Jeremiah 48

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1 Of Moab. The Lord of armies, the God of Israel, has said: Sorrow on Nebo, for it has been made waste; Kiriathaim has been put to shame and is taken: the strong place is put to shame and broken down.

2 The praise of Moab has come to an end; as for Heshbon, evil has been designed against her; come, let us put an end to her as a nation. But your mouth will be shut, O Madmen; the sword will go after you.

3 There is the sound of crying from Horonaim, wasting and great destruction;

4 Moab is broken; her cry has gone out to Zoar.

5 For by the slope of Luhith they will go up, weeping all the way; for on the way down to Horonaim the cry of destruction has come to their ears.

6 Go in flight, get away with your lives, and let your faces be turned to Aroer in the Arabah.

7 For because you have put your faith in your strong places, you, even you, will be taken: and Chemosh will go out as a prisoner, his priests and his rulers together.

8 And the attacker will come against every town, not one will be safe; and the valley will be made waste, and destruction will come to the lowland, as the Lord has said.

9 Put up a pillar for Moab, for she will come to a complete end: and her towns will become a waste, without anyone living in them.

10 Let him be cursed who does the Lord's work half-heartedly; let him be cursed who keeps back his sword from blood.

11 From his earliest days, Moab has been living in comfort; like wine long stored he has not been drained from vessel to vessel, he has never gone away as a prisoner: so his taste is still in him, his smell is unchanged.

12 So truly, the days are coming, says the Lord, when I will send to him men who will have him turned over till there is no more wine in his vessels, and his wine-skins will be completely broken.

13 And Moab will be shamed on account of Chemosh, as the children of Israel were shamed on account of Beth-el their hope.

14 How say you, We are men of war and strong fighters?

15 He who makes Moab waste has gone up against her; and the best of her young men have gone down to their death, says the King, whose name is the Lord of armies.

16 The fate of Moab is near, and trouble is coming on him very quickly.

17 All you who are round about him, give signs of grief for him, and all you who have knowledge of his name, say, How is the strong rod broken, even the beautiful branch!

18 Come down from your glory, O people of Dibon, and take your seat in the place of the waste; for the attacker of Moab has gone up against you, sending destruction on your strong places.

19 O daughter of Aroer, take your station by the way, on the watch: questioning him who is in flight, and her who has got away safe, say, What has been done?

20 Moab has been put to shame, she is broken: make loud sounds of grief, crying out for help; give the news in Arnon, that Moab has been made waste.

21 And punishment has come on the lowlands; on Holon and Jahzah, and on Mephaath,

22 And on Dibon, and on Nebo, and on Beth-diblathaim,

23 And on Kiriathaim, and on Beth-gamul, and on Beth-meon,

24 And on Kerioth, and on Bozrah, and on all the towns of the land of Moab, far and near.

25 The horn of Moab is cut off, and his arm is broken, says the Lord.

26 Make him full of wine, for his heart has been lifted up against the Lord: and Moab will be rolling in the food he was not able to keep down, and everyone will be making sport of him.

27 For did you not make sport of Israel? was he taken among thieves? for whenever you were talking about him, you were shaking your head over him.

28 O people of Moab, go away from the towns and take cover in the rock; be like the dove of the Arabah, which makes her living-place in holes.

29 We have had word of the pride of Moab, how great it is; how he is lifted up in pride; and his great opinion of himself, and that his heart is lifted up.

30 I have knowledge of his wrath, says the Lord, that it is nothing; his high-sounding words have done nothing.

31 For this cause I will give cries of grief for Moab, crying out for Moab, even for all of it; I will be sorrowing for the men of Kir-heres.

32 My weeping for you, O vine of Sibmah, will be more than the weeping of Jazer: your branches have gone over the sea, stretching even to Jazer: destruction has come down on your summer fruits and your cut grapes.

33 All joy is gone; no longer are they glad for the fertile field and for the land of Moab; I have made the wine come to an end from the crushing vessels: no longer will the grapes be crushed with the sound of glad voices.

34 The cry of Heshbon comes even to Elealeh; to Jahaz their voice is sounding; from Zoar even to Horonaim and to Eglath-shelishiyah: for the waters of Nimrim will become dry.

