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Jeremiah 48

Afrikaans 1953     

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1 Oor Moab. So die HERE van die leërskare, die God van Israel: Wee oor Nebo, want dit is verwoes; Kirjatáim staan beskaamd, dit is ingeneem; die rotsvesting is beskaamd en verskrik.

2 Uit is dit met die roem van Moab; in Hesbon het hulle onheil teen hom bedink en gesê: Kom laat ons hom uitroei, dat hy geen nasie meer is nie. Ook jy, Madmen, sal verwoes word, die swaard sal jou agtervolg.

3 Hoor! Geskreeu uit Horonáim: verwoesting en 'n groot vernieling.

4 Moab is verbreek; sy kleintjies laat 'n geskreeu hoor.

5 Want die hoogte van Luhit gaan hulle op met geween by geween; want aan die hange van Horonáim het hulle angsgeskreeu van verbreking gehoor.

6 Vlug, red julle lewe, en word soos 'n kaal bos in die woestyn!

7 Want omdat jy vertrou het op jou handelinge en op jou voorrade, sal jy ook ingeneem word; en Kamos sal uittrek in ballingskap, sy priesters en sy vorste almal saam.

8 En die verwoester sal kom oor elke stad, sodat geen stad sal vryraak nie; en die dal sal te gronde gaan, en die gelyk veld sal verwoes word, soos die HERE gesê het.

9 Gee vlerke aan Moab, want hy sal moet wegvlieg; en sy stede sal 'n woesteny word, sonder dat daar iemand in woon.

10 Vervloek is hy wat nalatig is om die werk van die HERE te doen; ja, vervloek is hy wat sy swaard van bloed terughou!

11 Moab was gerus van sy jeug af en het stil gelê op sy afsaksel, sonder dat hy leeggemaak is van vat in vat: hy het nie in ballingskap gegaan nie; daarom het sy smaak in hom gebly en sy geur nie verander nie.

12 Daarom, kyk, daar kom dae, spreek die HERE, dat Ek aftappers na hom sal stuur wat hom sal aftap en sy vate sal leegmaak en sy kruike stukkend slaan.

13 En Moab sal beskaamd staan deur Kamos, soos die huis van Israel beskaamd gestaan het deur Bet-el waar hulle op vertrou het.

14 Hoe kan julle : Ons is helde en manne bekwaam om te veg?

15 Moab is verwoes, en hulle het opgegaan in sy stede, en sy beste jongmanne het afgegaan om geslag te word, spreek die Koning wie se Naam is HERE van die leërskare.

16 Die ondergang van Moab is naby om te kom, en sy onheil is baie haastig.

17 Beklaag hom, almal wat rondom hom is en almal wat sy naam ken! : Hoe is die sterk staf, die sierlike stok gebreek!

18 Kom af uit jou heerlikheid, en sit in die dorsland, o inwoner, dogter van Dibon! Want die verwoester van Moab het teen jou opgetrek, hy het jou forte verwoes.

19 Gaan staan op die pad, en kyk uit, o inwoner van Aroër! Vra vir hom wat vlug en vir haar wat ontkom; : Wat het gebeur?

20 Moab staan beskaamd, want hy is verslae. Huil en skreeu, verkondig dit by die Arnon dat Moab verwoes is!

21 Ja, 'n oordeel het gekom oor die land van die gelykte, oor Holon en oor Jahas en oor Mefáät,

22 en oor Dibon en oor Nebo en oor Bet-Diblatáim,

23 en oor Kirjatáim en oor Bet-Gamul en oor Bet-Meon,

24 en oor Kérijot en oor Bosra, ja, oor al die stede van die land Moab, die wat ver en die wat naby is.

25 Die horing van Moab is afgekap en sy arm is verbreek, spreek die HERE.

26 Maak hom dronk, omdat hy hom groot gehou het teen die HERE, sodat Moab neerslaan in sy uitbraaksel en hy self ook 'n belagging word.

27 Want was Israel vir jou nie 'n bespotting nie? Of is hy onder die diewe betrap, dat jy die hoof geskud het so dikwels as jy van hom gespreek het?

28 Verlaat die stede en gaan woon in die rots, inwoners van Moab! En word soos 'n duif wat sy nes maak oorkant die opening van die afgrond.

29 Ons het van die trotsheid van Moab gehoor--hy is baie trots! --van sy hoogheid en sy trotsheid en sy hoogmoed en die verheffing van sy hart.

30 Ek ken sy grimmigheid, spreek die HERE, en sy onbehoorlike grootpratery; onbehoorlik het hulle gehandel.

31 Daarom sal ek oor Moab huil, ja, oor die hele Moab dit uitskreeu; oor die manne van Kir-Heres sug hulle.

32 Bo die geween van Jaéser sal ek jou beween, o wingerdstok van Sibma! Jou ranke het gegaan oor die see, tot by die see van Jaéser het hulle gekom--die verwoester het jou somervrugte en jou druiwe-oes oorval.

33 Daarom is vreugde en gejuig weggeneem uit die land van tuine en uit die land Moab, en Ek het die wyn uit die parskuipe laat verdwyn; hulle sal dit nie trap met vreugdegeroep nie; die vreugdegeroep sal geen vreugdegeroep wees nie.

