Judges 10



1 καί-C ἀναἵστημι-VHI-AAI3S μετά-P *αβιμελεχ-N---ASM ὁ- A--GSN σώζω-VA--AAN ὁ- A--ASM *ἰσραήλ-N---ASM *θωλα-N---NSM υἱός-N2--NSM *φουα-N---GSM υἱός-N2--NSM πατράδελφος-N2--GSM αὐτός- D--GSM ἀνήρ-N3--NSM *ισσαχαρ-N---NSM καί-C αὐτός- D--NSM οἰκέω-V2I-IAI3S ἐν-P *σαμιρ-N---DSF ἐν-P ὄρος-N3E-DSN *ἐφράιμ-N---GSM

2 καί-C κρίνω-VAI-AAI3S ὁ- A--ASM *ἰσραήλ-N---ASM εἴκοσι-M τρεῖς-A3--APN ἔτος-N3E-APN καί-C ἀποθνήσκω-VBI-AAI3S καί-C θάπτω-VDI-API3S ἐν-P *σαμιρ-N---DSF

3 καί-C ἀναἵστημι-VHI-AAI3S μετά-P αὐτός- D--ASM *ιαϊρ-N---NSM ὁ- A--NSM *γαλαάδ-N---NSM καί-C κρίνω-VAI-AAI3S ὁ- A--ASM *ἰσραήλ-N---ASM εἴκοσι-M δύο-M ἔτος-N3E-APN

4 καί-C εἰμί-V9--IAI3P αὐτός- D--DSM τριάκοντα-M καί-C δύο-M υἱός-N2--NPM ἐπιβαίνω-V1--PAPNPM ἐπί-P τριάκοντα-M δύο-M πῶλος-N2--NPM καί-C τριάκοντα-M δύο-M πόλις-N3I-NPF αὐτός- D--DPM καί-C καλέω-V2I-IAI3P αὐτός- D--APF ἔπαυλις-N3I-APF *ιαϊρ-N---GSM ἕως-P ὁ- A--GSF ἡμέρα-N1A-GSF οὗτος- D--GSF ἐν-P γῆ-N1--DSF *γαλαάδ-N---GSM

5 καί-C ἀποθνήσκω-VBI-AAI3S *ιαϊρ-N---NSM καί-C θάπτω-VDI-API3S ἐν-P *ραμνων-N---DSF

6 καί-C προςτίθημι-VEI-AMI3P ὁ- A--NPM υἱός-N2--NPM *ἰσραήλ-N---GSM ποιέω-VA--AAN ὁ- A--ASN πονηρός-A1A-ASM ἐνώπιον-P κύριος-N2--GSM καί-C δουλεύω-VAI-AAI3P ὁ- A--DPM *βααλιμ-N---DPM καί-C ὁ- A--DPF *ασταρωθ-N---DPF καί-C ὁ- A--DPM θεός-N2--DPM *αραδ-N---GSF καί-C ὁ- A--DPM θεός-N2--DPM *σιδών-N3W-GSM καί-C ὁ- A--DPM θεός-N2--DPM *μωαβ-N---GSF καί-C ὁ- A--DPM θεός-N2--DPM υἱός-N2--GPM *αμμων-N---GSM καί-C ὁ- A--DPM θεός-N2--DPM *φυλιστιιμ-N---GPM καί-C ἐν καταλείπω-VBI-AAI3P ὁ- A--ASM κύριος-N2--ASM καί-C οὐ-D δουλεύω-VAI-AAI3P αὐτός- D--DSM

7 καί-C ὀργίζω-VSI-API3S θυμός-N2--DSM κύριος-N2--NSM ἐν-P *ἰσραήλ-N---DSM καί-C ἀποδίδωμι-VOI-AMI3S αὐτός- D--APM ἐν-P χείρ-N3--DSF *φυλιστιιμ-N---GPM καί-C ἐν-P χείρ-N3--DSF υἱός-N2--GPM *αμμων-N---GSM

8 καί-C θλίβω-VAI-AAI3P καί-C θλάω-VAI-AAI3P ὁ- A--APM υἱός-N2--APM *ἰσραήλ-N---GSM ἐν-P ὁ- A--DSM καιρός-N2--DSM ἐκεῖνος- D--DSM δέκα-M ὀκτώ-M ἔτος-N3E-APN ὁ- A--APM πᾶς-A3--APM υἱός-N2--APM *ἰσραήλ-N---GSM ὁ- A--APM ἐν-P ὁ- A--DSM πέραν-P ὁ- A--GSM *ἰορδάνης-N1M-GSM ἐν-P γῆ-N1--DSF ὁ- A--GSM *αμορρι-N---GSM ὁ- A--GSM ἐν-P *γαλαάδ-N---DSM

