Judges 10



1 και-C αναιστημι-VHI-AAI3S μετα-P *αβιμελεχ-N---ASM ο- A--GSN σωζω-VA--AAN ο- A--ASM *ισραηλ-N---ASM *θωλα-N---NSM υιος-N2--NSM *φουα-N---GSM υιος-N2--NSM πατραδελφος-N2--GSM αυτος- D--GSM ανηρ-N3--NSM *ισσαχαρ-N---NSM και-C αυτος- D--NSM οικεω-V2I-IAI3S εν-P *σαμιρ-N---DSF εν-P ορος-N3E-DSN *εφραιμ-N---GSM

2 και-C κρινω-VAI-AAI3S ο- A--ASM *ισραηλ-N---ASM εικοσι-M τρεις-A3--APN ετος-N3E-APN και-C αποθνησκω-VBI-AAI3S και-C θαπτω-VDI-API3S εν-P *σαμιρ-N---DSF

3 και-C αναιστημι-VHI-AAI3S μετα-P αυτος- D--ASM *ιαιρ-N---NSM ο- A--NSM *γαλααδ-N---NSM και-C κρινω-VAI-AAI3S ο- A--ASM *ισραηλ-N---ASM εικοσι-M δυο-M ετος-N3E-APN

4 και-C ειμι-V9--IAI3P αυτος- D--DSM τριακοντα-M και-C δυο-M υιος-N2--NPM επιβαινω-V1--PAPNPM επι-P τριακοντα-M δυο-M πωλος-N2--NPM και-C τριακοντα-M δυο-M πολις-N3I-NPF αυτος- D--DPM και-C καλεω-V2I-IAI3P αυτος- D--APF επαυλις-N3I-APF *ιαιρ-N---GSM εως-P ο- A--GSF ημερα-N1A-GSF ουτος- D--GSF εν-P γη-N1--DSF *γαλααδ-N---GSM

5 και-C αποθνησκω-VBI-AAI3S *ιαιρ-N---NSM και-C θαπτω-VDI-API3S εν-P *ραμνων-N---DSF

6 και-C προςτιθημι-VEI-AMI3P ο- A--NPM υιος-N2--NPM *ισραηλ-N---GSM ποιεω-VA--AAN ο- A--ASN πονηρος-A1A-ASM ενωπιον-P κυριος-N2--GSM και-C δουλευω-VAI-AAI3P ο- A--DPM *βααλιμ-N---DPM και-C ο- A--DPF *ασταρωθ-N---DPF και-C ο- A--DPM θεος-N2--DPM *αραδ-N---GSF και-C ο- A--DPM θεος-N2--DPM *σιδων-N3W-GSM και-C ο- A--DPM θεος-N2--DPM *μωαβ-N---GSF και-C ο- A--DPM θεος-N2--DPM υιος-N2--GPM *αμμων-N---GSM και-C ο- A--DPM θεος-N2--DPM *φυλιστιιμ-N---GPM και-C εν καταλειπω-VBI-AAI3P ο- A--ASM κυριος-N2--ASM και-C ου-D δουλευω-VAI-AAI3P αυτος- D--DSM

7 και-C οργιζω-VSI-API3S θυμος-N2--DSM κυριος-N2--NSM εν-P *ισραηλ-N---DSM και-C αποδιδωμι-VOI-AMI3S αυτος- D--APM εν-P χειρ-N3--DSF *φυλιστιιμ-N---GPM και-C εν-P χειρ-N3--DSF υιος-N2--GPM *αμμων-N---GSM

8 και-C θλιβω-VAI-AAI3P και-C θλαω-VAI-AAI3P ο- A--APM υιος-N2--APM *ισραηλ-N---GSM εν-P ο- A--DSM καιρος-N2--DSM εκεινος- D--DSM δεκα-M οκτω-M ετος-N3E-APN ο- A--APM πας-A3--APM υιος-N2--APM *ισραηλ-N---GSM ο- A--APM εν-P ο- A--DSM περαν-P ο- A--GSM *ιορδανης-N1M-GSM εν-P γη-N1--DSF ο- A--GSM *αμορρι-N---GSM ο- A--GSM εν-P *γαλααδ-N---DSM