34 Weens die geskreeu van Hesbon tot by Eleále, tot by Jahas het hulle hul stem verhef, van Soar af tot by Horonáim, Eglat-Selísia; want ook die waters van Nimrim sal 'n woesteny word.

35 En Ek sal in Moab 'n einde maak, spreek die HERE, aan hom wat op die hoogte offer en rook laat opgaan vir sy god.

36 Daarom klaag my hart oor Moab soos fluite, ja, my hart klaag oor die manne van Kir-Heres soos fluite; omdat die oorwins wat hulle verwerf het, verlore gegaan het.

37 Want al die hoofde is kaal en al die baarde is afgeskeer; op al die hande is snye en om die heupe is 'n roukleed.

38 Op al die dakke van Moab en op sy pleine is net rouklag, want Ek het Moab verbreek soos 'n ding waar 'n mens geen behae in het nie, spreek die HERE.

39 Hoe is hy verslae! Hulle huil. Hoe het Moab die rug gedraai met skaamte! So sal Moab dan vir almal wat rondom hom is, 'n belagging en 'n verskrikking word.

40 Want so die HERE: Kyk, hy sal vlieg soos 'n arend en sal sy vleuels oor Moab uitsprei.

41 Die stede is ingeneem, en die bergvestings is verower; en die hart van die helde van Moab sal in dié dag wees soos die hart van 'n vrou wat in nood is.

42 En Moab sal verdelg word, dat hy geen volk meer is nie, omdat hy hom groot gehou het teen die HERE.

43 Die skrik en die kuil en die strik oor jou, o inwoner van Moab, spreek die HERE.

44 Hy wat vlug vir die vrees, sal val in die kuil; en hy wat uit die kuil klim, sal gevang word in die net; want Ek sal oor hom, oor Moab, bring die jaar van hulle besoeking, spreek die HERE.

45 In die beskutting van Hesbon staan vlugtelinge sonder krag; want 'n vuur het uitgegaan uit Hesbon en 'n vlam uit die huis van Sihon, en het die slape van die hoof van Moab en die skedel van die rumoermakers verteer.

46 Wee jou, Moab! Die volk van Kamos is verlore; want jou seuns is weggeneem as gevangenes en jou dogters in gevangenskap.

47 Maar aan die einde van die dae sal Ek die lot van Moab verander, spreek die HERE. Tot sover die oordeel van Moab.

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Swedenborg

Hlavní výklad ze Swedenborgových prací:

Arcana Coelestia 2468

The Inner Meaning of the Prophets and Psalms 114


Další odkazy Swedenborga k této kapitole:

Arcana Coelestia 375, 583, 1589, 1825, 2240, 2418, 2608, ...

Apocalypse Revealed 47, 166, 194, 204, 270, 316, 485, ...

The Lord 4, 39, 53

Sacred Scripture 35, 103

Heaven and Hell 365

True Christian Religion 93, 158, 265, 683


References from Swedenborg's unpublished works:

Apocalypse Explained 195, 223, 235, 316, 376, 411, 417, ...

Coronis (An Appendix to True Christian Religion) 56

De Verbo (The Word) 10, 15, 25

Marriage 93

Scriptural Confirmations 4, 51

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Word/Phrase Explanations

Moab
'Moab,' in a positive sense, signifies people who are in natural good, and allow themselves to be easily seduced, but in an opposite sense, it...

HERE
The Lord, in the simplest terms, is love itself expressed as wisdom itself. In philosophic terms, love is the Lord's substance and wisdom is His...

God
The Lord is love itself, expressed in the form of wisdom itself. Love, then, is His essence, His inmost. Wisdom - the loving understanding of...

Israel
'Israel,' in Jeremiah 23:8, signifies the spiritual natural church. The children of Israel dispersed all the literal sense of the Word by falsities. 'The children...

Hesbon
'Heshbon,' as mentioned in Jeremiah 49:3, signifies the fructification of truth in the natural self.

ons
Angels do give us guidance, but they are mere helpers; the Lord alone governs us, through angels and spirits. Since angels have their assisting role,...

nasie
'Nations' signify people who are in the good of love and charity from the Lord. Two nations in the womb,' as in Genesis 25:23, signify...

swaard
A 'sword,' in the Word, signifies the truth of faith combating and the vastation of truth. In an opposite sense, it signifies falsity combating and...

groot
The word "great" is used in the Bible to represent a state with a strong degree of love and affection, of the desire for good;...

verbreek
To “break” something creates an image that is much different from “attacking,” “destroying,” or “shattering.” It is less emotional, less violent in its intent; it...

gehoor
'To hearken to father and mother,' as mentioned in Genesis 28:7, signifies obedience from affection. 'To hearken,' as mentioned in Genesis 30:22, signifies providence. See...

vlug
Flight, as in Matthew 14:20, signifies removal from a state of the good of love and innocence. Flight, as in Mark 8:18, signifies the last...

red
To be saved or rescued means getting true ideas that we can hold to even in the face of a storm of false thinking. Sometimes...

woestyn
'Wilderness' signifies something with little life in it, as described in the internal sense in Luke 1:80 'Wilderness' signifies somewhere there is no good because...

priesters
Priests' represent the Lord regarding His divine good. When they do not acknowledge the Lord, they lose their signification of the Lord.

vorste
Captains and Rulers (Jer. 51:23) signifies principal evils and falsities. Captains and Rulers (Ezek 33:6) signifies principal truths. See Chief Captains.

verwoester
'A spoiler,' as in Jeremiah 48:32, signifies evil and its derivative falsity.

kom
Coming (Gen. 41:14) denotes communication by influx.

