Judicum 4



1 Addideruntque filii Israël facere malum in conspectu Domini post mortem Aod,

2 et tradidit illos Dominus in manus Jabin regis Chanaan, qui regnavit in Asor : habuitque ducem exercitus sui nomine Sisaram, ipse autem habitabat in Haroseth gentium.

3 Clamaveruntque filii Israël ad Dominum : nongentos enim habebat falcatos currus, et per viginti annos vehementer oppresserat eos.

4 Erat autem Debbora prophetis uxor Lapidoth, quæ judicabat populum in illo tempore.

5 Et sedebat sub palma, quæ nomine illius vocabatur, inter Rama et Bethel in monte Ephraim : ascendebantque ad eam filii Israël in omne judicium.

6 Quæ misit et vocavit Barac filium Abinoëm de Cedes Nephthali : dixitque ad eum : Præcepit tibi Dominus Deus Israël : Vade, et duc exercitum in montem Thabor, tollesque tecum decem millia pugnatorum de filiis Nephthali, et de filiis Zabulon :

7 ego autem adducam ad te in loco torrentis Cison, Sisaram principem exercitus Jabin, et currus ejus, atque omnem multitudinem, et tradam eos in manu tua.

8 Dixitque ad eam Barac : Si venis mecum, vadam : si nolueris venire mecum, non pergam.

9 Quæ dixit ad eum : Ibo quidem tecum, sed in hac vice victoria non reputabitur tibi, quia in manu mulieris tradetur Sisara. Surrexit itaque Debbora, et perrexit cum Barac in Cedes.

10 Qui, accitis Zabulon et Nephthali, ascendit cum decem millibus pugnatorum, habens Debboram in comitatu suo.

11 Haber autem Cinæus recesserat quondam a ceteris Cinæis fratribus suis filiis Hobab, cognati Moysi : et tetenderat tabernacula usque ad vallem, quæ vocatur Sennim, et erat juxta Cedes.

12 Nuntiatumque est Sisaræ quod ascendisset Barac filius Abinoëm in montem Thabor :

13 et congregavit nongentos falcatos currus, et omnem exercitum de Haroseth gentium ad torrentem Cison.

14 Dixitque Debbora ad Barac : Surge, hæc est enim dies, in qua tradidit Dominus Sisaram in manus tuas : en ipse ductor est tuus. Descendit itaque Barac de monte Thabor, et decem millia pugnatorum cum eo.

15 Perterruitque Dominus Sisaram, et omnes currus ejus, universamque multitudinem in ore gladii ad conspectum Barac : in tantum, ut Sisara de curru desiliens, pedibus fugeret,

16 et Barac persequeretur fugientes currus, et exercitum usque ad Haroseth gentium, et omnis hostium multitudo usque ad internecionem caderet.

17 Sisara autem fugiens pervenit ad tentorium Jahel uxoris Haber Cinæi. Erat enim pax inter Jabin regem Asor, et domum Haber Cinæi.

18 Egressa igitur Jahel in occursum Sisaræ, dixit ad eum : Intra ad me, domine mi : intra, ne timeas. Qui ingressus tabernaculum ejus, et opertus ab ea pallio,

19 dixit ad eam : Da mihi, obsecro, paululum aquæ, quia sitio valde. Quæ aperuit utrem lactis, et dedit ei bibere, et operuit illum.

20 Dixitque Sisara ad eam : Sta ante ostium tabernaculi : et cum venerit aliquis interrogans te, et dicens : Numquid hic est aliquis ? respondebis : Nullus est.

21 Tulit itaque Jahel uxor Haber clavum tabernaculi, assumens pariter et malleum : et ingressa abscondite et cum silentio, posuit supra tempus capitis ejus clavum, percussumque malleo defixit in cerebrum usque ad terram : qui soporem morti consocians defecit, et mortuus est.

22 Et ecce Barac sequens Sisaram veniebat : egressaque Jahel in occursum ejus, dixit ei : Veni, et ostendam tibi virum quem quæris. Qui cum intrasset ad eam, vidit Sisaram jacentem mortuum, et clavum infixum in tempore ejus.