35 And I will put an end in Moab, says the Lord, to him who is making offerings in the high place and burning perfumes to his gods.

36 So my heart is sounding for Moab like the sound of pipes, and my heart is sounding like pipes for the men of Kir-heres: for the wealth he has got for himself has come to an end.

37 For everywhere the hair of the head and the hair of the face is cut off: on every hand there are wounds, and haircloth on every body.

38 On all the house-tops of Moab and in its streets there is weeping everywhere; for Moab has been broken like a vessel in which there is no pleasure, says the Lord.

39 How is it broken down! how is Moab's back turned in shame! so Moab will be a cause of sport and of fear to everyone round about him.

40 For the Lord has said, See, he will come like an eagle in flight, stretching out his wings against Moab.

41 Kerioth is taken, and the strong places have been forced, and the hearts of Moab's men of war in that day will be like the heart of a woman in birth-pains.

42 And Moab will come to an end as a people, because he has been lifting himself up against the Lord.

43 Fear and death and the net have come on you, O people of Moab, says the Lord.

44 He who goes in flight from the fear will be overtaken by death; and he who gets free from death will be taken in the net: for I will make this come on Moab, even the year of their punishment, says the Lord.

45 Those who went in flight from the fear are waiting under the shade of Heshbon: for a fire has gone out from Heshbon and a flame from the house of Sihon, burning up the pride of Moab and the crown of the head of the violent ones.

46 Sorrow is yours, O Moab! the people of Chemosh are overcome: for your sons have been taken away as prisoners, and your daughters made servants.

47 But still, I will let the fate of Moab be changed in the last days, says the Lord.

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Hlavní výklad ze Swedenborgových prací:

Arcana Coelestia 2468

The Inner Meaning of the Prophets and Psalms 114

Další odkazy Swedenborga k této kapitole:

Arcana Coelestia 375, 583, 1589, 1825, 2240, 2418, 2608, ...

Apocalypse Revealed 47, 166, 194, 204, 270, 316, 485, ...

The Lord 4, 39, 53

Sacred Scripture 35, 103

Heaven and Hell 365

True Christian Religion 93, 158, 265, 683

References from Swedenborg's unpublished works:

Apocalypse Explained 195, 223, 235, 316, 376, 411, 417, ...

Coronis (An Appendix to True Christian Religion) 56

De Verbo (The Word) 10, 15, 25

Marriage 93

Scriptural Confirmations 4, 51

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Word/Phrase Explanations

'Moab,' in a positive sense, signifies people who are in natural good, and allow themselves to be easily seduced, but in an opposite sense, it...

the Lord
The Bible refers to the Lord in many different ways, which from the text seem indistinguishable and interchangeable. Understood in the internal sense, though, there...

Armies of the heavens and the sands of the sea ('Jeremiah 33:15-22') signify the knowledges of truth and good in the spiritual and natural ma{ign21}

'Israel,' in Jeremiah 23:8, signifies the spiritual natural church. The children of Israel dispersed all the literal sense of the Word by falsities. 'The children...

'To put' has reference to order, arrangement, application, and influx.

In Isaiah 16:9, 'Jazer,' 'the vine of Sibmah,' and 'Heshbon and Elealeth,' signify the people of the external church, who explain the Word to favor...

'Wickedness' signifies evil, and 'iniquity' signifies falsities.

Angels do give us guidance, but they are mere helpers; the Lord alone governs us, through angels and spirits. Since angels have their assisting role,...

'Nations' signify people who are in the good of love and charity from the Lord. Two nations in the womb,' as in Genesis 25:23, signify...

A 'sword,' in the Word, signifies the truth of faith combating and the vastation of truth. In an opposite sense, it signifies falsity combating and...

Go after
To go after or to follow, as in Genesis 24:8, signifies to be separated from the natural, and conjoined to the rational principle.

Behind, or after, (Gen. 16:13), signifies within or above, or an interior or superior principle.

The word "great" is used in the Bible to represent a state with a strong degree of love and affection, of the desire for good;...

To “break” something creates an image that is much different from “attacking,” “destroying,” or “shattering.” It is less emotional, less violent in its intent; it...