Stad
Cities of the mountain and cities of the plain (Jer. 33:13) signify doctrines of charity and faith.

gaan
All changes of place in the Bible represent changes in spiritual state. “Entering” – usually used as entering someone’s house or “going in unto” someone...

gee
Like other common verbs, the meaning of "give" in the Bible is affected by context: who is giving what to whom? In general, though, giving...

woon
Many people were nomadic in Biblical times, especially the times of the Old Testament, and lived in tents that could be struck, moved and re-raised...

werk
'Works,' as in Genesis 46:33, denote goods, because they are from the will, and anything from the will is either good or evil, but anything...

bloed
Bloods signify evil, in Ezek. 16:9.

stil
When something is described as quiet, still or calm in the Bible, it represents the state of peace that comes with being aligned with the...

smaak
Our five senses correspond to spiritual affections, or the attraction we feel toward spiritual things. The sense of taste, according to the Writings, corresponds to...

geur
Fragrance means the affection of truth derived from good.

spreek
As with many common verbs, the meaning of “to say” in the Bible is highly dependent on context. Who is speaking? Who is hearing? What...

stuur
'Being sent' everywhere signifies, in an internal sense, going forth, as in John 17:8. In similar manner, it is said of the holy of the...

beskaamd
To be ashamed (Gen 2:25) signifies to be in evil

huis
A "house" is essentially a container - for a person, for a family, for several families or even for a large group with shared interests...

Bet-el
When Jacob had his famous dream, of a staircase leading to heaven, he named the place "Bethel," which is Hebrew for "the house of God."...

helde
Mighty,' as in Revelation 19:18, signify people who are educated about doctrine derived from the Word. By extension, 'mighty' signifies education or learning derived from...

koning
The human mind is composed of two parts, a will and an understanding, a seat of loves and affections, and a seat of wisdom and...

naam
It's easy to see that names are important in the Bible. Jehovah changed Abram and Sarai to Abraham and Sarah, changed Jacob to Israel and...

haastig
'To hasten' or 'hastiness' in the internal sense, does not denote what is quick, but what is certain, and also what is full, thus every...

sterk
Strength' relates truth and falsity. Strength,' as in Luke 10:27, signifies the will and understanding extended to extremes. Strength,' as in Revelation 1:6, signifies divine...

stok
'A staff' signifies power because it is a support for the hand and arm, and through these to the whole body. A staff takes on the...

af
"Down" is used many different ways in natural language, and its spiritual meaning in the Bible is highly dependent on context. Phrases like "bowing down,"...

sit
If you think about sitting, it seems fair to say that where you're sitting is more important than that you're sitting. Sitting in a movie...

staan
'To stay with,' as in Genesis 32:4, relates to the life of truth when accompanied by good, and in this instance, it means to take...

pad
These days we tend to think of "roads" as smooth swaths of pavement, and judge them by how fast we can drive cars on them....

huil
To howl' signifies grief caused by vastation.

verkondig
To "declare" something means to say it formally, publicly and with emphasis; you might say what you think, but you only declare things you're sure...

oordeel
Judgement' pertains to the Lord's divine human and holy proceeding. Judgment' has two sides, a principle of good, and a principle of truth. The faithful...

land
'Lands' of different nations are used in the Word to signify the different kinds of love prevalent in the inhabitants.

Bosra
Bosrah, as in Isaiah 63:1 signifies a vintage, which is predicated concerning truth. Bozrah has respect to the divine truth, and Edom, to the divine...

horing
'A horn,' when spoken of the Lord, signifies omnipotence. 'The little horn that rose up,' as mentioned in Daniel 7:3-8, signifies the full perversion of...

arm
Arms and feet (Daniel 10:6) signify the exterior things of the Word, which are its literal sense.

rots
'Rocks' signify the good and truth of faith.

inwoners
Inhabitants,' in Isaiah 26:9, signify the men of the church who are in good of doctrine, and thence in the good of life.

duif
A dove (Gen. 8.) signifies goodness and truth. A dove, as in Hosea 11:11, signifies rational good.

nes
To make a nest,' as in Jeremiah 48:28, when related to a bird, signifies the same thing as 'to dwell,' which is fulfilling the duties...

trots
'Pride' signifies the love of self.

hart
The heart means love. A good heart means love to the Lord and to the neighbor while a hard or stony heart means the love...

Jaéser
'Jaser' signifies false principles.

