And when any one offereth an oblation of a meal-offering unto Jehovah, his oblation shall be of fine flour; and he shall pour oil upon it, and put frankincense thereon:
and he shall bring it to Aaron's sons the priests; and he shall take thereout his handful of the fine flour thereof, and of the oil thereof, with all the frankincense thereof; and the priest shall burn [it as] the memorial thereof upon the altar, an offering made by fire, of a sweetsavor unto Jehovah:
And every oblation of thy meal-offering shalt thou season with salt; neither shalt thou suffer the salt of the covenant of thy God to be lacking from thy meal-offering: with all thine oblations thou shalt offer salt.
And if thou offer a meal-offering of first-fruits unto Jehovah, thou shalt offer for the meal-offering of thy first-fruits grain in the ear parched with fire, bruised grain of the fresh ear.
And thou shalt putoil upon it, and lay frankincense thereon: it is a meal-offering.
And the priest shall burn the memorial of it, part of the bruised grain thereof, and part of the oil thereof, with all the frankincense thereof: it is an offering made by fire unto Jehovah.
Verses 1-3. The worship of the Lord from the highest degree of celestial love is described.
Verse 4. Then follows a description of worship from interior celestial love, or charity to the neighbour, showing how it is connected with that from the highest celestial good, which is pure love to the Lord, and the lowest
Verses 5-6. A similar description of worship from celestial good in the Internal of the Natural succeeds, accompanied by an account of the arrangement of truths there, and of the influx of inmost celestial good.
Verse 7. And lastly, worship from the External of the Natural is described, showing that it is similar to worship from higher loves, but is in a lower degree
Verses 8-10. It is then shown that celestial worship in all these degrees and ways involves certain particulars, namely: the power to worship must be ascribed to the Lord; it must be acknowledged to be from celestial good inmostly derived from Him; and it must be exercised from Him. Also the worshiper will realize the conjunction of truth with good as from himself; he will be able to devote his life to the service of the Lord; he will experience a state of heavenly joy and peace; he will be able to appropriate good and truth; and he will worship the Lord from pure love
Verses 11-13. Again this worship of the Lord must be free from falsity; it must not be vitiated by merely natural delight; such imperfect worship only appertains to preparatory states; and in all worship there must be the mutual desire of truth for good and of good for truth, or in other words, every one who really loves the truth will desire also to be good, and all who sincerely desire to be good will also long for the truth
Verses 14-16. And also, during such worship, in preparatory states, it will be from natural good, and truth influenced by celestial good, and involving the sincere acknowledgement of the Lord.
701. As the ark is called "the ark of the covenant" it is also to be confirmed from the Word that it was called "the ark of the covenant" because the law was in it, and the "law," which in a broad sense means the Word, signifies the Lord in relation to Divine truth, which is the Word, thus Divine truth or the Word which is from the Lord and in which is the Lord; for all Divine truth proceeds from Him, and when this is received by man conjunction with the Lord is effected, and this conjunction is what is signified by "covenant." How conjunction of the Lord with man and of man with the Lord is effected, shall also be told in a few words. The Lord continually flows into all men with light that enlightens, and with the affection of knowing and understanding truths, also for willing and doing them; and as that light and that affection continually flow in from the Lord, it follows that man becomes rational to the extent that he receives of that light, and he becomes wise and is led by the Lord so far as he receives of that affection. That affection with its light draws to itself and conjoins to itself the truths that man from infancy has learned from the Word, from doctrine out of the Word, and from preaching; for every affection desires to be nourished by the knowledges that are in harmony with it. From this conjunction man's spiritual love or affection is formed, through which he is conjoined to the Lord, that is, through which the Lord conjoins man to Himself.
 But in order that that light and that affection may be received, freedom of choice has been given to man, and as that freedom is from the Lord, it is also a gift of the Lord with man and is never taken away from him; for that freedom belongs to man's affection or love, and consequently also to his life. From freedom a man can think and will what is evil, and can also think and will what is good. So far, therefore, as from that freedom, which belongs to his love and thence to his life, man thinks falsities and wills evils, which are the opposites of the truths and goods of the Word, so far he is not conjoined to the Lord; but so far as he thinks truths and wills goods, which are from the Word, so far he is conjoined to the Lord, and the Lord makes those truths and goods to be of his love, and thence of his life. From this it is evident that this conjunction is reciprocal, namely, of the Lord with man and of man with the Lord; such is the conjunction that is meant in the Word by "covenant."