9 καί-C διαβαίνω-VZI-AAI3P ὁ- A--NPM υἱός-N2--NPM *αμμων-N---GSM ὁ- A--ASM *ἰορδάνης-N1M-ASM παρατάσσω-VA--AMN πρός-P *ἰούδας-N1T-ASM καί-C *βενιαμίν-N---ASM καί-C πρός-P *ἐφράιμ-N---ASM καί-C θλίβω-VVI-API3S *ἰσραήλ-N---GSM σφόδρα-D

10 καί-C βοάω-VAI-AAI3P ὁ- A--NPM υἱός-N2--NPM *ἰσραήλ-N---GSM πρός-P κύριος-N2--ASM λέγω-V1--PAPNPM ἁμαρτάνω-VBI-AAI1P σύ- P--DS ὅτι-C ἐν καταλείπω-VBI-AAI1P ὁ- A--ASM θεός-N2--ASM καί-C δουλεύω-VAI-AAI1P ὁ- A--DSM *βααλιμ-N---DPM

11 καί-C εἶπον-VBI-AAI3S κύριος-N2--NSM πρός-P ὁ- A--APM υἱός-N2--APM *ἰσραήλ-N---GSM μή-D οὐ-D ἐκ-P *αἴγυπτος-N2--GSF καί-C ἀπό-P ὁ- A--GSM *ἀμορραῖος-N2--GSM καί-C ἀπό-P υἱός-N2--GPM *αμμων-N---GSM καί-C ἀπό-P *φυλιστιιμ-N---GPM

12 καί-C *σιδώνιος-N2--GPM καί-C *αμαληκ-N---GSM καί-C *μαδιαμ-N---GSF ὅς- --NPM θλίβω-VAI-AAI3P σύ- P--AP καί-C βοάω-VAI-AAI2P πρός-P ἐγώ- P--AS καί-C σώζω-VAI-AAI1S σύ- P--AP ἐκ-P χείρ-N3--GSF αὐτός- D--GPM

13 καί-C σύ- P--NP ἐν καταλείπω-VBI-AAI2P ἐγώ- P--AS καί-C δουλεύω-VAI-AAI2P θεός-N2--DPM ἕτερος-A1A-DPM διά-P οὗτος- D--ASN οὐ-D προςτίθημι-VF--FAI1S ὁ- A--GSN σώζω-VA--AAN σύ- P--AP

14 πορεύομαι-V1--PMD2P καί-C βοάω-VA--AAD2P πρός-P ὁ- A--APM θεός-N2--APM ὅς- --APM ἐκλέγω-VAI-AMI2P ἑαυτοῦ- D--DPM καί-C αὐτός- D--NPM σώζω-VA--AAD3P σύ- P--AP ἐν-P καιρός-N2--DSM θλῖψις-N3I-GSF σύ- P--GP

15 καί-C εἶπον-VAI-AAI3P ὁ- A--NPM υἱός-N2--NPM *ἰσραήλ-N---GSM πρός-P κύριος-N2--ASM ἁμαρτάνω-VBI-AAI1P ποιέω-VA--AAD2S σύ- P--NS ἐγώ- P--DP κατά-P πᾶς-A3--ASN ὁ- A--ASN ἀγαθός-A1--ASN ἐν-P ὀφθαλμός-N2--DPM σύ- P--GS πλήν-D ἐκαἱρέω-VB--AMD2S ἐγώ- P--AP ἐν-P ὁ- A--DSF ἡμέρα-N1A-DSF οὗτος- D--DSF

16 καί-C ἐκκλίνω-VAI-AAI3P ὁ- A--APM θεός-N2--APM ὁ- A--APM ἀλλότριος-A1A-APM ἐκ-P μέσος-A1--GSM αὐτός- D--GPM καί-C δουλεύω-VAI-AAI3P ὁ- A--DSM κύριος-N2--DSM μόνος-A1--DSM καί-C ὀλιγόω-VCI-API3S ὁ- A--NSF ψυχή-N1--NSF αὐτός- D--GSM ἐν-P κόπος-N2--DSM *ἰσραήλ-N---GSM