Sibma
'Sibmah' signifies the members of the external church, who explain the Word to favor worldly love.

see
Water generally represents what Swedenborg calls “natural truth,” or true concepts about day-to-day matters and physical things. Since all water ultimately flows into the seas,...

wyn
Wine played a key role in the ancient world, where safe, reliable water sources were scarce. It could be stored for long periods of time;...

stem
'Voice' signifies what is announced from the Word. 'Voice' often refers and is applied to things that cannot have a voice, as in Exodus 4,...

waters
'Waters' signify truths in the natural self, and in the opposite sense, falsities. 'Waters' signify particularly the spiritual parts of a person, or the intellectual...

kaal
'A bald head' signifies the Word deprived of the natural sense, which is the sense of the letter.

hande
Scientists believe that one of the most crucial developments in the evolution of humans was bipedalism – walking on two legs. That left our hands...

heupe
'Loins' in general, signify love, and when referring to the Lord, divine love. 'Loins' signify the interiors of conjugial love. Loins,' as in Isaiah 11:5,...

roukleed
'Being clothed in sackcloth' signifies lamentation because of the devastation of truth in the church. 'Sackcloth,' as in Revelation 6:12, relates to destroyed good.

dakke
'A house-top,' as mentioned in Matthew 24:13, signifies the superior state of a person, and consequently, his state as to good.

arend
Eagle wings, referred to in Daniel 7:3, signify rational principles grounded in man's proprium.

dag
The expression 'even to this day' or 'today' sometimes appears in the Word, as in Genesis 19:37-38, 22:14, 26:33, 32:32, 35:20, and 47:26. In a...

vrou
'Women,' as in Genesis 45:19, signify the affections of truth. But in Genesis 31:50, 'women' signify affections of not genuine truth, so not of the...

strik
'To be in a snare' signifies being taken and seduced by one’s own evil and falsity.

val
Like other common verbs, the meaning of "fall" is highly dependent on context in regular language, and is highly dependent on context in a spiritual...

gevang
"Catching" is used in a variety of ways in the Bible, both positive and negative. Thieves get caught; the Egyptians caught up with the Children...

bring
As with common verbs in general, the meaning of “bring” is highly dependent on context, but in general it represents an introduction to a new...

besoeking
The end time of the church and each individual, is called 'the visitation,' and precedes judgment. 'Visitation' is nothing but an exploration of the quality...

vlam
Just as natural fire can be both comforting in keeping you warm or scary in burning down your house, so fire in the spiritual sense...

verteer
When we eat, our bodies break down the food and get from it both energy and materials for building and repairing the body. The process...

seuns
'A son,' as in Genesis 5:28, signifies the rise of a new church. 'Son,' as in Genesis 24:3, signifies the Lord’s rationality regarding good. 'A...

dogters
"Behold I have two daughters,” etc. (Gen. 19:8), signifies the affections of good and truth, and the blessedness perceivable from the enjoyment thereof, by those...

Komentář

 

Staff      

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'A staff' signifies power because it is a support for the hand and arm, and through these to the whole body. A staff takes on the meaning of what it most closely supports, that is, the hand and arm, both of which in the Word signify the power of truth. From several passages in the books of Moses, it is very clear that the staff and the hand, represent power, and in the highest sense, the divine omnipotence of the Lord. It is also evident that in that time, the external features of the Church were made up of representatives, and that its internal features - which were spiritual and celestial realities as exist in heaven - corresponded to the external ones, which owed their power to that correspondence. A staff denotes power in the spiritual sense can also be seen in several passages in the prophets. This is also why kings had scepters, which were made like short staves, and kings represent the Lord regarding truth. 'A staff' as in Isaiah 10:24, 26, signifies power derived from reasoning and science, like the power of people who reason from scientific ideas against the truths of faith, and pervert them or downplay them.

(Odkazy: Arcana Coelestia 4013, 4876; Isaiah 10:24, 10:26)

Ze Swedenborgových děl

 

Arcana Coelestia # 9391

Arcana Coelestia (Elliott translation)      

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9391. 'And they offered burnt offerings, and sacrificed peace offerings - young bulls - to Jehovah' means a representative sign of worship of the Lord springing from good, and from truth rooted in good. This is clear from the representation of 'burnt offerings and sacrifices' as worship of the Lord in general, dealt with in 922, 6905, 8936, worship of the Lord springing from the good of love being meant specifically by 'burnt offerings' and worship of Him springing from the truth of faith rooted in good by 'sacrifices', 8680; and from the meaning of 'young bulls' as the good of innocence and charity in the external or natural man, dealt with below. The beasts or animals that were sacrificed were signs of the nature of the goodness and truth from which worship sprang, 922, 1823, 2180, 3519; gentle and useful beasts mean celestial realities which are aspects of the good of love and spiritual realities which are aspects of the truth of faith, and this was why they were used in sacrifices, see 9280. The reason why 'a young bull' means the good of innocence and charity in the external or natural man is that members of the herd were signs of the affections for goodness and truth present in the external or natural man, while members of the flock were signs of the affections for goodness and truth present in the internal or spiritual man, 2566, 5913, 6048, 8937, 9135. Members of the flock were lambs, she-goats, sheep, rams, and he-goats; and those of the herd were bulls or oxen, young bulls or oxen, and calves. Lambs and sheep were signs of the good of innocence and charity present in the internal or spiritual man; consequently calves and young bulls, being of a more tender age than fully-grown bulls, were signs of a like good in the external or natural man.

[2] The fact that 'young bulls' and 'calves' have this meaning is clear from places in the Word where they are mentioned, for example in Ezekiel,

The feet of the four living creatures were straight feet, and the hollows of their feet were like the hollow of a calf's foot. 1 And they sparkled like a kind of burnished bronze. Ezekiel 1:7.