9 και-C διαβαινω-VZI-AAI3P ο- A--NPM υιος-N2--NPM *αμμων-N---GSM ο- A--ASM *ιορδανης-N1M-ASM παρατασσω-VA--AMN προς-P *ιουδας-N1T-ASM και-C *βενιαμιν-N---ASM και-C προς-P *εφραιμ-N---ASM και-C θλιβω-VVI-API3S *ισραηλ-N---GSM σφοδρα-D

10 και-C βοαω-VAI-AAI3P ο- A--NPM υιος-N2--NPM *ισραηλ-N---GSM προς-P κυριος-N2--ASM λεγω-V1--PAPNPM αμαρτανω-VBI-AAI1P συ- P--DS οτι-C εν καταλειπω-VBI-AAI1P ο- A--ASM θεος-N2--ASM και-C δουλευω-VAI-AAI1P ο- A--DSM *βααλιμ-N---DPM

11 και-C ειπον-VBI-AAI3S κυριος-N2--NSM προς-P ο- A--APM υιος-N2--APM *ισραηλ-N---GSM μη-D ου-D εκ-P *αιγυπτος-N2--GSF και-C απο-P ο- A--GSM *αμορραιος-N2--GSM και-C απο-P υιος-N2--GPM *αμμων-N---GSM και-C απο-P *φυλιστιιμ-N---GPM

12 και-C *σιδωνιος-N2--GPM και-C *αμαληκ-N---GSM και-C *μαδιαμ-N---GSF ος- --NPM θλιβω-VAI-AAI3P συ- P--AP και-C βοαω-VAI-AAI2P προς-P εγω- P--AS και-C σωζω-VAI-AAI1S συ- P--AP εκ-P χειρ-N3--GSF αυτος- D--GPM

13 και-C συ- P--NP εν καταλειπω-VBI-AAI2P εγω- P--AS και-C δουλευω-VAI-AAI2P θεος-N2--DPM ετερος-A1A-DPM δια-P ουτος- D--ASN ου-D προςτιθημι-VF--FAI1S ο- A--GSN σωζω-VA--AAN συ- P--AP

14 πορευομαι-V1--PMD2P και-C βοαω-VA--AAD2P προς-P ο- A--APM θεος-N2--APM ος- --APM εκλεγω-VAI-AMI2P εαυτου- D--DPM και-C αυτος- D--NPM σωζω-VA--AAD3P συ- P--AP εν-P καιρος-N2--DSM θλιψις-N3I-GSF συ- P--GP

15 και-C ειπον-VAI-AAI3P ο- A--NPM υιος-N2--NPM *ισραηλ-N---GSM προς-P κυριος-N2--ASM αμαρτανω-VBI-AAI1P ποιεω-VA--AAD2S συ- P--NS εγω- P--DP κατα-P πας-A3--ASN ο- A--ASN αγαθος-A1--ASN εν-P οφθαλμος-N2--DPM συ- P--GS πλην-D εκαιρεω-VB--AMD2S εγω- P--AP εν-P ο- A--DSF ημερα-N1A-DSF ουτος- D--DSF

16 και-C εκκλινω-VAI-AAI3P ο- A--APM θεος-N2--APM ο- A--APM αλλοτριος-A1A-APM εκ-P μεσος-A1--GSM αυτος- D--GPM και-C δουλευω-VAI-AAI3P ο- A--DSM κυριος-N2--DSM μονος-A1--DSM και-C ολιγοω-VCI-API3S ο- A--NSF ψυχη-N1--NSF αυτος- D--GSM εν-P κοπος-N2--DSM *ισραηλ-N---GSM