 He greatly errs who believes that man is incapable of doing anything for his own salvation because the light to see truths and the affection of doing them, as well as the freedom to think and will them, are from the Lord, and nothing of these from man. Because these appear to man to be as if in himself, and when they are thought and willed to be as from himself, man ought, because of that appearance, to think and will them as if from himself, but at the same time acknowledge that they are from the Lord. In no other way can anything of truth and good or of faith and love be appropriated to man. If one lets his hands hang down and waits for influx he receives nothing, and can have no reciprocal conjunction with the Lord, thus he is not in the covenant. That this is so is clearly evident from this, that the Lord in a thousand passages in the Word has taught that man must do good and must not do evil, and this the Lord would by no means have said, unless something had been given to man by which he has ability to do, and unless that which has been given to man might seem to him to be as if his own, although it is not his. Because this is so the Lord speaks thus in John:
I stand at the door and knock; if anyone hear My voice and open the door I will come in to him, and will sup with him and he with Me (Revelation 3:20).
 That "covenant" signifies conjunction with the Lord through the reception of Divine truth by the understanding and will, or by the heart and soul, that is, by love and faith, and that this conjunction is effected reciprocally, can be seen from the Word where "covenant" is mentioned. For from the Word it is evident:
1. That the Lord Himself is called a "covenant," because conjunction with Him is effected by Him through the Divine that proceeds from Him.
2. That the Divine proceeding, which is Divine truth, thus the Word, is the covenant, because it conjoins.
3. That the commandments, judgments, and statutes commanded to the sons of Israel were to them a covenant, because through these there was then conjunction with the Lord.
4. And further, that whatever conjoins is called a "covenant."
 As to the first: That the Lord Himself is called a "covenant," because conjunction with Him is effected by Him through the Divine that proceeds from Him, is evident from the following passages. In Isaiah:
I Jehovah have called Thee in righteousness, and I will take hold of Thine hand and will guard Thee, and I will give thee for a covenant of the people and for a light of the nations (Isaiah 42:6).
This is said of the Lord, who is called "a covenant of the people and a light of the nations," because a "covenant" signifies conjunction, and "light" Divine truth; "peoples" mean those who are in truths, and "nations" those who are in goods (see above, n. 175, 331, 625); "to call Him in righteousness" signifies to establish righteousness by separating the evil from the good and by saving the good and condemning the evil; "to take hold of the hand and to guard" signifies to do this from Divine Omnipotence, which the hells cannot resist; Jehovah's doing this means that it is done by the Divine in the Lord.
I have given Thee for a covenant of the people, to restore the earth and to inherit the wasted heritages (Isaiah 49:8).
This, too, is said of the Lord; and "to give for a covenant of the people" signifies that there may be conjunction with Him and by Him; "to restore the earth" signifies the church; and "to inherit the wasted heritages" signifies to restore the goods and truths of the church that have been destroyed.
 In David:
I have made a covenant with My chosen, and I have sworn to David My servant, even to eternity will I establish thy seed, to eternity will I keep for him My mercy, and My covenant shall be steadfast for Him (Psalms 89:3, 4, 28).
"David" here means the Lord in relation to His royalty (see above, n. 205, and he is called "chosen" from good, and "servant" from truth; "to make a covenant and swear to him" signifies the uniting of the Lord's Divine with His Human, "to make a covenant" meaning to become united, and "to swear" meaning to confirm it; "even to eternity will I establish thy seed" signifies the eternity of Divine truth from Him; "to eternity will I keep for him My mercy" signifies the eternity of Divine good from Him; "My covenant shall be steadfast" signifies the union of the Divine and Human in Him. This becomes the sense of these words when, instead of David, the Lord in relation to the Divine Human and its royalty is understood, respecting which this is said in the sense of the letter, because in that sense David is treated of, with whom there was no eternal covenant.