This refers to the cherubs whom 'the four living creatures' describe. 'The cherubs' are the Lord's protection and providence, guarding against access to Him except through good, see 9277 (end). External or natural good was represented by 'straight feet' 2 and by 'the hollows of feet that were like the hollow of a calf's foot'; for 'the feet' means the things which belong to the natural man, 'straight feet' those which are aspects of good, and 'the hollows of the feet' those which are last and lowest in the natural man. For the meaning of 'the feet' as these things, see 2162, 3147, 3761, 3986, 4280, 4938-4952, 5327, 5328; and for that of the heels, soles, and hollows of the feet, also hoofs, as the last and lowest things in the natural man, 4938, 7729. The reason why the hollows of their feet 'sparkled like a kind of burnished bronze' is that 'bronze' means natural good, 425, 1551, and 'bronze sparkling as if burnished' means good shining with the light of heaven, which is God's truth radiating from the Lord. From this it is evident that 'a calf' means the good of the external or natural man.

(Odkazy: Arcana Coelestia 5327-5328)


[3] Similarly in John,

Around the throne were four living creatures full of eyes in front and behind. And the first living creature was like a lion; but the second living creature was like a calf; the third living creature however had a face like a human being; lastly the fourth living creature was like a flying eagle. Revelation 4:6-7.

Here also 'four living creatures', who are cherubs, means the Lord's protection and providence, guarding against anyone's gaining access except through the good of love. Actual protection is achieved by means of truth and the good arising from it, and by means of good and the truth deriving from it. Truth and the good arising from it, in the outward form, are meant by 'a lion' and 'a calf'; and good and the truth deriving from it, in the inward form, are meant by 'the face of a human being' and 'a flying eagle'. 'A lion' means truth from good in its power, see 6367, and therefore 'a calf' means the actual good arising from it.

[4] In Hosea,

Turn back to Jehovah, say to Him, Take away all iniquity and accept that which is good, and we will render the young bulls 3 of our lips. Hosea 14:2.

No one can know what 'rendering the young bulls of the lips' refers to unless he knows what is meant by 'young bulls' and what by 'the lips'. It is evident that the praise (confessio) and thanksgiving which flow from a heart that is good are meant, for it says, 'Turn back to Jehovah, and say to Him, Accept that which is good', and then 'we will render the young bulls of our lips', which stands for offering Jehovah praise and thanksgiving which flow from the forms of good taught by doctrine. For things connected with doctrine are meant by 'the lips', 1286, 1288.

[5] In Amos,

You bring near a reign of violence. 4 They lie on beds of ivory, and eat lambs from the flock, and calves from the midst of the fattening stall. Amos 6:3-4.

These words describe those who abound in cognitions or knowledge of goodness and truth and yet lead an evil life. 'Eating lambs from the flock' means learning forms of the good of innocence which belong to the internal or spiritual man and making them one's own; 'eating calves from the midst of the fattening stall' stands for learning forms of the good of innocence which belong to the external or natural man and making them one's own. For the meaning of 'eating' as making one's own, see 3168, 3513 (end), 3596, 3832, 4745; and for the meaning of 'lambs' as forms of the good of innocence, 3994, 3519, 7840. Since 'lambs' means interior forms of the good of innocence, it follows that 'calves from the midst of the fattening stall' means exterior forms of the good of innocence; for on account of the heavenly marriage it is normal for the Word, especially the prophetical part, to deal with truth whenever it does so with good, 9263, 9314, and also to speak about external things whenever it does so about internal ones. Also 'the fattening stall' and 'fat' mean the good of interior love, 5943.

[6] Likewise in Malachi,

To you, fearers of My name, the Sun of Righteousness will arise, and healing in His wings, that you may go out and grow, like calves of the fattening stall. Malachi 4:2.

In Luke, the father said, referring to the prodigal son who had come back penitent in heart,

Bring out the best robe and put it on him, and put a ring on his hand and shoes on his feet. Furthermore bring the fatted calf and kill it, that we may eat and be glad. Luke 15:22-23.

Anyone who understands nothing more than the literal sense does not believe that deeper things lie hidden in any of this. But in actual fact every one of the details embodies some heavenly idea, such as the details that they were to put the best robe on him, put a ring on his hand and shoes on his feet, and bring out the fatted calf and kill it, in order that they might eat and be glad. 'The prodigal son' means those who have squandered heavenly riches, which are cognitions or knowledge of goodness and truth; 'his return to his father, and confession that he was not worthy to be called his son' means a penitent heart and self-abasement; 'the best robe' which was to be put on him means general truths, 4545, 5248, 5319, 5954, 6914, 6917, 9093, 9212, 9216; and 'the fatted calf' means general forms of good in keeping with those truths. The like is meant by 'calves' and 'young bulls' elsewhere, as in Isaiah 11:6; Ezekiel 39:18; Psalms 29:6; 69:31; as well as those used in burnt offerings and sacrifices, Exodus 29:11-12ff; Leviticus 4:3ff, 13ff; 8:15ff; 9:2; 16:3; 23:18; Numbers 8:8ff; 15:24ff; 28:19-20; Judges 6:25-29; 1 Samuel 1:25; 16:2; 1 Kings 18:23-26, 33.

