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Ezekiel 28

English: American Standard Version         

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1 The word of Jehovah came again unto me, saying,

2 Son of man, say unto the prince of Tyre, Thus saith the Lord Jehovah: Because thy heart is lifted up, and thou hast said, I am a god, I sit in the seat of God, in the midst of the seas; yet thou art man, and not God, though thou didst set thy heart as the heart of God;-

3 behold, thou art wiser than Daniel; there is no secret that is hidden from thee;

4 by thy wisdom and by thine understanding thou hast gotten thee riches, and hast gotten gold and silver into thy treasures;

5 by thy great wisdom [and] by thy traffic hast thou increased thy riches, and thy heart is lifted up because of thy riches;-

6 therefore thus saith the Lord Jehovah: Because thou hast set thy heart as the heart of God,

7 therefore, behold, I will bring strangers upon thee, the terrible of the nations; and they shall draw their swords against the beauty of thy wisdom, and they shall defile thy brightness.

8 They shall bring thee down to the pit; and thou shalt die the death of them that are slain, in the heart of the seas.

9 Wilt thou yet say before him that slayeth thee, I am God? but thou art man, and not God, in the hand of him that woundeth thee.

10 Thou shalt die the death of the uncircumcised by the hand of strangers: for I have spoken it, saith the Lord Jehovah.

11 Moreover the word of Jehovah came unto me, saying,

12 Son of man, take up a lamentation over the king of Tyre, and say unto him, Thus saith the Lord Jehovah: Thou sealest up the sum, full of wisdom, and perfect in beauty.

13 Thou wast in Eden, the garden of God; every precious stone was thy covering, the sardius, the topaz, and the diamond, the beryl, the onyx, and the jasper, the sapphire, the emerald, and the carbuncle, and gold: the workmanship of thy tabrets and of thy pipes was in thee; in the day that thou wast created they were prepared.

14 Thou wast the anointed cherub that covereth: and I set thee, [so that] thou wast upon the holy mountain of God; thou hast walked up and down in the midst of the stones of fire.

15 Thou wast perfect in thy ways from the day that thou wast created, till unrighteousness was found in thee.

16 By the abundance of thy traffic they filled the midst of thee with violence, and thou hast sinned: therefore have I cast thee as profane out of the mountain of God; and I have destroyed thee, O covering cherub, from the midst of the stones of fire.

17 Thy heart was lifted up because of thy beauty; thou hast corrupted thy wisdom by reason of thy brightness: I have cast thee to the ground; I have laid thee before kings, that they may behold thee.

18 By the multitude of thine iniquities, in the unrighteousness of thy traffic, thou hast profaned thy sanctuaries; therefore have I brought forth a fire from the midst of thee; it hath devoured thee, and I have turned thee to ashes upon the earth in the sight of all them that behold thee.

19 All they that know thee among the peoples shall be astonished at thee: thou art become a terror, and thou shalt nevermore have any being.

20 And the word of Jehovah came unto me, saying,

21 Son of man, set thy face toward Sidon, and prophesy against it,

22 and say, Thus saith the Lord Jehovah: Behold, I am against thee, O Sidon; and I will be glorified in the midst of thee; and they shall know that I am Jehovah, when I shall have executed judgments in her, and shall be sanctified in her.

23 For I will send pestilence into her, and blood into her streets; and the wounded shall fall in the midst of her, with the sword upon her on every side; and they shall know that I am Jehovah.

24 And there shall be no more a pricking brier unto the house of Israel, nor a hurting thorn of any that are round about them, that did despite unto them; and they shall know that I am the Lord Jehovah.

25 Thus saith the Lord Jehovah: When I shall have gathered the house of Israel from the peoples among whom they are scattered, and shall be sanctified in them in the sight of the nations, then shall they dwell in their own land which I gave to my servant Jacob.

26 And they shall dwell securely therein; yea, they shall build houses, and plant vineyards, and shall dwell securely, when I have executed judgments upon all those that do them despite round about them; and they shall know that I am Jehovah their God.

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Swedenborg

Hlavní výklad ze Swedenborgových prací:

Apocalypse Revealed 406

The Inner Meaning of the Prophets and Psalms 151


Další odkazy Swedenborga k této kapitole:

Arcana Coelestia 113, 114, 273, 1069, 1201, 1551, 1588, ...