Go up
To go up and to go down: in the Word, mention is made of going up and going down when speaking of going from one...

'Weeping' represents both sorrow and love.

In the physical world, the places we inhabit and the distances between them are physical realities, and we have to get our physical bodies through...

Go out
To go out to meet, as in Genesis 14:17, signifies to submit themselves. To go out, as in Genesis 28:10, signifies to live more remotely....

Priests' represent the Lord regarding His divine good. When they do not acknowledge the Lord, they lose their signification of the Lord.

Captains and Rulers (Jer. 51:23) signifies principal evils and falsities. Captains and Rulers (Ezek 33:6) signifies principal truths. See Chief Captains.

Coming (Gen. 41:14) denotes communication by influx.

Cities of the mountain and cities of the plain (Jer. 33:13) signify doctrines of charity and faith.

Mountains in the Bible represent people's highest points, where we are closest to the Lord - our love of the Lord and the state of...

The Lord, in the simplest terms, is love itself expressed as wisdom itself. In philosophic terms, love is the Lord's substance and wisdom is His...

'Works,' as in Genesis 46:33, denote goods, because they are from the will, and anything from the will is either good or evil, but anything...

Bloods signify evil, in Ezek. 16:9.

'Long' and thence to prolong, refer to good.

Our five senses correspond to spiritual affections, or the attraction we feel toward spiritual things. The sense of taste, according to the Writings, corresponds to...

When something is described as quiet, still or calm in the Bible, it represents the state of peace that comes with being aligned with the...

'The sense of smell,' in general, corresponds to the affection for perceiving.

The expression 'even to this day' or 'today' sometimes appears in the Word, as in Genesis 19:37-38, 22:14, 26:33, 32:32, 35:20, and 47:26. In a...

As with many common verbs, the meaning of “to say” in the Bible is highly dependent on context. Who is speaking? Who is hearing? What...

'Being sent' everywhere signifies, in an internal sense, going forth, as in John 17:8. In similar manner, it is said of the holy of the...

'Vessels,' in the internal sense, signify things serving as a receptacle, as scientific ideas and knowledges are to truths, and as truths themselves are to...

To be ashamed (Gen 2:25) signifies to be in evil

When Jacob had his famous dream, of a staircase leading to heaven, he named the place "Bethel," which is Hebrew for "the house of God."...

War in the Word represents the combat of temptation when what is good is assaulted by what is evil or false. The evil that attacks...

"Down" is used many different ways in natural language, and its spiritual meaning in the Bible is highly dependent on context. Phrases like "bowing down,"...

It's easy to see that names are important in the Bible. Jehovah changed Abram and Sarai to Abraham and Sarah, changed Jacob to Israel and...

An affliction "such as was not from the beginning of the world, no nor ever shall be", mentioned in 'Matthew 24:21', means the infestation from...

'To hasten' or 'hastiness' in the internal sense, does not denote what is quick, but what is certain, and also what is full, thus every...

Round about
'Round about' denotes the things most distant from the middle, or from good and truth.

Grief is anxiety of heart or will.

Throughout the Word, a distinction is made between wisdom, intelligence, and knowledge. 'Wisdom' means from good, 'intelligence' is from truth, and 'knowledge' is in a...

Strength' relates truth and falsity. Strength,' as in Luke 10:27, signifies the will and understanding extended to extremes. Strength,' as in Revelation 1:6, signifies divine...

Come down
To come down (Gen. 11:5), is predicated of Jehovah, by reason of his being called the Highest. This is spoken according to appearance.

If you think about sitting, it seems fair to say that where you're sitting is more important than that you're sitting. Sitting in a movie...

In John 14:6, 'the way is doctrine,' 'the truth' is every thing pertaining to doctrine, and 'the life' is the essential good which is the...

As with most common verbs, the spiritual meaning of “crying” or “crying out” (meaning a shout or wail, not weeping) is highly dependent on context....

Punishment' is the consummation of evil, because after punishment, reformation succeeds. This is why it says in Deuteronomy 25:3, 'that no more than forty stripes...