The God of Israel said, the rock of Israel spake to me; and He shall be as light in the morning when the sun riseth, without clouds; from the brightness after rain cometh grass out of the earth. Is not my house firm with God? For He hath set for me a covenant of eternity, to order over all and to keep (2 Samuel 23:3-5).
This is said by David; and "the God of Israel" and "the rock of Israel" mean the Lord in relation to Divine truth; what is signified by "He shall be as light in the morning when the sun riseth, a morning without clouds, from the brightness after rain cometh grass out of the earth," may be seen above n. 644. This describes Divine truth proceeding from the Lord, from which is all germination of truth and fructification of good. "Is not my house firm with God?" signifies the church conjoined with the Lord through the Divine truth, "the house of David" meaning the church; "for He hath set for me a covenant of eternity" signifies that from the union of His Human with the Divine He has conjunction with the men of the church; "to order over all and to keep" signifies from which He rules over all things and all persons, and saves such as receive.
Ye shall know that I have sent this commandment unto you, that My covenant may be with Levi. My covenant with him was of life and of peace, which I gave to him with fear, that he might fear Me. The law of truth was in his mouth, and perversity was not found in his lips. But ye have turned aside out of the way, ye have caused many to stumble in the law, ye have corrupted the covenant of Levi (Malachi 2:4-6, 8).
"The covenant of Jehovah with Levi" signifies in the highest sense the union of the Divine with the Human in the Lord, and in a relative sense, the Lord's conjunction with the church; for by "Levi" as by "David" the Lord is meant, but "Levi" means the Lord in relation to Divine good, which is the priesthood of the Lord, and "David" in relation to Divine truth, which is the royalty of the Lord. That the Lord is meant by "Levi" is evident from its being said, "the law of truth was in his mouth, and perversity was not found in his lips," "the law of truth" signifying Divine truth from Divine good, and "lips" the doctrine of truth and instruction; and afterwards it is said:
The priest's lips shall keep knowledge; and they shall seek the law from His mouth, for He is the angel of Jehovah of Hosts (Malachi 2:7).
"A covenant of life and of peace" signifies that union and that conjunction (of which just above) from which the Lord Himself became life and peace, from which man has eternal life, and peace from the infestation by evils and falsities, thus by hell. What is signified by "His fear" may be seen above n. 696. Those who live contrary to Divine truth are meant by "ye have turned aside out of the way, ye have caused many to stumble in the law, ye have corrupted the covenant of Levi;" "to turn aside out of the way and to stumble in the law" signifies to live contrary to Divine truth, and "to corrupt the covenant of Levi" signifies to corrupt conjunction with the Lord.
Behold, I send My messenger, and he shall prepare the way before Me; and the Lord shall suddenly come to His temple; and the angel of the covenant whom ye desire (Malachi 3:1).
It is evidently the Lord's coming that is here proclaimed. The Lord is here called "Lord" from Divine good, and "the angel of the covenant" from Divine truth (as may be seen above, n. 242, 433, 444, where the rest of the passage is explained). From this it can be seen that "covenant," in reference to the Lord, means either Himself or the union of His Divine with the Human in Him, and in reference to those who are in heaven and in the church it means conjunction with Him through the Divine that proceeds from Him.
 Secondly, That the Divine proceeding, which is Divine truth, thus the Word, is the covenant, because it conjoins, can be seen from the following passages. In Moses:
Moses came down out of Mount Sinai, and told the people all the words of Jehovah and all the judgments. And all the people answered with one voice and said, All the words which Jehovah hath spoken will we do. And Moses wrote all the words of Jehovah in a book. And he took the book of the covenant, and read in the ears of the people; and they said, All that Jehovah hath spoken we will do and will hearken. And Moses took half of the blood of the burnt-offerings, and sprinkled upon the people, and said, Behold, the blood of the covenant that Jehovah hath concluded with you upon all these words. And they saw the God of Israel, and under His feet as it were a work of sapphire stone (Exodus 24:3, 4, 7, 8, 10).