Apocalypse Revealed 90, 206, 239, 254, 540, 606, 759, ...

Divine Love and Wisdom 325

Doctrine of the Lord 28

Sacred Scripture 45, 97

Faith 54

True Christianity 219, 260, 467, 773


References from Swedenborg's unpublished works:

Apocalypse Explained 110, 131, 236, 242, 268, 277, 294, ...

Coronis (An Appendix to True Christian Religion) 23, 27, 41, 58

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Word/Phrase Explanations

the Word
In general, we tend to be very aware of how knowing what's true leads to doing what is good. That starts as children, with parents...

word
'Word,' as in Psalms 119:6-17, stands for doctrine in general. 'The Word,' as in Psalms 147:18, signifies divine good united with divine truth. 'Word,' as...

jehovah
The Lord, in the simplest terms, is love itself expressed as wisdom itself. In philosophic terms, love is the Lord's substance and wisdom is His...

son of man
The Lord, in some places, calls Himself 'the son of God,' at other times, 'the son of man (ἄνθρωπος).' This is always according to the...

son
'A son,' as in Genesis 5:28, signifies the rise of a new church. 'Son,' as in Genesis 24:3, signifies the Lord’s rationality regarding good. 'A...

Tyre
'Tyre,' as in Ezekiel 27:13-14, represents people with knowledge of celestial and spiritual things.

saith
As with many common verbs, the meaning of “to say” in the Bible is highly dependent on context. Who is speaking? Who is hearing? What...

heart
The heart means love. A good heart means love to the Lord and to the neighbor while a hard or stony heart means the love...

god
The Lord is love itself, expressed in the form of wisdom itself. Love, then, is His essence, His inmost. Wisdom - the loving understanding of...

Sit
'To sit before Jehovah' is to be with Him, and so, it also means willing and acting from Him. 'To stand before Him,' is to...

seat
If you think about sitting, it seems fair to say that where you're sitting is more important than that you're sitting. Sitting in a movie...

seas
Water generally represents what Swedenborg calls “natural truth,” or true concepts about day-to-day matters and physical things. Since all water ultimately flows into the seas,...

Wisdom
Throughout the Word, a distinction is made between wisdom, intelligence, and knowledge. 'Wisdom' means from good, 'intelligence' is from truth, and 'knowledge' is in a...

riches
When the Bible talks about riches, it is talking about spiritual wealth, not worldly wealth – ideas and knowledge about the Lord and spiritual things,...

gold
'Money' relates to truth.

silver
'Silver,' in the internal sense of the Word, signifies truth, but also falsity. 'Silver' means the truth of faith, or the truth acquired from selfhood,...

treasures
In Jeremiah 20:4-5, 'wealth,' 'labor,' 'precious things,' and 'all the treasures of the kings of Judah' signify the knowledges of faith.

bring
As with common verbs in general, the meaning of “bring” is highly dependent on context, but in general it represents an introduction to a new...

Terrible of the nations
In Ezekiel 28:7, 'strangers' signify falsities which destroy truths, and 'the terrible of the nations,' evils which destroy good.

Nations
'Nations' signify people who are in the good of love and charity from the Lord. Two nations in the womb,' as in Genesis 25:23, signify...

beauty
Beauty of his ornament (Ezek. 7:20) signifies the church and its doctrine.

down
"Down" is used many different ways in natural language, and its spiritual meaning in the Bible is highly dependent on context. Phrases like "bowing down,"...

to
‘To grieve at heart’ is in reference to love, and ‘to repent,’ to wisdom, as in Genesis 6:6.

pit
In Job 9:30, 'waters of snow' denotes truths which are or appear genuine. 'Lye' denotes the good which purifies, and 'the ditch' denotes falsity.

die
Dead (Gen. 23:8) signifies night, in respect to the goodnesses and truths of faith.

Slain
'A multitude of slain' relates to people who perish from falsities, and 'a great number of carcasses,' of people who perish from evils, as in...

before
In most cases, the meaning of "before" is pretty straightforward, both as a way of assessing relative time, and in its use meaning "in someone's...

slayeth
'To slay a man to his wounding,' means extinguishing faith, and 'to slay a young man to his hurt,' signifies extinguishing charity, as in Genesis...

hand
In Genesis 27:22, 'voice' relates to truth, and 'hand,' to good.

uncircumcised
'The uncircumcised,' as in Ezekiel 31:18, signifies people lacking the good of charity.

spoken
Like "say," the word "speak" refers to thoughts and feelings moving from our more internal spiritual levels to our more external ones – and ultimately...