17 και-C αναβαινω-VZI-AAI3P ο- A--NPM υιος-N2--NPM *αμμων-N---GSM και-C παρα ενβαλλω-VBI-AAI3P εν-P *γαλααδ-N---DSM και-C συναγω-VQI-API3P ο- A--NPM υιος-N2--NPM *ισραηλ-N---GSM και-C παρα ενβαλλω-VBI-AAI3P εν-P ο- A--DSF σκοπια-N1A-DSF

18 και-C ειπον-VBI-AAI3P ο- A--NSM λαος-N2--NSM ο- A--NPM αρχων-N3--NPM *γαλααδ-N---GSM ανηρ-N3--NSM προς-P ο- A--ASM πλησιον-D αυτος- D--GSM τις- I--NSM ο- A--NSM ανηρ-N3--NSM οστις- X--NSM αν-X αρχω-VA--AMS3S παρατασσω-VA--AMN προς-P υιος-N2--APM *αμμων-N---GSM και-C ειμι-VF--FMI3S εις-P αρχων-N3--ASM πας-A3--DPM ο- A--DPM καταοικεω-V2--PAPDPM *γαλααδ-N---DSM

Exploring the Meaning of Judges 10      

Napsal(a) Rev. Julian Duckworth

Judges 10: Tola, Jair; Israel oppressed again.

This chapter opens by mentioning the judges Tola and Jair, who judged for twenty-three years and twenty-two years, respectively. The text gives us very little information about them, except that Jair had thirty sons, who rode on thirty donkeys and had thirty cities in the land of Gilead.

After Jair died, the people soon disobeyed the Lord, and worshipped the gods of Syria, Sidon, Moab, Philistia, and Ammon. This provoked the Lord’s anger, so He caused the Philistines and Ammonites to oppress Israel. The Ammonites first attacked the two-and-a-half tribes living on the eastern side of the Jordan, then crossed the river to attack Judah, Benjamin and Ephraim.

The people cried out to the Lord, saying that they had forsaken Him, but He told them to go to the other gods they had chosen. However, the people asked again for forgiveness, stopped worshipping foreign gods, and turned back to the Lord, so His anger toward them subsided.


This chapter describes another episode in Israel’s cycle of disobedience and punishment, in which the people repeatedly turn away from the Lord when there is no leader. No matter how often we affirm our faith in the Lord, we, too, will default to our natural desires and false thinking. As we come to recognize and accept this fact of life, we can find comfort in the Lord. He understands this completely, and does not blame or punish us.

The first judge mentioned is Tola. His name means “a worm-like grub”, suggesting the idea of metamorphosis and regeneration (see Swedenborg’s work, True Christian Religion 106[2]). Tola’s father was Puah (meaning “shining”), his grandfather was Dodo (meaning “amorous, loving”), and their city was Shamir (which means “keeping the commandment”). These names bring to mind the spiritual qualities of truth, love and life in the Lord (see Swedenborg’s work, Arcana Caelestia 977).

The next judge is Jair, whose name means ”he whom God enlightens”. The number thirty (used in reference to his thirty sons and their thirty towns) means fullness or readiness. This readiness refers to our spiritual ‘remains’, or states of innocence and charity that the Lord imparts to us during childhood. These remains are essential during regeneration (Arcana Caelestia 1050).

The Philistines, soon to be a major enemy of Israel, stand for the belief in “faith alone” salvation. This way of thinking instills the idea that we will be saved if we “believe in the Lord”, regardless of our actions. “Faith alone” doctrine is present in many religious practices (see Swedenborg’s work, Doctrine of Life 4).

The people of Ammon stand for profaning what is true, by turning the truths of the Word into false ideas. We profane the truth when we claim to know what the Word teaches, but live in a way that is contrary to the Lord’s commandments (Arcana Caelestia 6348[3]).

This chapter, like many others in the book of Judges, shows Israel’s decline into chaos and evil. The two judges, Tola and Jair, provide a picture of spiritual integrity, in contrast with Israel’s oppression by the very evils they have turned to. In our regeneration, with its highs and lows, we must avoid the temptation of shallow faith by acting according to our values.

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