That Divine truth which with us is the Word is a covenant, is evident from all these particulars regarded in the internal or spiritual sense; for Moses, who said these things to the people, represented the law, that is, the Word, as can be seen from various places where it is said, "Moses and the prophets," and elsewhere "the law and the prophets;" thus "Moses" stands for the law, and the law in a broad sense signifies the Word, which is Divine truth. The same may also be evident from this, that "Mount Sinai" signifies heaven, from which is Divine truth; likewise from this, that "the book of the covenant, which was read before the people," signifies the Word; also that the "blood," half of which was sprinkled upon the people, also signifies Divine truth, which is the Word, and as this conjoins, it is called "the blood of the covenant." Again, since all conjunction through Divine truth is conjunction with the Lord, "the God of Israel," who is the Lord, was seen by Moses, Aaron and his sons, and the seventy elders. What was "under His feet" was seen, because when "the Lord" means the Word, "His feet" mean the Word in its ultimates, that is, in the sense of its letter, for the sons of Israel did not see the Word interiorly; "as it were a work of sapphire stone" signifies to be transparent from internal truths, which are the spiritual sense of the Word. (But this may be seen explained in detail in Arcana Coelestia 9371-9412.)
 Of what nature the conjunction is that is signified by "covenant" can be seen from what has been set forth, namely, that it is like the covenants commonly made in the world, that is, on the part of one and on the part of the other; in like manner the covenants that the Lord makes with men must be on the part of the Lord and on the part of men; they must be on the part of both that there may be conjunction. The things on the Lord's part are stated in the preceding chapter, namely:
That He will bless their bread and their waters, that He will take away their diseases, and that they shall possess the land of Canaan from the Sea Suph even to the river Euphrates (Exodus 23:25-31).
Here "to bless the bread and the waters" signifies in the internal spiritual sense the fructification of good and the multiplication of truth, "bread" signifying every good of heaven and the church, and "waters" all the truths of that good; "to take away diseases" signifies to remove evils and falsities which are from hell, for these are diseases in the spiritual sense; "to possess the land from the Sea Suph to the river Euphrates" signifies the church in all its extension, which those have from the Lord who are conjoined to Him through Divine truth. But the things that must be on man's part are recounted in the three preceding chapters, and in brief are meant in the passage cited above by "the words and judgments of Jehovah" that Moses coming down from Mount Sinai declared to the people, to which the people, with one voice said, "All the words that Jehovah hath spoken we will do and will hearken. " It was for this reason that Moses divided the blood of the burnt offerings, and half of it, which was for the Lord, he left in the bowls, but the other half he sprinkled upon the people.
 That the conjunction of the Lord with men is effected through Divine truth is also meant by "blood" in the Gospels:
This blood is called "the blood of the new covenant," because "blood" signifies the Divine truth proceeding from the Lord, and "covenant" signifies conjunction. (That "blood" signifies the Divine truth proceeding from the Lord, received by man, may be seen above, n. 329, 476; and that "to drink" signifies to receive, to make one's own, and thus be conjoined, may also be seen above, n. 617.)
By the blood of thy covenant I will send forth thy bound out of the pit wherein is no water (Zechariah 9:11).
This is said of the Lord, who is plainly treated of in this chapter; and "the blood of the covenant" means, as above, the Divine truth, by which there is conjunction with the Lord. Who are meant by "those bound in the pit wherein is no water" can be seen above n. 537.
 As the Lord called His blood, meaning the Divine truth proceeding from Him, "the blood of the new covenant," it shall be said briefly what is meant by "the old covenant" and "the new covenant." "The old covenant" means conjunction through such Divine truth as was given to the sons of Israel, which was external, and therefore representative of internal Divine truth. They had no other Divine truth, because they could not receive any other, for they were external and natural men, and not internal or spiritual, as can be seen from the fact that such as knew anything about the Lord's coming had no other thought of Him than that He was to be a king who would raise them above all the peoples in the whole world, and thus establish a kingdom with them on the earth, and not in the heavens and therefrom on the earth with all who believe on Him. "The old covenant," therefore, was a conjunction through such Divine truth as is contained in the books of Moses and is called "commandments, judgments, and statutes," in which, nevertheless, there lay inwardly hidden such Divine truth as is in heaven, which is internal and spiritual. This Divine truth was disclosed by the Lord when He was in the world; and as through this alone there is conjunction of the Lord with men, therefore this is what is meant by "the new covenant," also by "His blood," which is therefore called "the blood of the new covenant." "Wine" has a similar meaning.