Lamentation
The children of Israel represent 'lamentation' by various things which signified some evil of the church among them for which they were punished. When they...

Eden
According to the Writings, “Eden” by itself means love, in most cases the love that comes from the Lord and our love for the Lord,...

Garden
A garden and paradise signify intellect and wisdom.

Garden of God
The Garden of God, as in Ezekiel 28:13, signifies the rational principle of the spiritual church.

stone
Stones in the Bible in general represent truths, or things we know concerning the Lord and what He wants from us and for us in...

Covering
A covering of precious stones (Ezek. 28:4, 13) signifies the truths of intelligence.

Sardius
'Sardine stone,' because it is red, indicates aspects of the good of love, or the goods of the Word in extremes

topaz
'Topaz,' as in Exodus 28:17, represents the good of celestial love.

diamond
'Precious stones,' in application to the Word, symbolizes the Divine truth of the Word in its literal sense which the Divine truth in its spiritual...

Beryl
'Beryl,' as in Daniel 10:6, signifies the good of charity and faith. Beryl is a sparkling precious stone.

jasper
'Pyropus' or 'sardine stone' signifies good.

tabrets
'A timbrel,' as in Psalms 81:2, has respect to what is spiritual.

Pipes
'Pipes' signify the joys of the affection of the knowledges of good and truth.

day
The expression 'even to this day' or 'today' sometimes appears in the Word, as in Genesis 19:37-38, 22:14, 26:33, 32:32, 35:20, and 47:26. In a...

created
The creation of heaven and earth in the first chapter of Genesis means the new creation of the celestial church called 'Man'.

Cherub
A Cherub has as its first definition in the dictionary, “A winged heavenly creature.” Cherubim is the plural of cherub. In the Word, the words...

holy
'Sanctuary' signifies the truth of heaven and the church. 'Sanctuary,' as in Ezekiel 24:21, signifies the Word.

mountain
'Hills' signify the good of charity.

walked
To walk in the Bible represents living, and usually means living according to the true things taught to us by the Lord -- to "walk...

midst
'Middle' denotes what is primary, principal, or inmost.

fire
Just as natural fire can be both comforting in keeping you warm or scary in burning down your house, so fire in the spiritual sense...

perfect
'The days of the perfect' signifies the states of people who are in good and truths from good.

ways
'To set a way,' as in Genesis 30:36, signifies being separated.

found
To not to be found any more, signifies not to rise again.

filled
'To satiate' relates to the extent of a person's will, for good or evil.

violence
In Isaiah 59:6, 'webs' and 'garments' signify aspects of the understanding, or thought, 'Iniquity' and 'violence,' aspects of the will, or works.

ground
In Zechariah 8:12, 'the vine shall give her fruit, and the ground her increase,' signifies that the spiritual affection of truth produces the good of...

kings
The human mind is composed of two parts, a will and an understanding, a seat of loves and affections, and a seat of wisdom and...

iniquities
In the Word three terms are used to mean bad things that are done. These three are transgression, iniquity, and sin, and they are here...

devoured
When we eat, our bodies break down the food and get from it both energy and materials for building and repairing the body. The process...

turned
Swedenborg says that the Lord is the sun of heaven, and like the natural sun of our world shines on everyone, good or evil. What...

ashes
Ashes as in ('Ezekiel 27:30') signify what is condemned; because fire from which they are derived signify infernal love. Ashes of the furnace ('Exodus 9:8')...

earth
'Lands' of different nations are used in the Word to signify the different kinds of love prevalent in the inhabitants.

sight
The symbolic meaning of "seeing" is "understanding," which is obvious enough that it has become part of common language (think about it; you might see...

know
In a general sense, men represent things of the intellect – facts, ideas, knowledge, everything from the deepest truths to the most pernicious falsities about...

face
“The eyes are the windows of the soul.” That’s a sentiment with roots somewhere in murky antiquity, but one that has become hopelessly cliché because...

the Lord
The Bible refers to the Lord in many different ways, which from the text seem indistinguishable and interchangeable. Understood in the internal sense, though, there...