'Holon, Jahazah, Mephaath, Dibon, Nebo, Beth-diblathaim, Kiriathaim, Beth-gamu, Beth-meon, Kerioth, Bozrah,' as mentioned in Jeremiah 48:21-26, signify the kinds of the false principle, whereby those...

'Lands' of different nations are used in the Word to signify the different kinds of love prevalent in the inhabitants.

'A horn,' when spoken of the Lord, signifies omnipotence. 'The little horn that rose up,' as mentioned in Daniel 7:3-8, signifies the full perversion of...

Arms and feet (Daniel 10:6) signify the exterior things of the Word, which are its literal sense.

'To satiate' relates to the extent of a person's will, for good or evil.

Like "say," the word "speak" refers to thoughts and feelings moving from our more internal spiritual levels to our more external ones – and ultimately...

'Rocks' signify the good and truth of faith.

'A turtle dove' and 'young pigeon,' as in Genesis 15:9, represents exterior and interior spiritual things.

'Pride' signifies the love of self.

'Height' signifies what is inward, and also heaven.

To howl' signifies grief caused by vastation.

Kir' denotes people who possess the knowledges of good and truth but pervert them.

Vine of sibmah
'The vine of Sibmah' signifies people of the external church who explain the Word to favor worldly love.

'Sibmah' signifies the members of the external church, who explain the Word to favor worldly love.

Nebo, Kiriathaim, Misgab, Sibmah, Jaser, and Chemosh,' as in Jeremiah 48:1, signify the false principles which taint people who are principled in natural good.

'The sea and the waves roaring' means heresy and controversies in the church and individual.

Summer' signifies the full state of the church, the same as 'noon.'

In Revelation 18:13, 'wine, oil, flour, and wheat' signify celestial principles of worship.

In Genesis 27:22, 'voice' relates to truth, and 'hand,' to good.

Zoar, a city mentioned in Genesis 8:10, signifies the affection of goodness. Zoar was located not far from Sodom; Lot fled to Zoar after he...

'Waters,' 'rivers,' and 'depths,' as in Psalm 78:15-16, signify truths from the Lord.

'Offerings' signify worship.

The Lord is love itself, expressed in the form of wisdom itself. Love, then, is His essence, His inmost. Wisdom - the loving understanding of...

'Pipes' signify the joys of the affection of the knowledges of good and truth.

'Wealth' signifies scientific knowledge, as seen in several passages in the Word.

‘To grieve at heart’ is in reference to love, and ‘to repent,’ to wisdom, as in Genesis 6:6.

'Hairs of the head, the beard, and the feet,' as mentioned in Isaiah 7:20, signify the following things: 'Hairs of the head' signify the outermost...

The head is the part of us that is highest, which means in a representative sense that it is what is closest to the Lord....

Swedenborg tell us that in terms of measurement, height relates to the desire for good and breadth relates to the knowledge of truth. Following that,...

'To be satisfied with favor' signifies being filled with the good of love, and 'to be full with the blessings of the Lord' signifies being...

Swedenborg says that the Lord is the sun of heaven, and like the natural sun of our world shines on everyone, good or evil. What...

The symbolic meaning of "seeing" is "understanding," which is obvious enough that it has become part of common language (think about it; you might see...

Eagle wings, referred to in Daniel 7:3, signify rational principles grounded in man's proprium.

'The voice of wings,' as in Revelation 9:9, signifies rationalizations, because 'to fly' signifies perceiving and instructing.

'Wings' signify spiritual truths. 'Wings,' when related to the Lord, signify the divine spiritual. In the opposite sense, 'wings' relate to falsities and rationalizations from...

The heart means love. A good heart means love to the Lord and to the neighbor while a hard or stony heart means the love...

'Women,' as in Genesis 45:19, signify the affections of truth. But in Genesis 31:50, 'women' signify affections of not genuine truth, so not of the...

Generally speaking things that are seen as lower physically in the Bible represent things that are lower or more external spiritually. In some cases this...

'The shadow is good' of the oak, poplar and elm means complacence.

Just as natural fire can be both comforting in keeping you warm or scary in burning down your house, so fire in the spiritual sense...

'Sons of the stranger' signify counterfeit truths, or falsities. 'Our sons' signify the doctrines of truth, and 'our daughters,' the doctrines of good, as in...