23 Humiliavit ergo Deus in die illo Jabin regem Chanaan coram filiis Israël :

24 qui crescebant quotidie, et forti manu opprimebant Jabin regem Chanaan, donec delerent eum.


Exploring the Meaning of Judicum 4      

Napsal(a) Rev. Julian Duckworth

Judges 4: Deborah

Yet again, the children of Israel had disobeyed the Lord. At this point in time, they had been under the yoke of Jabin, a Canaanite king, for twenty years. He had nine hundred chariots of iron, and was apparently very powerful.

The Lord raised up Deborah, a prophetess, to free the Israelites from oppression under Jabin. The text says that she would pass judgements for the children of Israel while she sat under the palm tree of Deborah.

Deborah summoned Barak, an army officer, and told him to go with ten thousand men from the tribes of Naphtali and Zebulun to fight King Jabin’s armies. Barak said he would only go if Deborah went as well, so she agreed to join him. Deborah then prophesied that Sisera, the enemy commander, would be defeated by a woman.

The two armies clashed at by the River Kishon, and all of Sisera’s men were killed. Sisera then fled to the tent of Heber, an Israelite who was on peaceful terms with King Jabin. Jael, Heber’s wife, invited Sisera to come in with the comforting words, “fear not”. She covered him with a blanket, gave him milk to drink, and let him sleep there.

Then Jael quietly took a tent peg and drove it into Sisera’s temple using a hammer, so that the peg stuck in the earth. When Barak came to the tent, pursuing Sisera, Jael went out to tell him, “come, and I will show you the man you seek.” And she showed him Sisera, dead, with a peg through his temple.

So Jabin’s army was defeated that day, and Israel grew stronger until their oppression under Jabin came to an end.


Deborah is an especially significant character in the Bible, because she was the only female judge of Israel. It was very unusual for a woman in those times to rise to power, yet she truly earned the respect of her people. Deborah, as a woman, stands for the nurturing power of the Word to strengthen us during regeneration. Her name means ‘a bee’, but this comes from a word meaning ‘to speak’ – here, to speak the Word. Bees make honey; honey is nutritious; God’s word is our nourishment (see Swedenborg’s work, Arcana Caelestia 3424[2]).

The fact that Deborah judged from under a palm tree may seem like a passing detail, but even this contributes to the spiritual meaning of the story. Palm trees stand for the divine truths of the Word, which means that Deborah was judging the people from her understanding of the Lord’s truths.

King Jabin’s nine hundred iron chariots represent the apparent power of false beliefs, thoughts and persuasions over us. The number ‘nine’ stands for something which is complete, and ‘iron’ here stands for either natural truths or falsities. A ‘chariot’, being pulled by a horse, always stands for a set of teachings or doctrine. These three symbols add to the picture of a very powerful enemy: false ideas and views that can weaken and overwhelm us (Arcana Caelestia 4720[2]).

The spiritual meaning of the complex arrangement between Barak and Deborah is that we can only deal with our spiritual conflicts if we take the Word’s power (Deborah) with us. Barak, a man, represents the power of truth, but Deborah says a woman will gain victory over Sisera. The feminine stands for the power of love: our charity, our affection for good, and our wish to be useful. These qualities are always essential in our spiritual life (see Swedenborg’s work, Apocalypse Explained 1120[2]).

The story about Jael and Sisera is really about actively resisting the temptations of evil in our lives. Jael, a woman, stands for the power of good to overcome what is false in our mind. Driving the tent peg through Sisera’s head stands for the complete destruction of what is false. Driving it right through and into the ground stands for the power of good in our life and in our regeneration, because the ground represents our actions (Arcana Caelestia 268).

When Barak and Jael meet, it stands for the unity between good (Jael, a woman) and truth (Barak, a man). This unity of good and truth appears again at the start of the next chapter, in which Deborah and Barak sing of Israel’s victory.

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