Domarboken 12



1 Men Efraims män församlade sig och drogo till Safon; och de sade till Jefta: »Varför drog du åstad till strid mot Ammons barn utan att kallaoss till att tåga med dig? Nu vilja vi bränna upp ditt hus jämte dig själv i eld.

2 Jefta svarade dem: »Jag och mitt folk lågo i svår fejd med Ammons barn; då manade jag eder att komma, men I villen icke frälsa mig ur deras hand.

3 Och när jag såg att I icke villen frälsa mig, tog jag min själ i min hand och drog åstad mot Ammons barn, och HERREN gav dem i min hand. Varför haven I då nu dragit upp emot mig till att strida emot mig?»

4 Och Jefta församlade alla Gileads män och gav sig i strid med Efraim. Och Gileads män slogo efraimiterna; dessa hade nämligen sagt: »Flyktingar ifrån Efraim ären I; Gilead är ett mellanting, varken Efraim eller Manasse

5 Och gileaditerna besatte vadställena över Jordan för efraimiterna. Då nu någon av de efraimitiska flyktingarna sade: »Låt mig komma över», frågade Gileads män honom: »Är du en efraimit?» Om han då svarade nej,

6 så sade de till honom: »Säg 'schibbolet'.» Sade han då »sibbolet», därför att han icke nog lade sig vinn om att uttala ordet rätt, så grepo de honom och höggo ned honom där vid vadställena över Jordan. På detta sätt föllo vid det tillfället fyrtiotvå tusen efraimiter.

7 Och Jefta var domare i Israel i sex år. Sedan dog gileaditen Jefta och blev begraven i en av Gileads städer.

8 Efter honom var Ibsan från Bet-Lehem domare i Israel.

9 Han hade trettio söner, och trettio döttrar gifte han bort; han fick ock trettio döttrar genom att skaffa hustrur åt sina söner utifrån. Och han var domare i Israel i sju år.

10 Sedan dog Ibsan och blev begraven i Bet-Lehem.

11 Efter honom var sebuloniten Elon domare i Israel; i tio år var han domare i Israel.

12 Sedan dog sebuloniten Elon och blev begraven i Ajalon, i Sebulons land.

13 Efter honom var pirgatoniten Abdon, Hillels son, domare i Israel.

14 Han hade fyrtio söner och trettio sonsöner, vilka plägade rida på sjuttio åsnor. Och han var domare i Israel i åtta år.

15 Sedan dog pirgatoniten Abdon, Hillels son, och blev begraven i Pirgaton i Efraims land, i amalekiternas bergsbygd.

Exploring the Meaning of Domarboken 12      

Napsal(a) Rev. Julian Duckworth

Judges 12: Jephthah’s conflict with Ephraim; Ibzan, Elon and Abdon.

After Jephthah’s victory over the Ammonites, the men of Ephraim came to Jephthah, demanding to know why he hadn’t asked them to join the battle. Jephthah answered that when his people had struggled against Ammon in the past, Ephraim had not answered their calls for help.

Jephthah and Ephraim went to war over this dispute, and Ephraim was defeated. Jephthah’s men, the men of Gilead, stood by the fords of the Jordan to catch fleeing Ephraimites. When a man asked to cross, they would tell him to say “Shibboleth”. The men who pronounced the word as “Sibboleth” were from Ephraim, and were put to death. In total, forty-two thousand Ephraimites were killed in the war.

Jephthah died after judging Israel for six years, and was buried in Gilead.


The spiritual meaning of Ephraim is to understand the truths of the Word. Wherever Ephraim is referenced in a negative sense, as in this chapter, the spiritual meaning becomes an understanding of the Word which has been destroyed. The Word commands us to live by what we understand and believe; in this story, Ephraim did not heed Jephthah’s words (see Swedenborg’s work, Doctrine of Sacred Scripture 79[3]).

The escaping Ephraimites were exposed by their accent, as they could not pronounce the ‘sh’ sound of “Shibboleth”. The letter ‘h’ stands for the genuine truth of the Word, which is the love of the Lord and for the neighbour. A purely intellectual understanding of the Word fails to comprehend this living heart that makes the Word what it is, and consequently, can only say “Sibboleth” (see Swdenborg’s work, Arcana Caelestia 4280).

The Word tells us that forty-two thousand Ephraimites were killed - that seems an colossal number of casualties! But the Word does not report facts from a historical standpoint; it presents living truths, even in numbers. Forty-two is six multiplied by seven, so its spiritual meaning can be understood as a combination of both numbers. In the creation story, the Lord worked for six days and rested on the seventh. This idea relates to our regeneration, which involves our struggles during temptation, as well as the peace that comes from spiritual growth. The fact that the number of casualties was in the thousands emphasizes the significance of the spiritual meaning (Arcana Caelestia 8539[2]).

Jephthah judged Israel six years. The number six here carries the same meaning of conflict and work during temptation. The temptation in this chapter would be to understand the Word purely in an intellectual or dead way (Ephraim in a bad sense), rather than living by the truths it teaches.


After Jephthah, there were three minor judges of Israel. The first was Ibzan, who gave away thirty daughters to marry abroad, and brought in thirty foreign daughters for his thirty sons. The Bible does not tell us any more about Ibzan, except the curious fact that he came from Bethlehem. It’s uncertain whether this is the same town where the Lord would be born, or another town of the same name.

Ibzan, whose name means ‘illustrious’, stands for a generous and willing spirit, able to take in new perspectives and to share his blessings with others. This concept is called mutual love, which is a key quality of heaven (Arcana Caelestia 2738).

The next judge, Elon, came from Zebulun, and led Israel for ten years. Even these few details that we learn about him present a sense of integrity in their spiritual meanings: his name means an ‘oak’, a tree which is associated with nobility, strength, and longevity, each of which are fitting qualities of a leader; he came from Zebulun, which represents the unity of good and truth (Arcana Caelestia 4592[13]); and the number ten (the number of years that he judged Israel) symbolizes completeness, and also our spiritual ‘remains’ (see Sweenborg’s work, Doctrine of Life 56).

The third and final judge, Abdon, had forty sons and thirty grandsons who rode on seventy young donkeys. Abdon’s name means “to serve”, which is the third spiritual principle after love and truth. To serve is to offer our life to God through charity toward others. A young donkey represents the untamed level of our lives before regeneration, which needs spiritual care (Arcana Caelestia 5084[8]).

These last three ‘minor’ judges remind us of the qualities which guard against the next major opponent of Israel: the Philistines, who represent faith without regard to charity or good works.

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