(Odkazy: Exodus 29:11-14; Judges 6:25-28; Leviticus 4:3-12, 4:13-21, 8:14-17, 8:14; Numbers 8:8-12, 15:24-26, 23:29-30)


[7] The reason why the children of Israel made the golden calf for themselves and worshipped it in place of Jehovah, Exodus 32:1-end, was that Egyptian idolatry persisted in their heart even though they professed belief in Jehovah with their lips. Chief among the idols in Egypt were heifers and calves made of gold. This was because 'a heifer' was a sign of truth on the level of factual knowledge, which is the truth the natural man possesses, while 'a calf' was a sign of good on the same level, which is the good the natural man possesses; and also because gold meant good. Visible images symbolizing this good and that truth which the natural man possesses took the form in that land of calves and heifers made of gold. But when the representative signs of heavenly things there were turned into things belonging to idolatrous practices and finally into those belonging to the practice of magic, the actual representative images there, as in other places, became idols and started to be objects that were worshipped. This was how the forms of idolatry among the people of old and all the magic of Egypt arose.

[8] For the Ancient Church, which came next after the Most Ancient, was a representative Church, all of whose worship consisted in rituals, statutes, judgements, and commandments, which represented Divine and heavenly realities, which are the interior things of the Church. The Church after the Flood was spread throughout a large part of the Asiatic world, and existed also in Egypt. But in Egypt this Church's factual knowledge was developed more fully. Consequently those people excelled all others in knowledge of correspondences and representations, as becomes clear from the hieroglyphics, from the magic and idols there, as well as from the various things mentioned in the Word regarding Egypt. All this being so, 'Egypt' in the Word means factual knowledge in general, in respect both of truth and of good; and it also means the natural, since factual knowledge belongs to the natural man. Such knowledge was also meant by 'a heifer' and 'a calf'.

[9] The Ancient Church, which was a representative Church, was spread throughout a large number of kingdoms, and existed also in Egypt, see 1238, 2385, 7097.

The Church's factual knowledge was more fully developed especially in Egypt, and therefore 'Egypt' in the Word means factual knowledge in both senses, 1164, 1165, 1186, 1462, 4749, 4964, 4966, 5700, 5702, 6004, 6015, 6125, 6651, 6679, 6683, 6692, 6693, 6750, 7779 (end), 7926.

And since truth on the level of factual knowledge and its good are the natural man's truth and good, 'Egypt' in the Word also means the natural, 4967, 5079, 5080, 5095, 5160, 5276, 5278, 5280, 5288, 5301, 6004, 6015, 6147, 6252.

(Odkazy: Arcana Coelestia 1164-1165, Arcana Coelestia 5079-5080, Arcana Coelestia 6692-6693)


[10] From all this it is now evident that heifers and calves belonged among the chief idols of Egypt. And they did so because heifers and calves were signs of truth on the level of factual knowledge and its good, which belong to the natural man, even as Egypt itself was a sign of them, so that Egypt and a calf had the same meaning. This accounts for the following that is said regarding Egypt in Jeremiah,

A very beautiful heifer was Egypt; destruction has come from the north. And her hired servants in the midst of her are like calves of the fattening stall. 5 Jeremiah 46:20-21.

'A heifer' is truth on the level of factual knowledge, which belongs to the natural man. 'Hired servants' who are 'calves' are those who do good for the sake of gain, 8002. 'Calves' are accordingly that kind of good which is not in itself good, only delight such as exists with the natural man separated from the spiritual man. This delight, which is in itself idolatrous, is what the children of Jacob indulged in, as they were allowed to reveal and prove in their adoration of the calf, Exodus 32:1-end.

[11] What they did then is also described as follows in David,

They made a calf in Horeb and bowed down to the molded image; and they changed the glory into the effigy of the ox that eats the plant. 6 Psalms 106:19-20.

'Making a calf in Horeb and bowing down to the molded image' means idolatrous worship, which consists of rituals, statutes, judgements, and commandments, but solely in their outward form and not at the same time in their inward form. That nation was restricted to external things devoid of anything internal, see 9320 (end), 9373, 9377, 9380, 9381, and so was idolatrous at heart, 3732 (end), 4208, 4281, 4825, 5998, 7401, 8301, 8871, 8882. 'They changed the glory into the effigy of the ox that eats the plant' means that they forsook the inward things of the Word and the Church and cultivated the outward, which is no more than lifeless factual knowledge. For 'the glory' is the inward aspect of the Word and the Church, see Preface to Genesis 18, and 5922, 8267, 8427; 'the effigy of the ox' is a semblance of good in outward form, since 'the effigy' means a semblance, thus a lifeless imitation, while 'the ox' means good in the natural, thus in outward form, 2566, 2781, 9135; and 'eating the plant' means making it one's own only on the level of factual knowledge, since 'eating' means making one's own, 3168, 3513 (end), 3596, 4745, while 'the plant' means factual knowledge, 7571.

