the spiritual world; while in the hells under them are those who are in natural lumen by means of which they have confirmed themselves in falsities; and in the northern quarter are those who are in obscurity of truth from the Lord, and in the hells under them are those who are in falsities, but not in any natural lumen whereby they have confirmed their falsities.

[30] In Joel:

Before him the peoples tremble; all faces have gathered blackness (Joel 2:6).

This treats of evils and falsities devastating the church, and of the judgment upon those who are in them; those who are in falsities are signified by "the peoples who tremble;" their interiors which are in the falsities of evil are signified by "the faces that have gathered blackness;" "faces" meaning the interiors, and "blackness" the falsity of evil. The infernals who are in falsities from evil appear black in the light of heaven.

[31] In Daniel:

In the latter end of their kingdom, when the transgressors are come to the full, a king hard in faces shall rise up (Daniel 8:23).

This was said of the four horns of the he-goat, by which are there meant four kingdoms, but "kingdoms" there do not mean kingdoms but the states of the church, for "a he-goat of the goats" means faith separated from charity, which is called faith alone; "the latter end of their kingdom" signifies the end of the church, when there is no faith because there is no charity; "when the transgressors are come to the full" signifies when there are no longer truth and good, but evil and falsity; these words signify the like as "when iniquity is consummated and fulfilled" (respecting which see above, n. 397). "A king hard in faces" signifies no truth but only falsity in their interiors; "king" signifying truth, and in the contrary sense falsity; "faces" the interiors, and "hard in faces" the interiors without good; for where there is no good, truth is hard, while truth from good is mild, because living; and truth without good even becomes falsity in their interiors or thought, since they do not think about it spiritually but materially, because they think from things corporeal and worldly, and thus from the fallacies of the senses.

(Odkazy: The Apocalypse Explained 397)


[32] In Ezekiel:

Sons hard in their faces, and hardened in heart (Ezekiel 2:4).

"Sons hard in their faces" signify those who are in truths without good, and in an abstract sense truths without good, which in themselves are falsities (as has been said above); and "hardened in heart" signifies those who do not admit good, and who are therefore in evil, for where good cannot enter evil enters; "the heart" signifies also in the Word the good of love, and "a hardened heart" signifies the same as "a stony heart," namely, where the good of love is not admitted; but "a heart of flesh" signifies where it is admitted.

[33] In Isaiah:

Their tongue and their doings are against Jehovah, to rebel against the eyes of His glory; the hardness of their faces answereth against them (Isaiah 3:8-9).

"Their tongue and their doings which are against Jehovah" signify thought and affection; "the tongue" thought, because the tongue utters what man thinks, and "doings" affection, because man does what is of his affection; these "are against Jehovah, and rebel against the eyes of His glory" when they are against Divine good and against Divine truth; for "Jehovah" in the Word means the Lord in respect to Divine good proceeding from His Divine love, and "His glory" means Divine truth; to be against this is signified by "rebelling against the eyes of His glory;" "the hardness of their faces which answers against them" signifies to refuse Divine truth and Divine good, and not to admit them into their thoughts and affections, which are their interiors.

[34] In Ezekiel:

Behold I have made thy faces hard against their faces, and thy forehead hard against their forehead (Ezekiel 3:8).

This was said to the prophet, by whom is signified the doctrine of truth and good combating against falsities and evils; therefore "his faces made hard against their faces" signifies the rejection of falsities by truths, and "his forehead hardened against their forehead" signifies the rejection of evil by good; for "faces" signify the affections of truth, or the affections of falsity, and "forehead" signifies the affection of good or the affection of evil. The affection of truth and good is hardened and becomes outwardly hard from zeal, when it is combating against falsity and evil, otherwise it could not repulse them; but it is not so inwardly. From this it can be seen how these words must be understood. Since "faces" signify man's interiors, or the things that are of his thought and affection, the same word in the Hebrew that means "face" means what is interior.

[35] (In these explanations various things have been said respecting "faces" which cannot be easily understood, perhaps, without further exposition; I will therefore add what has been said and shown respecting faces in the Arcana Coelestia, namely, that the face is formed to a correspondence with man's interiors, n. 4791-4805, 5695; on the correspondence of the face and countenance with the affections of the mind, n. 1568, 2988, 2989, 3631, 4796, 4797, 4800, 5165, 5168, 9306; consequently the interiors shine forth from the face, n. 3527, 4066, 4796; with the ancients the face made one with the interiors, n. 35 3573, 4326, 5695; it also makes one with the interiors with the angels in heaven, and with sincere men in the world, n. 4796, 4797, 4799, 5695, 8250; in the other life the faces of all become such as their interiors are, n. 4798, 5695; experiences respecting changes of the face there according to the interiors, n. 4796, 6604; on the influx of the interiors of the mind, or of the understanding and will into the face and its muscles, n. 3631, 4800; with flatterers, dissemblers, hypocrites, and the deceitful, the face does not act as one with the interiors, n. 4799, 8250; with such the face is taught to feign sincerity, honesty, and piety, n. 4326; how influx from the brains into the face became changed in process of time, and with it the face itself in respect to its correspondence with the interiors, n. 4326, 8250; the natural of man is like an interior face to the spiritual mind and its sight, n. 5165, 5168. See also what has been said and shown respecting faces in the work on Heaven and Hell 46-48, 142-144, 457-459, 553.)

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Footnotes:

1.  Photolithograph has "faces;" the Greek has "face," which is also found in AE 148; Apocalypse Revealed 938; but the former reading is found in AC 9936, 10579.

2.  Photolithograph has "us," but this is rectified in the explanation.

3.  Photolithograph has "trust;" Hebrew has "confess." IB, IV n. 107, 767 have the latter translation.

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(Odkazy: Arcana Coelestia 2988-2989, 3573, 4796-4797; Ezekiel 14:7-8; Genesis 32:20; Jeremiah 3:9; Psalms 27:8-9, Psalms 80:16-17, Psalms 102:1-2; Revelation 6:16)

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Apocalypse Explained 407, 419, 554, 594, 596, 625, 657, 707, 981, 997

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