glorified
'Honor' signifies the good of love. 'To honor,' as mentioned in Isaiah 24:15, signifies worship and adoration. 'To honor thy father and thy mother,' as...

sanctified
'To sanctify' denotes being led by the Lord. 'To sanctify' denotes being incapable of being violated.

send
'Being sent' everywhere signifies, in an internal sense, going forth, as in John 17:8. In similar manner, it is said of the holy of the...

pestilence
'Pestilence' denotes the vastation of good and truth.

blood
Bloods signify evil, in Ezek. 16:9.

streets
The phrase 'in the streets and synagogues' in Matthew 6:2, 5, and Luke 8:26-27, refers to a representative rite amongst the Jews to teach in...

fall
Like other common verbs, the meaning of "fall" is highly dependent on context in regular language, and is highly dependent on context in a spiritual...

sword
A 'sword,' in the Word, signifies the truth of faith combating and the vastation of truth. In an opposite sense, it signifies falsity combating and...

side
'Side' signifies good or spiritual love.

Israel
'Israel,' in Jeremiah 23:8, signifies the spiritual natural church. The children of Israel dispersed all the literal sense of the Word by falsities. 'The children...

Round about
'Round about' denotes the things most distant from the middle, or from good and truth.

peoples
The Bible generally uses two different terms for large groups: “people” and “nation.” When it uses the term “nation,” it is talking about a group...

scattered
The meaning of "scatter" in the Bible is relatively literal, but it is used in regard to spiritual things, not natural ones. So to "scatter"...

dwell
Many people were nomadic in Biblical times, especially the times of the Old Testament, and lived in tents that could be struck, moved and re-raised...

own
In many cases, the spiritual meaning of "own," both as a verb and as an adjective, is relatively literal. When people are described as the...

servant
“Servant” literally means “a person who serves another,"" and its meaning is similar in reference to the spiritual meaninngs of the Bible. Our lives in...

Jacob
Jacob is told twice that his name will now be Israel. The first time is when he wrestles with an angel on his journey to...

build
wrought (also entwined or entwisted) is predicated of the natural scientific principle, and in Isaiah 45:13, of divine natural truth.

houses
A "house" is essentially a container - for a person, for a family, for several families or even for a large group with shared interests...

plant
'A shrub' signifies the knowledges of truth.

vineyards
'A vine' signifies spiritual good and truth. 'A vine' or 'vineyard' signifies the church where the Word, and the Lord in it, is known, or...

Ze Swedenborgových děl

 

Apocalypse Explained # 364

Apocalypse Explained (Whitehead translation)      

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364. Verse 4. And there went forth another horse that was red, signifies the understanding of the Word destroyed in respect to good. This is evident from the signification of "horse," as being the intellect (of which above, n. 355. Here because the states of those who are of the church where the Word is are treated of, "horse" signifies the intellect of the men of the church in relation to the Word. It is also evident from the signification of "red" [ruber] or "reddish" [rufus], as being of what nature a thing is in relation to good, so here, of what quality the understanding of the Word is in relation to good. That "reddish" [rufus] here signifies this understanding destroyed in respect to good, can be seen from what immediately follows in this verse, for it is said, "to him that sat thereon it was given to take peace from the earth, that they should slay one another, and to him was given a great sword," which signifies a consequent extinction of all truth. Since the horses that John saw were distinguished by colors, for the first appeared "white," the second "red," the third "black," and the fourth "pale," and colors signify the quality of a thing, let something first be said here about colors.