 This "new covenant," which was to be entered into with the Lord when He should come into the world, is sometimes treated of in the Word of the Old Covenant. Thus in Jeremiah:
Behold the days come in which I will make a new covenant with the house of Israel and with the house of Judah, not as the covenant which I made with your fathers, for they have made My covenant void. But this is the covenant that I will make with the house of Israel after these days; I will give My law in the midst of them, and will write it upon their heart, and I will be to them for God, and they shall be to Me for a people; neither shall they teach anymore a man his companion, a man his brother, saying, Know ye Jehovah, for all shall know Me, from the least of them even to the greatest of them (Jeremiah 31:31-34).
That Jehovah, that is, the Lord, "was to make a new covenant with the house of Israel and house of Judah" does not mean that it was to be made with the sons of Israel and with Judah, but with all who from the Lord are in the truths of doctrine and in the good of love to the Lord. That these are meant in the Word by "the sons of Israel" and by "Judah" may be seen above n. 433; that "the days come" means the Lord's coming is evident. That there would then be conjunction with the Lord through Divine truth, internal and spiritual, is meant by the words, "This is the covenant that I will make with the house of Israel after these days, I will give My law in the midst of them, and will write it upon their heart." This signifies that they would then receive Divine truth inwardly in themselves; for spiritual Divine truth is received by man inwardly, thus otherwise than with the sons of Israel and the Jews, who received it outwardly; for when a man receives Divine truth inwardly in himself, that is, makes it to be of his love and thus of his life, truth is known from the truth itself, because the Lord flows into His own truth with man, and teaches him; this is what is meant by the words, "they shall no more teach a man his companion, and a man his brother, saying, Know ye Jehovah, for all shall know Me, from the least even to the greatest." The conjunction itself thereby effected, which "the new covenant" signifies, is meant by "I will be to them for God, and they shall be to Me for a people."
They shall be to Me for a people, and I will be to them for God, and I will give them one heart and one way, to fear Me all the days; and I will make with them an eternal covenant that I will not turn Me back from after them, that I may do them good; and My fear will I put into their heart that they may not depart from with Me (Jeremiah 32:38-40).
This, too, is said of the Lord and of the new covenant with Him; conjunction thereby is meant by "I will be to them for God, and they shall be to me for a people," and is further described by this, that "He would give to them one heart and one way, to fear Him all the days," and that "He would not turn Himself back from after them, and that He would put fear into their heart that they might not depart from with Him;" "one heart and one way to fear Me" signifies one will of good and one understanding of truth for worshiping the Lord; and as the conjunction is reciprocal, that is, a conjunction of the Lord with them and of them with the Lord, it is said that He will not turn Him back from after them "that I may do them good, and they will not depart from with Me." From this it is clear what is signified by "the eternal covenant" that He will enter into with them, namely, conjunction through spiritual Divine truth, which truth, when received, constitutes the life of man, and from it comes eternal conjunction.
 In Ezekiel:
I will raise up over them one shepherd who shall feed them, My servant David. I Jehovah will be to them for God, and My servant David a prince in the midst of them. Then will I make with them a covenant of peace, I will cause the evil wild beast to cease that they may dwell securely in the wilderness, and sleep in the forests (Ezekiel 34:23-25).
This also is said of the Lord; and "David," who shall feed them and who shall be a prince in the midst of them, means the Lord in relation to the Divine truth, who is called a servant from serving; conjunction with the Lord through the Divine truth is meant by "the covenant" which He will make with them; this is called "a covenant of peace," because man by conjunction with the Lord has peace from the infestation of evil and falsity from hell; therefore also it is added, "I will cause the evil wild beast to cease, that they may dwell securely in the wilderness and sleep in the forests," "evil wild beast" meaning falsity and evil from hell, and "to dwell securely in the wilderness and to sleep in the forests" signifying that they shall be safe everywhere from all infestation from falsity and evil.
 In the same:
My servant David shall be a king over them, that they all may have one shepherd. And I will make a covenant of peace with them, it shall be a covenant of eternity with them; and I will give them and multiply them, and I will set My sanctuary in the midst of them to eternity, and My habitation with them; and I will be to them for God, and they shall be to Me for a people (Ezekiel 37:24, 26, 27).
