Judges 12



1 και εβοησεν ανηρ εφραιμ και παρηλθαν εις βορραν και ειπαν προς ιεφθαε δια τι παρηλθες παραταξασθαι εν υιοις αμμων και ημας ου κεκληκας πορευθηναι μετα σου τον οικον σου εμπρησομεν επι σε εν πυρι

2 και ειπεν ιεφθαε προς αυτους ανηρ μαχητης ημην εγω και ο λαος μου και οι υιοι αμμων σφοδρα και εβοησα υμας και ουκ εσωσατε με εκ χειρος αυτων

3 και ειδον οτι ουκ ει σωτηρ και εθηκα την ψυχην μου εν χειρι μου και παρηλθον προς υιους αμμων και εδωκεν αυτους κυριος εν χειρι μου και εις τι ανεβητε επ' εμε εν τη ημερα ταυτη παραταξασθαι εν εμοι

4 και συνεστρεψεν ιεφθαε τους παντας ανδρας γαλααδ και παρεταξατο τω εφραιμ και επαταξαν ανδρες γαλααδ τον εφραιμ οτι ειπαν οι διασωζομενοι του εφραιμ υμεις γαλααδ εν μεσω του εφραιμ και εν μεσω του μανασση

5 και προκατελαβετο γαλααδ τας διαβασεις του ιορδανου του εφραιμ και ειπαν αυτοις οι διασωζομενοι εφραιμ διαβωμεν και ειπαν αυτοις οι ανδρες γαλααδ μη εφραθιτης ει και ειπεν ου

6 και ειπαν αυτω ειπον δη σταχυς και ου κατευθυνεν του λαλησαι ουτως και επελαβοντο αυτου και εθυσαν αυτον προς τας διαβασεις του ιορδανου και επεσαν εν τω καιρω εκεινω απο εφραιμ τεσσαρακοντα δυο χιλιαδες

7 και εκρινεν ιεφθαε τον ισραηλ εξηκοντα ετη και απεθανεν ιεφθαε ο γαλααδιτης και εταφη εν πολει αυτου εν γαλααδ

8 και εκρινεν μετ' αυτον τον ισραηλ αβαισαν απο βαιθλεεμ

9 και ησαν αυτω τριακοντα υιοι και τριακοντα θυγατερες ας εξαπεστειλεν εξω και τριακοντα θυγατερας εισηνεγκεν τοις υιοις αυτου εξωθεν και εκρινεν τον ισραηλ επτα ετη

10 και απεθανεν αβαισαν και εταφη εν βαιθλεεμ

11 και εκρινεν μετ' αυτον τον ισραηλ αιλωμ ο ζαβουλωνιτης δεκα ετη

12 και απεθανεν αιλωμ ο ζαβουλωνιτης και εταφη εν αιλωμ εν γη ζαβουλων

13 και εκρινεν μετ' αυτον τον ισραηλ αβδων υιος ελληλ ο φαραθωνιτης

14 και ησαν αυτω τεσσαρακοντα υιοι και τριακοντα υιων υιοι επιβαινοντες επι εβδομηκοντα πωλους και εκρινεν τον ισραηλ οκτω ετη

15 και απεθανεν αβδων υιος ελληλ ο φαραθωνιτης και εταφη εν φαραθωμ εν γη εφραιμ εν ορει του αμαληκ

Exploring the Meaning of Judges 12      

Napsal(a) Rev. Julian Duckworth

Judges 12: Jephthah’s conflict with Ephraim; Ibzan, Elon and Abdon.

After Jephthah’s victory over the Ammonites, the men of Ephraim came to Jephthah, demanding to know why he hadn’t asked them to join the battle. Jephthah answered that when his people had struggled against Ammon in the past, Ephraim had not answered their calls for help.

Jephthah and Ephraim went to war over this dispute, and Ephraim was defeated. Jephthah’s men, the men of Gilead, stood by the fords of the Jordan to catch fleeing Ephraimites. When a man asked to cross, they would tell him to say “Shibboleth”. The men who pronounced the word as “Sibboleth” were from Ephraim, and were put to death. In total, forty-two thousand Ephraimites were killed in the war.

Jephthah died after judging Israel for six years, and was buried in Gilead.


The spiritual meaning of Ephraim is to understand the truths of the Word. Wherever Ephraim is referenced in a negative sense, as in this chapter, the spiritual meaning becomes an understanding of the Word which has been destroyed. The Word commands us to live by what we understand and believe; in this story, Ephraim did not heed Jephthah’s words (see Swedenborg’s work, Doctrine of Sacred Scripture 79[3]).

The escaping Ephraimites were exposed by their accent, as they could not pronounce the ‘sh’ sound of “Shibboleth”. The letter ‘h’ stands for the genuine truth of the Word, which is the love of the Lord and for the neighbour. A purely intellectual understanding of the Word fails to comprehend this living heart that makes the Word what it is, and consequently, can only say “Sibboleth” (see Swdenborg’s work, Arcana Caelestia 4280).

The Word tells us that forty-two thousand Ephraimites were killed - that seems an colossal number of casualties! But the Word does not report facts from a historical standpoint; it presents living truths, even in numbers. Forty-two is six multiplied by seven, so its spiritual meaning can be understood as a combination of both numbers. In the creation story, the Lord worked for six days and rested on the seventh. This idea relates to our regeneration, which involves our struggles during temptation, as well as the peace that comes from spiritual growth. The fact that the number of casualties was in the thousands emphasizes the significance of the spiritual meaning (Arcana Caelestia 8539[2]).

Jephthah judged Israel six years. The number six here carries the same meaning of conflict and work during temptation. The temptation in this chapter would be to understand the Word purely in an intellectual or dead way (Ephraim in a bad sense), rather than living by the truths it teaches.


After Jephthah, there were three minor judges of Israel. The first was Ibzan, who gave away thirty daughters to marry abroad, and brought in thirty foreign daughters for his thirty sons. The Bible does not tell us any more about Ibzan, except the curious fact that he came from Bethlehem. It’s uncertain whether this is the same town where the Lord would be born, or another town of the same name.

Ibzan, whose name means ‘illustrious’, stands for a generous and willing spirit, able to take in new perspectives and to share his blessings with others. This concept is called mutual love, which is a key quality of heaven (Arcana Caelestia 2738).

The next judge, Elon, came from Zebulun, and led Israel for ten years. Even these few details that we learn about him present a sense of integrity in their spiritual meanings: his name means an ‘oak’, a tree which is associated with nobility, strength, and longevity, each of which are fitting qualities of a leader; he came from Zebulun, which represents the unity of good and truth (Arcana Caelestia 4592[13]); and the number ten (the number of years that he judged Israel) symbolizes completeness, and also our spiritual ‘remains’ (see Sweenborg’s work, Doctrine of Life 56).

The third and final judge, Abdon, had forty sons and thirty grandsons who rode on seventy young donkeys. Abdon’s name means “to serve”, which is the third spiritual principle after love and truth. To serve is to offer our life to God through charity toward others. A young donkey represents the untamed level of our lives before regeneration, which needs spiritual care (Arcana Caelestia 5084[8]).

These last three ‘minor’ judges remind us of the qualities which guard against the next major opponent of Israel: the Philistines, who represent faith without regard to charity or good works.

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