In the heavens colors of every kind appear, and they draw their origin from the light there; and as that light immensely excels in brightness and splendor the light of the world, so also do the colors there; and as the light there is from the sun of heaven, which is the Lord, and is the Divine Proceeding, and as consequently that light is spiritual, so all colors signify things spiritual. And as the Divine Proceeding is Divine good united to Divine truth, and as Divine good in heaven is presented to view by a flamy light, and Divine truth by a bright white light, so there are two colors that are the fundamentals of all colors there, namely, the red color and the white color; the red color has its origin from the flamy light that goes forth from Divine good, and the white color from the bright white light that goes forth from Divine truth; consequently so far as colors are derived from red they signify good, and so far as they are derived from white they signify truth. (But these things can be seen better from what is told about colors, from experience, in the Arcana Coelestia, namely, that most beautiful colors are seen in the heavens, n. 1053, 1624; colors in the heavens are from the light there, and are modifications and variations of light, n. 1042, 1043, 1053, 1624, 3993, 4530, 4742, 4922; thus they are the appearances of truth and good, and signify such things as are of intelligence and wisdom, n. 4530, 4677, 4922, 9466; consequently the precious stones that were of various colors in the breastplate of the ephod, or in the Urim and Thummim, signified all things of truth from good in heaven and in the church, and therefore the breastplate in general signified Divine truth shining forth from the Divine good, n. 9823, 9865, 9868, 9905; and responses were thence given by variegations and resplendences of light, and at the same time by tacit perception, or by a living voice out of heaven, n. 3862, [ 9905; colors so far as they are derived from red signify good, and so far as they are from bright white signify truth, n. Arcana Coelestia 9467. Of the Light of Heaven, whence and what it is, see in the work on Heaven and Hell 126-140 (Heaven and Hell 275)-140, 275.)

(Odkazy: Arcana Coelestia 1042-1043, 3862; Revelation 6:4; The Apocalypse Explained 355)


[2] It is to be known, moreover, that "red" color not only signifies what the quality of a thing is in relation to good, but also what the quality of a thing is in relation to evil; for that color not only exists from the flamy light that is from the sun of heaven, as was said above, but it also exists from something flamy in hell, which is from the fire there, which fire is like a coal fire. Therefore the red in heaven is a wholly different red from the red in hell; the red in heaven is shining and living, while the red in hell is horribly obscure and dead; moreover, the red of heaven gives life, while the red of hell brings death; the reason is that the fire from which red is derived is in its origin love; heavenly fire is from heavenly love, and infernal fire from infernal love; consequently "fire" in the Word signifies love in both senses (see Arcana Coelestia 4906, 5071, 5215, 6314, 6832, 7575, 10747; and in the work on Heaven and Hell (Heaven and Hell 134), n. 134, 566-575); therefore the "red" existing thence signifies the quality of the love in both senses. Moreover, this red, that is, the "red" of this horse is, in the original Greek, from a word that means fire. All this, together with the description of this horse in this verse, makes clear why it is that a "red horse" signifies the understanding of the Word destroyed in respect to good.

That "horse" signifies something connected with the subject can be clearly seen from this, that horses were seen when "the seals were opened," and it was said that "they went forth," for horses could not go forth out of a book, but those things could be manifested which are signified by "horses." That "horse" signifies the intellect, and "color" its quality, has been made familiar to me from experience; for spirits who were meditating from the understanding upon some subject have several times been seen by me to be riding upon horses, and when I asked them whether they were riding, they said that they were not, but that they stood meditating upon some subject; which made clear that riding upon a horse is an appearance representing the operation of their understanding.

[3] There is also a place called the assembly of the intelligent and wise, to which very many resort for meditation, and when anyone is coming to it horses of various colors and variously caparisoned, and also chariots, with some riding and others sitting in the chariots, appear to him; and then also when they are asked whether they are riding upon horses, or are carried in chariots, they say that they are not, but that they are going along meditating; from this also it was clear what is signified by "horses" and by "chariots." (But about this see more in the small work on The White Horse.) From this it can now be seen why John saw horses when the seals of the book were opened, and also what they signify. These horses were seen, because all the spiritual things of the Word are presented in the sense of its letter by means of such things as correspond, that is, as represent and thence signify; and this in order that the Divine may be there in ultimates and consequently in fullness, as has been several times said above.

[4] That "reddish" [rufus] or "red" [ruber] signifies the quality of a thing in relation to good, can be seen also from the following passages in the Word. In Moses:

Who washeth his vesture in wine, and his covering in the blood of the grapes. His eyes are redder than wine, and his teeth whiter than milk (Genesis 49:11-12).

These words are in the prophecy of Israel the father respecting Judah, and "Judah" here means the Lord in relation to the good of love, and in a relative sense the Lord's celestial kingdom. What the particulars here signify in the spiritual sense may be seen in the Arcana Coelestia, where they are explained. Divine wisdom which is from Divine good is signified by "his eyes are redder than wine;" and Divine intelligence which is from Divine truth by "his teeth are whiter than milk."

[5] In Lamentations:

The Nazarites were whiter than snow, they were brighter than milk, their bones were more ruddy than pearls (Lamentations 4:7).