17 καί-C ἀναβαίνω-VZI-AAI3P ὁ- A--NPM υἱός-N2--NPM *αμμων-N---GSM καί-C παρα ἐνβάλλω-VBI-AAI3P ἐν-P *γαλαάδ-N---DSM καί-C συνἄγω-VQI-API3P ὁ- A--NPM υἱός-N2--NPM *ἰσραήλ-N---GSM καί-C παρα ἐνβάλλω-VBI-AAI3P ἐν-P ὁ- A--DSF σκοπιά-N1A-DSF

18 καί-C εἶπον-VBI-AAI3P ὁ- A--NSM λαός-N2--NSM ὁ- A--NPM ἄρχων-N3--NPM *γαλαάδ-N---GSM ἀνήρ-N3--NSM πρός-P ὁ- A--ASM πλησίον-D αὐτός- D--GSM τίς- I--NSM ὁ- A--NSM ἀνήρ-N3--NSM ὅστις- X--NSM ἄν-X ἄρχω-VA--AMS3S παρατάσσω-VA--AMN πρός-P υἱός-N2--APM *αμμων-N---GSM καί-C εἰμί-VF--FMI3S εἰς-P ἄρχων-N3--ASM πᾶς-A3--DPM ὁ- A--DPM καταοἰκέω-V2--PAPDPM *γαλαάδ-N---DSM

Exploring the Meaning of Judges 10      

Napsal(a) Rev. Julian Duckworth

Judges 10: Tola, Jair; Israel oppressed again.

This chapter opens by mentioning the judges Tola and Jair, who judged for twenty-three years and twenty-two years, respectively. The text gives us very little information about them, except that Jair had thirty sons, who rode on thirty donkeys and had thirty cities in the land of Gilead.

After Jair died, the people soon disobeyed the Lord, and worshipped the gods of Syria, Sidon, Moab, Philistia, and Ammon. This provoked the Lord’s anger, so He caused the Philistines and Ammonites to oppress Israel. The Ammonites first attacked the two-and-a-half tribes living on the eastern side of the Jordan, then crossed the river to attack Judah, Benjamin and Ephraim.

The people cried out to the Lord, saying that they had forsaken Him, but He told them to go to the other gods they had chosen. However, the people asked again for forgiveness, stopped worshipping foreign gods, and turned back to the Lord, so His anger toward them subsided.


This chapter describes another episode in Israel’s cycle of disobedience and punishment, in which the people repeatedly turn away from the Lord when there is no leader. No matter how often we affirm our faith in the Lord, we, too, will default to our natural desires and false thinking. As we come to recognize and accept this fact of life, we can find comfort in the Lord. He understands this completely, and does not blame or punish us.

The first judge mentioned is Tola. His name means “a worm-like grub”, suggesting the idea of metamorphosis and regeneration (see Swedenborg’s work, True Christian Religion 106[2]). Tola’s father was Puah (meaning “shining”), his grandfather was Dodo (meaning “amorous, loving”), and their city was Shamir (which means “keeping the commandment”). These names bring to mind the spiritual qualities of truth, love and life in the Lord (see Swedenborg’s work, Arcana Caelestia 977).

The next judge is Jair, whose name means ”he whom God enlightens”. The number thirty (used in reference to his thirty sons and their thirty towns) means fullness or readiness. This readiness refers to our spiritual ‘remains’, or states of innocence and charity that the Lord imparts to us during childhood. These remains are essential during regeneration (Arcana Caelestia 1050).

The Philistines, soon to be a major enemy of Israel, stand for the belief in “faith alone” salvation. This way of thinking instills the idea that we will be saved if we “believe in the Lord”, regardless of our actions. “Faith alone” doctrine is present in many religious practices (see Swedenborg’s work, Doctrine of Life 4).

The people of Ammon stand for profaning what is true, by turning the truths of the Word into false ideas. We profane the truth when we claim to know what the Word teaches, but live in a way that is contrary to the Lord’s commandments (Arcana Caelestia 6348[3]).

This chapter, like many others in the book of Judges, shows Israel’s decline into chaos and evil. The two judges, Tola and Jair, provide a picture of spiritual integrity, in contrast with Israel’s oppression by the very evils they have turned to. In our regeneration, with its highs and lows, we must avoid the temptation of shallow faith by acting according to our values.

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