'To be in prison,' as in Revelation 2:10, signifies being infested by evils from hell, because this is like being bound in prison, because they...

"Behold I have two daughters,” etc. (Gen. 19:8), signifies the affections of good and truth, and the blessedness perceivable from the enjoyment thereof, by those...




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'To put' has reference to order, arrangement, application, and influx.

(Odkazy: Arcana Coelestia 6725)

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Arcana Coelestia # 2832

Arcana Coelestia (Elliott translation)      

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2832. 'By its horns' means with all its power as regards the truths of faith. This is clear from the meaning of 'horns'. Horns are mentioned in various places in the Word, in which places they mean the power of truth which springs from good, and in the contrary sense the power of falsity which springs from evil. In this place the meaning is that those who are spiritual, meant by 'the ram', were entangled in natural knowledge with all their power as regards truth, and that as a consequence they were bereft of the power to perceive truths. For the more anyone relies on natural facts and keeps his mind (animus et mens) fixed on these where truths of faith are concerned, the more he loses the light of truth; and when he loses this light he loses the life of truth as well. Anyone may recognize this, if he stops to reflect, from his experience of people who say they are unable to believe anything unless they grasp that it is so through sensory evidence or through factual knowledge. If you probe into what they are really like you will discover that they believe nothing at all, and what is more that to them nothing seems wiser than to ascribe every single thing to natural forces. There are also many who say that they believe even though they do not apprehend. But secretly within themselves these reason no less than others from sensory evidence and factual knowledge regarding the truths of faith whether the thing is so. These either possess a kind of persuasive belief infused into them from self-love and love of the world, or else they do not have any belief at all. Their true nature is evident from their life. Both groups of people are indeed within the Lord's spiritual Church, yet they are not of the Church. They are of the Church however when the life of good is present in them and they have faith in truths. But spiritual people have faith in no other truths than those which have been impressed on them from early childhood and which after that they have confirmed for themselves from doctrine or some other source. Such is the state of those who are spiritual, a state which is described here by 'a ram caught in the thicket by its horns' - see immediately above in 2831.

[2] A horn means the power of truth that springs from good.

This is clear from the following places: In David,

You are the splendour of their strength, and in Your good pleasure You will exalt our horn. For our shield belongs to Jehovah, and our king to the Holy One of Israel. My truth and My mercy will be with him, and in My name his horn will be exalted. And I will set his hand on the sea, and his right hand on the rivers. Psalms 89:17-18, 24-25.

Here 'our horn' and 'his horn' plainly stand for the power of truth. The subject is the Lord's spiritual kingdom. 'Our king belongs to the Holy One of Israel' stands for the fact that Divine Truth is the Lord's 'a king' being truth, and the Lord's kingship Divine Truth, see 1672, 1728, 2015, 2069. 'Setting his hand on the sea, and his right hand on the rivers' stands for the fact that strength resides in knowledge and in cognitions of truth - 'hand' and 'right hand' being strength, 878, and 'sea' and 'river' knowledge and cognitions, 28, 2702. In the same author,

I will love You, O Jehovah, my strength. Jehovah is my rock (petra), and my fortress, and my deliverer, my God, my rock (rupee) in which I trust, a shield and the horn of salvation. Psalms 18:1-2; 2 Samuel 22:2-3.

'The horn of salvation' stands for truth as regards its power, and here 'strength', 'rock' (petra), 'fortress', 'God', 'rock' (rupee), and 'shield' all mean spiritually the power of truth.

(Odkazy: Psalms 89:24)

[3] In the same author,

In Zion I will make the horn of David to spring forth, I will make ready a lamp for My anointed. His enemies I will clothe with shame. Psalms 132:17-18.

This refers to the Lord, who is 'David', 1888. 'Horn' stands for the power of truth, 'a lamp' for the light of truth. In Samuel,

My heart has exulted in Jehovah, my horn has exalted itself in Jehovah. My mouth has been enlarged against my enemies because I have rejoiced in Your salvation. Jehovah will give strength to His king, and will exalt the horn of His anointed. 1 Samuel 2:1, 10.