Here also by "David" the Lord is meant, for it is evident that David was not to come again to be their king and shepherd; but the Lord is called "king" from Divine truth, for this is the royalty of the Lord, while Divine good is His priesthood; and the Lord is called "shepherd," because He will feed them with Divine truth, and thereby lead to the good of love, and thus to Himself; and because from this there is conjunction it is said, "I will make with them a covenant of peace, a covenant of eternity." What "a covenant of peace" signifies has been told just above, also that "I will be to them for God, and they shall be to Me for a people," means conjunction. The "sanctuary" that He will set in the midst of them, and the "habitation" that will be with them, signify heaven and the church, that are called a "sanctuary" from the good of love, and a "habitation" from the truths of that good, for the Lord dwells in truths from good.
In that day will I make a covenant for them with the wild beast of the field, with the bird of the heavens, and with the creeping thing of the earth; and I will break the bow and the sword and war from the earth; and I will make them to lie down securely; and I will betroth thee to Me forever (Hosea 2:18, 19).
This treats of the establishment of a New Church by the Lord. It is clear that the Lord would not then make a covenant with the wild beast of the field, with the bird of the heavens, and with the creeping thing of the earth, therefore these signify such things as are with man; "the wild beast of the field" signifying the affection of truth and good, "the bird of the heavens" spiritual thought, and "the creeping thing of the earth" the knowledge of the natural man. (What the rest signifies may be seen above, n. 650.) This makes evident that the covenant the Lord will make is a spiritual covenant, or a covenant through spiritual truth, and not a covenant through natural truth such as was made with the sons of Israel; this latter was "the old covenant," the former was "the new covenant."
 As "the law" that was promulgated by the Lord from Mount Sinai meant in a broad sense the Word, so also the tables on which that law was written are called "tables of the covenant" in Moses:
I went up into the mount to receive the tables of stone, the tables of the covenant which Jehovah made with you. At the end of forty days and forty nights Jehovah gave to me the two tables of stone, the tables of the covenant (Deuteronomy 9:9, 11).
These "tables," that is, the law written upon them, mean the Divine truth, through which there is conjunction with the Lord, and because of that conjunction they are called "the tables of the covenant;" and as all conjunction, like a covenant, is effected from the part of one and the part of the other, thus in turn on the one side and on the other, so there were two tables, and these were of stone; they were of stone because "stone" signifies the Divine truth in ultimates (see Arcana Coelestia 643Arcana Coelestia 643[1-4], 3720, 6426, 8609, 10376). For the same reason the ark in which these tables were placed was called "the ark of the Covenant," and with the sons of Israel this was the most holy thing of their worship, as has been shown in the preceding article.
 Thirdly, That the commandments, judgments, and statutes commanded to the sons of Israel were to them a covenant, because through these there was then conjunction with the Lord, can be seen from the following passages. In Moses:
If ye walk in My statutes, and keep My commandments and do them, I will have respect unto you, and will make you fruitful and multiply you, and I will establish My covenant with you. But if ye reject My statutes, so that ye do not all My commandments, whilst ye make My covenant void, I will do to you the opposite (Leviticus 26:3, 9, 15 seq.).
The statutes and commandments that were to be observed and done are set forth in the preceding chapter, and the goods they were to enjoy if they kept those commandments and statutes, and afterwards the evils that would come upon them if they did not keep them are set forth in this chapter. But the goods they were to enjoy were earthly and worldly goods, so too were the evils, because they were earthly and natural men, and not celestial and spiritual men, and consequently they knew nothing about the goods that affect man inwardly or the evils that afflict him inwardly; nevertheless the externals they were bound to observe were such as inwardly contained celestial and spiritual things, through which there is conjunction itself with the Lord; and as these were perceived in heaven, therefore the externals that the sons of Israel were to observe were called a "covenant." (But what the conjunction was of the Lord with the sons of Israel through these means may be seen in the New Jerusalem and Its Heavenly Doctrine, n. 248.)
 "Covenant" has a like meaning in the following passages. In Moses:
Jehovah said unto Moses, Write thou these words, for upon the mouth of these words I have made a covenant with thee and with Israel (Exodus 34:27).