(Odkazy: Arcana Coelestia 2135, Arcana Coelestia 9134, 9382)


[12] Because such things were meant by 'the golden calf' which was worshipped by the children of Israel in place of Jehovah, Moses disposed of it in the following manner,

I took your sin which you had made, the calf, and burnt it in the fire, and crushed it by grinding it right down until it was fine as dust; and I threw its dust into the brook descending out of the mountain. Deuteronomy 9:21.

No one knows why the golden calf was treated in this manner unless he knows what being burned in the fire, crushed, ground down, and made fine as dust means, and what the brook descending out of the mountain, into which the dust was thrown, means. It describes the state of those who venerate external things but nothing internal, that is to say, they are people immersed in the evils of self-love and love of the world, and in consequent falsities so far as things from God are concerned, thus so far as the Word is concerned. For 'the fire' in which the image was burned means the evil of self-love and love of the world, 1297, 1861, 2446, 5071, 5215, 6314, 6832, 7324, 7575; 'the dust' into which it was crushed is consequent falsity substantiated from the literal sense of the Word; and 'the brook' coming out of Mount Sinai is God's truth, thus the Word in the letter since this descends out of that truth. Those with whom external things are devoid of anything internal explain the Word to suit their own loves; and, as was so with the Israelites and Jews in former times and still is so at the present day, they see within it earthly and not at all heavenly things.

[13] Much the same as all this was also represented by Jeroboam's calves at Bethel and Dan, 1_Kings 12:26-end; 1_Kings 12:2 Kings 17:16, spoken of as follows in Hosea,

They have made a king, and not by Me; they have made princes, and I did not know. Their silver and their gold they have made into idols for themselves, that they may be cut off. Your calf has deserted [you], O Samaria. For from Israel is this also. A smith has made it, and it is not God; for the calf of Samaria will be broken to 7 pieces. Hosea 8:4-6.

This refers to the perverted understanding and the distorted explanation of the Word by those with whom external things are devoid of anything internal; for they keep to the literal sense of the Word, which they twist around to suit their own loves and ideas conceived from it. 'Making a king, and not by Me', and 'making princes, and I did not know' means hatching out truth and the leading aspects of truth, and doing so in the inferior light that is one's own, not with God's help; for 'a king' in the internal sense means truth, 1672, 2015, 2069, 3009, 4581, 4966, 5044, 5068, 6148, and 'princes' leading aspects of truth, 1482, 2089, 5044.

(Odkazy: 1 Kings 12:26-33)


[14] 'Making their silver and their gold into idols' means perverting knowledge of truth and good obtained from the literal sense of the Word to suit their own desires, while still venerating that knowledge as being holy; even so it is devoid of life because it comes from their self-intelligence. For 'silver' is truth and 'gold' is good which come from God, and for this reason belong to the Word, 1551, 2954, 5658, 6914, 6917, 8932; and 'idols' are religious teachings which are a product of self-intelligence, and which are venerated as being holy, but in fact have no life in them, 8941. From all this it is evident that 'a king' and 'princes', also 'silver' and 'gold', mean falsities arising from evil; for things that arise from the self or proprium arise from evil and consequently are falsities, even though outwardly they look like truths because they have been taken from the literal sense of the Word. From this it is evident what is meant by 'the calf of Samaria which the smith has made and which will be broken to pieces', namely good present in the natural man but not at the same time in the spiritual man, thus what is not good since it has been applied to evil. 'A smith has made it, and it is not God' means that it is a product of the self and does not come from God; and 'being broken to pieces' means being reduced to nothing.

[15] Like things are meant by 'calves' in Hosea,

They sin more and more, and make for themselves a molten image from their silver, idols by their own intelligence, completely the work of craftsmen, saying to them, Those who offer human sacrifice 8 will kiss the calves. Hosea 13:2.

From all this it is now evident what 'calf' and 'young bull' mean in the following places: In Isaiah,

The unicorns will come down with them, and the young bulls with the powerful ones; and their land will become drunk with blood, and their dust will be made fat with fatness. Isaiah 34:7.

In the same prophet,

The fortified city will be solitary, a habitation forsaken and left like a wilderness; there the calf will feed, and there it will lie down and consume its branches. Its harvest will wither. Isaiah 27:10-11.

In Jeremiah,

From the cry of Heshbon even to Elealeh, as far as Jahaz they uttered their voice, from Zoar even to Horonaim, a three year old heifer, for the waters of Nimrim also will become desolations. Jeremiah 48:34.

In Isaiah,

My heart cries out upon Moab, his fugitives flee even to Zoar, a three year old heifer, for at the ascent of Luhith he will go up weeping. Isaiah 15:5.

In Hosea,

Ephraim is a trained heifer, loving to thresh [grain]. Hosea 10:11.

In David,

Rebuke the wild animals of the reeds, the congregation of the strong ones, among the calves of the peoples, trampling on the fragments of silver. They have scattered the peoples; they desire wars. Psalms 68:30.

(Odkazy: Isaiah 27:10)


[16] This refers to the arrogance of those who wish to enter into the mysteries of faith on the basis of factual knowledge, refusing to accept anything at all apart from what they themselves deduce on that basis. Since they see nothing in the superior light of heaven which comes from the Lord, only in the inferior light of the natural world which begins in the self, they seize on shadows instead of light, on illusions instead of realities, in general on falsity instead of truth. Since these people's thinking is insane, because it relies solely on the lowest level of knowledge, they are called 'wild animals of the reeds'; since their reasoning is fierce they are called 'the congregation of the strong ones'; and since they dispel truths that still remain and are spread around among the forms of good of those governed by the Church's truths, they are said 'to trample on the fragments of silver among the calves of the peoples', and in addition 'to scatter the peoples', that is, the Church itself together with its truths. The longing to attack and destroy these truths is meant by 'desiring wars'. From all this it is again evident that 'calves' are forms of good.