In this prophecy of Hannah 'horn' stands for the power of truth.

[4] In Moses,

The firstborn of his cattle has honour, and his horns are unicorn horns. 1 With them he will thrust 2 the peoples together to the ends of the earth. Deuteronomy 33:17.

In this prophecy of Moses concerning Joseph 'unicorn horns' stands for the mighty power of truth, as is also evident from the statement that 'with them he will thrust the peoples to the ends of the earth'. Similarly in David,

You will exalt my horn like that of a unicorn. Psalms 92:10.

And in the same author,

O Jehovah, save me from the mouth of the lion, and from the unicorn horns 1 answer me. Psalms 22:21.

Divine truths, on account of their height, are called 'unicorn horns'. It is for this reason that mention is made so many times of a horn being exalted, for exaltation means power derived from what is interior. As regards what is internal being expressed as that which is high, see 1735, 2148.

[5] In Jeremiah,

The Lord has cut down in fierce anger the whole horn of Israel, He has drawn back His right hand from before the enemy. Lamentations 2:3.

'Cutting down the whole horn of Israel' stands for deprivation of truth which possesses power. This is also the meaning of 'drawing back the right hand from before the enemy'. In Ezekiel,

On that day I will make a horn grow up for the house of Israel, and I will give you an opening of the mouth in the midst of them. Ezekiel 29:21.

'Making a horn grow up for the house of Israel' stands for multiplying the truths of the spiritual Church, meant by Israel, 'an opening of the mouth' for the confession of those truths.

(Odkazy: Revelation 17:9)

[6] In Habakkuk,

God will come out of Teman, and the Holy One from Mount Paran. His fame has covered the heavens, and the earth has been filled with His praise. And His brightness will be as the light; He has horns going out of His hand, and there the hiding-place of His strength will be. Habakkuk 3:3-4.

This refers to the Lord. 'Horns going out of His hand' and 'there the hiding-place of His strength will be', it is plain, stands for the power of truth. 'Mount Paran' is the Divine spiritual or Divine Truth of the Lord's Human - see 2714 - which is also 'the brightness' and 'the light'.

[7] The Divine Truth of the Lord's Human is described in John as follows,

I looked, and behold, in the midst of the throne and of the four living creatures, a Lamb standing as though it had been slain, having seven horns, which are the seven spirits of God sent out into all the earth. Revelation 5:6.

'Seven horns' stands for holy, or Divine, truths - 'seven' meaning that which is holy, see 716, 881. 'The seven spirits sent out into all the earth' are the holy proclaimings of those same truths.

[8] The horns of altars meant nothing other than truth which possessed power, being spoken of in Moses as follows,

You shall make horns on the four corners of the altar; its horns shall be of one piece with it. Exodus 27:2; 38:2.

In a similar way the altar of incense was to have them on it; and it is said that the horns were to be of one piece with it, Exodus 30:2; 37:25. For the altar was the chief representative of the Lord, and of worship of Him, see 921. 'The altar' was a representative of His Divine Good, 'the horns' representatives of His Divine Truth. The derivation of truth from good was represented by the horns being protrusions from it, that is, from the altar. For the consideration that no other truth exists except that which is derived from good, see 654, 1068, 3 1162, 1176, 2063, 2261, 2417. From all this it is evident that 'horns' in the genuine sense means the power of truth that springs from good.

(Odkazy: Arcana Coelestia 2429)

[9] Truths springing from good were meant in the following instances:

When Aaron and his sons were being admitted into their function, they were to take some of the blood of the young bull and place it with their finger on the horns of the altar. Exodus 29:12; Leviticus 8:15.

Aaron was to make atonement once a year on the horns of the altar. Exodus 30:10.

When a priest sinned he was to offer a young bull, and to place some of the blood on the horns of the altar of incense. Leviticus 4:3, 7.

Also, when a prince sinned he was to offer a burnt offering, and the blood was to be sprinkled over the horns of the altar of burnt offering. Leviticus 4:22, 25.

The same had to be done if a person 4 sinned - Leviticus 4:27, 30, 34 - and also when the altar was to be ritually cleansed. Leviticus 16:18-19.