In the same:
Keep the words of this covenant and do them, ye that stand here this day, your heads, your tribes, your officers, and every man of Israel, to pass over into the covenant of Jehovah and into His oath which Jehovah thy God maketh with thee this day, that He may establish thee this day for a people, and that He may be to thee for God; not with you only do I make this covenant and this oath, but also with everyone who is not here with you this day (Deuteronomy 29:9, 10, 12 -15).
In the second book of Kings:
King Josiah sent and gathered unto him all the elders of Judah and of Jerusalem; and the king went up to the house of Jehovah, and every man of Judah and all the inhabitants of Jerusalem with him, also the priests and the prophets, and the whole people from small even to great; and he read in their ears all the words of the book of the covenant which was found in the house of Jehovah; and the king stood by the pillar, and made the covenant before Jehovah to go after Jehovah and to keep His commandments and His testimonies and His statutes with all the heart and with all the soul, to establish all the words of this covenant written upon this book; and all the people stood in the covenant (2 Kings 23:1-3).
 But as regards the covenant that the Lord made with Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, this was not the same as the covenant He made with the posterity of Jacob, but it was a covenant on the part of the Lord that their seed should be multiplied, and to their seed the land of Canaan should be given, and on the part of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, that every male should be circumcised. That the covenant with the posterity of Jacob was different is evident in Moses:
Jehovah our God made with us a covenant in Horeb; Jehovah made not this covenant with our fathers, but with us (Deuteronomy 5:2, 3).
Regarding the former covenant it is written in Moses:
Jehovah brought Abraham forth abroad, and said, Look toward heaven and number the stars; and He said to him, So shall thy seed be. And He said to him, Take to thee 1
a heifer of three years old, and a she-goat of three years old, and a ram of three years old, and a turtle-dove, and a young pigeon. And he divided them in the midst, and he laid each part over against the other, but the birds divided he not. And the sun went down and it became very dark; and behold a furnace of smoke and a torch of fire passed through between the pieces. In that day Jehovah made a covenant with Abraham 2
saying, Unto thy seed will I give this land, from the river of Egypt to the great river Euphrates (Genesis 15:5-18).
I will give My covenant between Me and thee, and I will multiply thee exceedingly. I, behold, My covenant is with thee, and thou shalt be for a father of a multitude of nations, and I will make thee fruitful; and I will give to thee and to thy seed after thee the land of thy sojournings, all the land of Canaan, for an everlasting possession. This is My covenant that ye shall keep between Me and you and thy seed after thee. Every male shall be circumcised to you; he who is not circumcised in the flesh of the foreskin, that soul shall be cut off from his peoples, he hath made void My covenant. And My covenant will I set up with Isaac, whom Sarah shall bear to thee (Genesis 17:1-21).
From this it is clear what kind of a covenant was entered into with Abraham, namely, that "his seed should be multiplied exceedingly, and that the land of Canaan should be given to his seed for a possession. " The commandments, judgments, and statutes themselves by which the covenant was to be established are not mentioned, but still they are signified by "the heifer, she-goat, and ram of three years old," and by "the turtle-dove and young pigeon," for these animals signify such things as belong to the church, and "the land of Canaan" itself signifies the church. And because the Lord foresaw that the posterity of Abraham from Jacob would not keep the covenant, there appeared to Abraham "a furnace of smoke and a torch of fire passing through between the pieces;" "a furnace of smoke" signifying the dense falsity, and "the torch of fire" the direful evil into which the posterity of Jacob would come. This is confirmed also in Jeremiah 33:18-20. "Abraham divided the heifer, the she-goat, and the ram, and laid each part over against the other," according to the ritual of covenants between two parties. (But this may be seen fully explained in Arcana Coelestia 1783-1862.)
 The covenant was made by circumcision because circumcision represented the purification from the loves of self and of the world which are bodily and earthly loves, and the removal of these; therefore also the circumcision was made with a little knife of stone, which signified the truth of doctrine, by which all purification from evils and falsities and their removal is effected. (But the particulars recorded in that chapter respecting this covenant are explained in Arcana Coelestia 1987-2095; and respecting circumcision, n. 2039 at the end, 2046 at the end , 2632, 2799, 4462, 7044, 8093.) But as "Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob," mean in the internal sense the Lord, so "their seed" signify all who are of the Lord's church, which church is meant by "the land of Canaan," which their seed was to inherit.