[17] In Zechariah 12:4 it says, 'Every horse of the peoples I will strike with blindness'; and 'horse of the peoples' means the ability to understand truths which exists with everyone who belongs to the Church, since 'a horse' means the power of understanding truth, 2761. But in Psalms 68:30 quoted above it speaks of 'trampling on the fragments of silver' and 'scattering the peoples among the calves of the peoples'. 'Trampling on' and 'scattering' mean casting down and dispelling, 258; 'silver' means truth, 1551, 2954, 5658, 6112, 6914, 6917, 7999, 8932; and 'the peoples' means those belonging to the Church who are governed by truths, 2928, 7207, thus also the Church's truths, 1259, 1260, 3295, 3581, so that 'the calves of the peoples' means the forms of good governing the will of those who belong to the Church.

(Odkazy: Arcana Coelestia 1259-1260)


[18] Further evidence that forms of good are meant by 'calves' is clear in Jeremiah,

I will give the men who transgressed My covenant, who did not keep the terms of the covenant which they made before Me, that of the calf which they cut in two in order that they might pass between its parts - the princes of Judah, and the princes of Jerusalem, the royal ministers and the priests, and all the people of the land who passed between the parts of the calf - I will give them into the hand of their enemies, that their dead bodies may be food for the birds of the air and the beasts of the earth. Jeremiah 34:18-20.

No one can know what 'the covenant of the calf' and what 'passing between its parts' describe unless he knows what is meant by 'a covenant', 'a calf', and 'cutting it into two parts', and also what is meant by 'the princes of Judah and of Jerusalem, the royal ministers and the priests, and the people of the land'. Plainly some heavenly arcanum is meant. Nevertheless that arcanum comes into the open and can be understood when it is known that 'a covenant' means being joined together, 'a calf' means good, 'a calf cut into two parts' means good emanating from the Lord on one hand and good received by a person on the other; that 'the princes of Judah and of Jerusalem, and the royal ministers and the priests, and the people of the land' are the truths and forms of good which the Church has from the Word; and that 'passing between the parts' means being joined together. Once all this is known it becomes evident that the internal sense of these words in Jeremiah is this: With that nation good emanating from the Lord was not at all joined to but stood apart from good received by a person through the Word, and therefore through the Church's truths and forms of good. The reason for this was that they were restricted to external things, devoid of anything internal.

[19] The same thing is implied by the covenant of the calf with Abram, referred to as follows in the Book of Genesis,

Jehovah said to Abram, Take for Me 9 a three year old heifer, and a three year old she-goat, and a three year old ram, and a turtle dove and a fledgling. And he took for himself all these, and parted each of them down the middle and laid each part opposite the other; but the birds he did not cut apart. And birds of prey came down on the carcasses, and Abram drove them away. And as the sun was going down a deep sleep came over Abram, and, behold, a dread of a great darkness was coming over him. On that day Jehovah made a covenant with Abram. Genesis 15:9-12, 18.

'A dread of great darkness coming over Abram' was a sign of the state of the Jewish nation, that they were in greatest darkness so far as truths and forms of good which the Church has from the Word were concerned. They were in such darkness because they were restricted to external things devoid of anything internal, as a consequence of which their worship was idolatrous. For the worship of anyone restricted to external things devoid of anything internal is idolatrous, because his heart and soul when he engages in worship is not in heaven but in the world. Nor does he respect the holy things of the Word from any heavenly love present in him, only an earthly love. This state of that nation is what the prophet described by 'the covenant of the calf which they cut into two parts, between which they passed'.

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Footnotes:

1. literally, The feet of the four living creatures [were] a straight foot, and the hollow of their feet [was] like the hollow of a calf's foot.

2. The Latin here (pedem dextrum) means right foot; but to judge from the actual quotation of Ezek:1:7, pedem rectum is intended, which can mean right foot rather than straight foot.

3. i.e. praises or sacrifices of praise

4. literally, You attract a habitation of violence

5. i.e. mercenaries who are like fat bulls

6. i.e. grass or herbage

7. literally, will become or will be made into

8. literally, Those sacrificing a human being

9. The Latin means you but the Hebrew means Me.

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(Odkazy: Exodus 24:5)

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From Swedenborg's Works

Inbound References:

Arcana Coelestia 9412, 9688, 9755, 9780, 9781, 9818, 9990, 10021, 10023, 10122, 10129, 10132, 10137, 10156, 10210, 10227, 10283, 10284, 10292, 10400, 10407, 10421, 10437, 10546

The White Horse 12

The New Jerusalem and its Heavenly Doctrine 51, 221, 261


References from Swedenborg's unpublished works:

Apocalypse Explained 195, 235, 240, 329, 386, 388, 701

Other New Christian Commentary

Thanks to the Swedenborg Society for the permission to use this translation.


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