Truths springing from good were meant, for all consecrations, inaugurations, and cleansings were effected by means of truths, because truths lead towards good, 2830. That 'the horns of the altar' meant truths springing from good may also be seen in John,

The sixth angel sounded, and I heard a voice from the four horns of the golden altar, which stood before God. Revelation 9:13.

'The horns of the golden altar' plainly stands for truths that spring from good, for it was from the horns that the voice came. 'Gold' means good, 113, 1551, 1552, and 'the golden altar' more especially so.

(Odkazy: Arcana Coelestia 1551-1552)

[10] In Amos,

On the day I visit Israel for his transgressions, I will visit the altars of Bethel; and the horns of the altar will be cut away and fall to the ground. Amos 3:14.

'The horns of the altar will be cut away' meant that in that place the representation of truth springing from good would remain no longer. 'Bethel' is Divine good, and is therefore called 'the king's sanctuary' and 'a house of the kingdom' in Amos 7:13. The practice of anointing kings with oil from a horn, 1 Samuel 16:1, 13; 1 Kings 1:39, in a similar way represented truth springing from good - 'oil' being the good, 886, 'horn' however the truth; the kingly office itself in the internal sense means truth such as this, 1782, 2015, which possesses power.

[11] A horn in the contrary sense means the power of falsity that springs from evil

This is clear from the following places: In Amos,

O you who rejoice in a thing of nought, saying, Have we not by our own strength acquired horns for ourselves? Amos 6:13.

'Home' here stands for the power of falsity. In Zechariah,

I lifted up my eyes and saw, and behold, four horns! And I said to the angel who talked to me, What are these? And he said to me, These are the horns which have scattered Judah, Israel, and Jerusalem. And Jehovah showed me four smiths, and I said, What are these coming to do? And He said, These are the horns which have scattered Judah so that no man raised his head, and these have come to terrify, to cast down the horns of the nations lifting up their horn against the land of Judah to scatter it. Zechariah 1:18-21.

'Horns' stands for the power of falsity that lays waste the Church. In Ezekiel,

You push with side and shoulder, and butt with your horns all the weak [sheep] until you have scattered them abroad. Ezekiel 34:21.

This refers to shepherds who mislead by means of falsities. 'Horns' stands for the power of falsity, 'shoulder' for all the power they had, 1085. In Jeremiah,

Jehovah has destroyed and not spared; and He has caused the enemy to rejoice over you. He has exalted the horn of your foes. Lamentations 2:17.

In the same prophet,

The horn of Moab has been cut off and his arm broken. Jeremiah 48:25.

'Horn' here stands for powerful falsity.

[12] In David,

I said to the boastful, Do not boast; and to the wicked, Do not lift up the horn, do not lift up your horn on high, do not speak with a stiff neck. All the horns of the wicked I will cut away; the horns of the righteous will be exalted. Psalms 75:4-5, 10.

'The horns of the wicked' stands for the power of falsity that springs from evil, 'the horns of the righteous' for the power of truth that springs from good.

[13] In Daniel,

A fourth beast appeared, terrible and dreadful, exceedingly strong, which had iron teeth. It devoured, and broke in pieces, and trampled on the residue with its feet. It had ten horns. I was considering the horns, and behold, another little horn came up among them and three of the first horns were plucked up from before it. And behold, there were eyes in this horn like the eyes of a man (homo), and a mouth speaking great things. I looked then because of the sound of the great words that the horn was speaking. I desired to know the truth about the fourth beast, and about the ten horns that were on its head, and about the other one that came up, and before which three of them fell, and about the same horn which had eyes, and a mouth speaking great things. As I looked this same horn made war with the saints, and prevailed over them until the Ancient of Days came and judgement was given to the saints. And he said, As for the fourth beast, it will be a fourth kingdom on the earth, which will be different from all the kingdoms and will devour the whole earth, and trample it down, and break it in pieces. As for the ten horns, out of that same kingdom ten kings will arise, and another will arise after them, who will be different from the previous ones, and he will put down three kings. He will speak words against the Most High, and wear out the saints. After this the judgement will sit. Daniel 7:7-8, 11, 19-26.