 Fourth, That further, whatever conjoins is called a covenant; as the Sabbath in Moses:
The sons of Israel shall keep the Sabbath in their generations, the covenant of an age (Exodus 31:16).
The Sabbath was called "the covenant of an age," because the "Sabbath" signified in the highest sense the union of the Divine with the Human in the Lord, and in a relative sense the conjunction of the Lord with heaven and the church, and in a universal sense the conjunction of good and truth, which conjunction is called the heavenly marriage. Therefore "the rest on the Sabbath day" signified the state of that union and of that conjunction, since by that state there is peace and rest to the Lord, and thereby peace and salvation in the heavens and on the earth. (That this is the signification of "the Sabbath" and "the rest," then, can be seen in Arcana Coelestia 8494, 8495, 8510, 10356, 10360, 10367, 10370, 10374, 10668, 10730.)
 Again, the salt in the sacrifices is called "the salt of the covenant" in Moses:
Thou shalt not cause the salt of the covenant of thy God to cease upon thine offering, upon all thine offering thou shalt offer salt (Leviticus 2:13).
The salt upon the offering is called "the salt of the covenant," because "salt" signifies the desire of truth for good, whereby the two are conjoined. (On this signification of "salt" see Arcana Coelestia 9207.)
 A wife is called "the wife of a covenant" in Malachi:
Jehovah hath been a witness between thee and the wife of thy youth, against whom thou hast dealt treacherously, though she is thy companion and the wife of thy covenant (Malachi 2:14).
A wife is here called "the wife of the covenant" from her conjunction with her husband, but "wife" here signifies the church, and "the wife of youth" the Ancient Church, against which the Jewish Church is said to have dealt treacherously. Because these were both representative churches, and in this respect alike, and thus were conjoined, it is said, "though she is thy companion and the wife of thy covenant."
 "A covenant with the stones of the field" is spoken of in Job:
Thou shalt not be afraid of the wild beast of the field, for with the stones of the field is thy covenant, and the wild beast of the field shall be at peace with thee (Job 5:22, 23).
"A covenant with the stones of the field" signifies conjunction with the truths of the church, for "stones" signify truths, "field" the church, and "covenant" conjunction; "the wild beast of the field" signifies the love of falsity, of which wild beast "thou shalt not be afraid," and which "shall be at peace," when there is conjunction with the church through truths.
 Again, "a covenant with wild beasts and birds" is spoken of in Hosea:
In that day will I make a covenant for them with the wild beast of the field, with the bird of the heavens, and with the creeping thing of the earth (Hosea 2:18).
And in Moses:
God said unto Noah, Behold I establish My covenant with you and with every living soul that is with you, the bird, the beast, and every wild beast of the earth with you, of all that go out of the ark, even every wild beast of the earth (Genesis 9:9, 10).
"A covenant with beast, wild beast, bird and creeping thing of the earth," signifies conjunction with such things with man as are signified by these, for "beast" signifies the affection of good, "wild beast" the affection of truth, "bird" the thinking faculty, and "creeping thing of the earth" the knowing faculty which lives from these affections.
 "A covenant with death" is spoken of in Isaiah:
Ye have said, We have made a covenant with death, and with hell we have made vision. Your covenant with death shall be abolished, and your vision with hell shall not stand (Isaiah 28:15, 18).
"To make a covenant with death" signifies conjunction through falsity from hell, from which man dies spiritually; "to make a vision with hell" signifies divination from hell as if prophetic. From the passages here cited in series it can be seen that "covenant," where the Lord is treated of, signifies conjunction through Divine truth. There is, indeed, a conjunction with Him through the good of love; but because the Lord flows in with man through good into truths, whereby man has the affection of truth, and receives the Lord's good in truths, from which he acknowledges, confesses, and worships the Lord, thence the good of love conjoins through truth, comparatively as the heat of the sun in the time of spring and summer conjoins itself with the fructifications of the earth.