The Nazarites represented the Lord in respect to the Divine Human (see above, n. 66, 196, at the end), therefore they signified also, in a relative sense, the good of celestial love, because this good immediately proceeds from the Lord's Divine Human. The representative of this in the church is thus described, the truth of that good is signified by "they were whiter than snow, and brighter than milk," and the good of truth by "their bones were more ruddy than pearls;" for "bones" signify truths in their ultimate, thus truths in the whole complex, for in ultimates all things are together and in fullness; that these truths are from good, and also are goods, is signified by their being "ruddy."

(Odkazy: The Apocalypse Explained 66, 196)


[6] In Zechariah:

I saw four chariots coming out from between mountains of copper. In the first chariot were red horses; in the second chariot black horses; in the third chariot white horses; and in the fourth chariot grisled horses, stout (Zechariah 6:1-3).

That here, too, "red horses" signify the quality of the understanding in the beginning in relation to good, "black horses" the quality of the understanding in the beginning in relation to truth, "white horses" the quality of the understanding afterwards in relation to truth, "grisled horses" what is the quality of the understanding afterwards in relation to truth and good, and "stout" what it is consequently in respect to the power to resist falsities and evils, may be seen above (n. 355b), where the signification of "horse" is treated of. Nearly the like is meant in the same prophet by:

The red horse, upon which a man rode, standing among the myrtle-trees (Zechariah 1:8).

Because "red" [ruber] or "reddish" [rufus] signifies the quality of a thing in relation to good:

Red rams' skins were used for a covering over the tent (Exodus 25:5; 26:14; 35:7).

And therefore also:

The water of separation, used in cleansing, was made from a red heifer burned (Numbers 19:1-10);

"red heifer" signifying the good of the natural man, and the "water of separation" made from it when burned signifying the truth of the natural man; and this was commanded because all cleansing is effected by means of truths; moreover, the particulars of the process of slaying the heifer, and of preparing the water for cleansing by it, involve spiritual things.

(Odkazy: The Apocalypse Explained 355)


[7] Because "red" signifies the quality of a thing in relation to good, those names also and the things that derive their names from this same word in the original tongue signify the good from which they are. The word red in the original is adam, from which is the name Adam, and also the name Edom; from this also man is called adam, the ground adama, and the ruby odam; thus these names and things are from red. "Adam" signifies the Most Ancient Church, a church that was in the good of love; "Man" has a like signification, also "ground" in the spiritual sense when celestial good is treated of. That "Edom" was named from red, see Genesis 25:30; and for this reason it signifies the truth of the good of the natural man. That the ruby is also named from red may be seen in Exodus 28:17; 39:10; Ezekiel 28:13; for this reason "ruby" signifies the truth of celestial good. (That "Adam" signifies the Most Ancient Church, which was a celestial church, or a church in the good of love to the Lord, see Arcana Coelestia 478, 479; that "Man" signifies the church in respect to good, n. 4287, 7424, 7523; that "ground" also has a like signification, n. 566, 10570; that "Edom," because he was named from red, signifies the truth of good of the natural man, n. 3300, 3322; and that "ruby" signifies the truth of celestial good, n. 9865) As "red" signifies the quality of a thing in relation to good, so in a contrary sense it signifies the quality of a thing in relation to evil, which is the opposite to good, consequently good destroyed. In this sense "red" is mentioned in the following passages. In Isaiah:

Although your sins have been as scarlet, they shall become white like snow; although they have been red as purple, they shall be as wool (Isaiah 1:18).

And in Nahum:

The shield of his mighty ones is made red, the men of valor are in crimson; in a fire of torches are his chariots. The chariots raged in the streets, they ran to and fro in the broad ways; the appearance of them 1 is like torches (Nahum 2:3-4).

In this sense also the dragon is called red (Revelation 12:3, of which in what follows).

-----
Footnotes:

1.  The photolithograph has "his."

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(Odkazy: Arcana Coelestia 478-479)

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From Swedenborg's Works

References from Swedenborg's unpublished works:

Apocalypse Explained 360, 365, 366, 370, 374, 381, 400, 418, 529, 552, 558, 573, 575, 625, 657, 706, 714, 923, 1155

Other New Christian Commentary

Thanks to the Swedenborg Foundation for their permission to use this translation.


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