This refers in the internal sense to the perverted state of the Church. The things mentioned here which Daniel saw - such as the beast, the iron teeth, the horn with eyes in it, and the horns that spoke; also the war these made with the saints, and [the king] speaking against the Most High - mean a state of falsity and of heresies inside the Church. For 'horns' means powerful and prevalent falsity, as may be seen merely from the consideration that 'eyes' - that is, the power of understanding, 2701 - are attributed to them, and that they spoke even against the Most High. By 'kingdoms' and 'kings' are not meant kingdoms and kings but doctrines that teach what is false, as may be seen from the meaning of them in the Word as doctrines teaching what is true, and in the contrary sense doctrines teaching what is false, see 1672, 2015, 2069, 2547.

[14] Elsewhere in Daniel when he saw a ram standing before the river, which had two horns, horns however which were high, yet one higher than the other, though the higher one had come up last,

I saw the ram butting 5 towards the west, and towards the north, and towards the south, so that no wild beast could stand before him, nor was there anyone to deliver out of his hand; therefore he did as he pleased and magnified himself. As I was considering, behold, a he-goat came from the west across the surface of the whole earth. This he-goat had a horn between his two eyes. He came to the two-horned ram 6 and ran at him in the fury of his might. He struck him and broke his two horns, and there was no strength in the ram to stand before him. After that the he-goat magnified himself exceedingly, but when he was strong, the great horn was broken, and there came up four horns in its place. Shortly after, out of one of them there came forth a little horn, and it grew exceedingly towards the south, and towards the east, and towards the glorious [land]. And it grew even towards the host of heaven, and cast down to earth some of the host, and of the stars, and trampled on them. The ram with the two horns is the kings of Media and Persia, the he-goat the king of Greece. The four horns in place of the one are four kingdoms from that nation. Daniel 8:1-end.

This refers in the internal sense to the state of the spiritual Church, meant by 'the ram', 2830; it describes how the state of that Church gradually deteriorated and was perverted. 'The he-goat' is those who have faith separated from charity, or truth separated from good, who start to raise themselves up against what is good and at length against the Lord. 'The horns of the ram' are the truths, internal and external, of the spiritual Church, 'the horns of the he-goat' truths which degenerate gradually into falsities. By 'kingdoms' and 'kings' here are not meant kingdoms and kings but truths and falsities, as stated just above. For essentially the Word of the Lord does not have to do with worldly and earthly matters but with spiritual and celestial.

(Odkazy: Daniel 8)

[15] In John,

Another sign appeared in heaven, for behold, a great fiery-red dragon having seven heads, and ten horns, and on his heads seven jewels. With his tail he drew a third part of the stars of heaven and cast them down to the earth. Revelation 12:3-4.

And elsewhere in the same book,

I saw a beast coming up out of the sea, which had seven heads, and ten horns, and on its horns ten jewels, and on its heads a blasphemous name. It was allowed to make war on the saints and to conquer them. Then I saw another beast coming up out of the earth, which had two horns like a lamb. Revelation 13:1-2, 7, 11.

Yet again in the same book,

I saw a woman sitting on a scarlet beast, full of blasphemous names. It had seven heads and ten horns. She was Babylon the great. The seven heads are seven mountains on which the woman is seated, and they are seven kings. The ten horns are ten kings. Revelation 17:3, 5, 7, 9-10, 12-13.

Here as in Daniel 'horns' clearly means the powers of falsity.


1. i.e. horns that are high and powerful, like the horn of a unicorn

2. literally, he will strike with the horn

3. The Latin is 1608.

4. literally, a soul

5. literally, striking with the horn

6. literally, to the ram, the lord of the horns


(Odkazy: Genesis 22:13, 23:8; Revelation 17:9)

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From Swedenborg's Works

Inbound References:

Arcana Coelestia 3009, 3448, 4402, 4489, 4769, 7456, 7729, 9065, 9081, 9494, 9719, 9930, 10182

Heaven and Hell 356

The New Jerusalem and its Heavenly Doctrine 51

References from Swedenborg's unpublished works:

Apocalypse Explained 176

Other New Christian Commentary

Thanks to the Swedenborg Society for the permission to use this translation.