Judicum 12



1 Ecce autem in Ephraim orta est seditio : nam transeuntes contra aquilonem, dixerunt ad Jephte : Quare vadens ad pugnam contra filios Ammon, vocare nos noluisti, ut pergeremus tecum ? igitur incendemus domum tuam.

2 Quibus ille respondit : Disceptatio erat mihi et populo meo contra filios Ammon vehemens : vocavique vos, ut præberetis mihi auxilium, et facere noluistis.

3 Quod cernens, posui animam meam in manibus meis, transivique ad filios Ammon, et tradidit eos Dominus in manus meas. Quid commerui, ut adversum me consurgatis in prælium ?

4 Vocatis itaque ad se cunctis viris Galaad, pugnabat contra Ephraim : percusseruntque viri Galaad Ephraim, quia dixerat : Fugitivus est Galaad de Ephraim, et habitat in medio Ephraim et Manasse.

5 Occupaveruntque Galaaditæ vada Jordanis, per quæ Ephraim reversurus erat. Cumque venisset ad ea de Ephraim numero, fugiens, atque dixisset : Obsecro ut me transire permittatis : dicebant ei Galaaditæ : Numquid Ephrathæus es ? quo dicente : Non sum :

6 interrogabant eum : Dic ergo Scibboleth, quod interpretatur Spica. Qui respondebat, Sibboleth : eadem littera spicam exprimere non valens. Statimque apprehensum jugulabant in ipso Jordanis transitu. Et ceciderunt in illo tempore de Ephraim quadraginta duo millia.

7 Judicavit itaque Jephte Galaadites Israël sex annis : et mortuus est, ac sepultus in civitate sua Galaad.

8 Post hunc judicavit Israël Abesan de Bethlehem :

9 qui habuit triginta filios, et totidem filias, quas emittens foras, maritis dedit, et ejusdem numeri filiis suis accepit uxores, introducens in domum suam. Qui septem annis judicavit Israël :

10 mortuusque est, ac sepultus in Bethlehem.

11 Cui successit Ahialon Zabulonites : et judicavit Israël decem annis :

12 mortuusque est, ac sepultus in Zabulon.

13 Post hunc judicavit Israël Abdon filius Illel Pharathonites :

14 qui habuit quadraginta filios, et triginta ex eis nepotes, ascendentes super septuaginta pullos asinarum. Et judicavit Israël octo annis :

15 mortuusque est, ac sepultus in Pharathon terræ Ephraim, in monte Amalec.

Exploring the Meaning of Judicum 12      

Napsal(a) Rev. Julian Duckworth

Judges 12: Jephthah’s conflict with Ephraim; Ibzan, Elon and Abdon.

After Jephthah’s victory over the Ammonites, the men of Ephraim came to Jephthah, demanding to know why he hadn’t asked them to join the battle. Jephthah answered that when his people had struggled against Ammon in the past, Ephraim had not answered their calls for help.

Jephthah and Ephraim went to war over this dispute, and Ephraim was defeated. Jephthah’s men, the men of Gilead, stood by the fords of the Jordan to catch fleeing Ephraimites. When a man asked to cross, they would tell him to say “Shibboleth”. The men who pronounced the word as “Sibboleth” were from Ephraim, and were put to death. In total, forty-two thousand Ephraimites were killed in the war.

Jephthah died after judging Israel for six years, and was buried in Gilead.


The spiritual meaning of Ephraim is to understand the truths of the Word. Wherever Ephraim is referenced in a negative sense, as in this chapter, the spiritual meaning becomes an understanding of the Word which has been destroyed. The Word commands us to live by what we understand and believe; in this story, Ephraim did not heed Jephthah’s words (see Swedenborg’s work, Doctrine of Sacred Scripture 79[3]).

The escaping Ephraimites were exposed by their accent, as they could not pronounce the ‘sh’ sound of “Shibboleth”. The letter ‘h’ stands for the genuine truth of the Word, which is the love of the Lord and for the neighbour. A purely intellectual understanding of the Word fails to comprehend this living heart that makes the Word what it is, and consequently, can only say “Sibboleth” (see Swdenborg’s work, Arcana Caelestia 4280).

The Word tells us that forty-two thousand Ephraimites were killed - that seems an colossal number of casualties! But the Word does not report facts from a historical standpoint; it presents living truths, even in numbers. Forty-two is six multiplied by seven, so its spiritual meaning can be understood as a combination of both numbers. In the creation story, the Lord worked for six days and rested on the seventh. This idea relates to our regeneration, which involves our struggles during temptation, as well as the peace that comes from spiritual growth. The fact that the number of casualties was in the thousands emphasizes the significance of the spiritual meaning (Arcana Caelestia 8539[2]).

Jephthah judged Israel six years. The number six here carries the same meaning of conflict and work during temptation. The temptation in this chapter would be to understand the Word purely in an intellectual or dead way (Ephraim in a bad sense), rather than living by the truths it teaches.


After Jephthah, there were three minor judges of Israel. The first was Ibzan, who gave away thirty daughters to marry abroad, and brought in thirty foreign daughters for his thirty sons. The Bible does not tell us any more about Ibzan, except the curious fact that he came from Bethlehem. It’s uncertain whether this is the same town where the Lord would be born, or another town of the same name.

Ibzan, whose name means ‘illustrious’, stands for a generous and willing spirit, able to take in new perspectives and to share his blessings with others. This concept is called mutual love, which is a key quality of heaven (Arcana Caelestia 2738).

The next judge, Elon, came from Zebulun, and led Israel for ten years. Even these few details that we learn about him present a sense of integrity in their spiritual meanings: his name means an ‘oak’, a tree which is associated with nobility, strength, and longevity, each of which are fitting qualities of a leader; he came from Zebulun, which represents the unity of good and truth (Arcana Caelestia 4592[13]); and the number ten (the number of years that he judged Israel) symbolizes completeness, and also our spiritual ‘remains’ (see Sweenborg’s work, Doctrine of Life 56).

The third and final judge, Abdon, had forty sons and thirty grandsons who rode on seventy young donkeys. Abdon’s name means “to serve”, which is the third spiritual principle after love and truth. To serve is to offer our life to God through charity toward others. A young donkey represents the untamed level of our lives before regeneration, which needs spiritual care (Arcana Caelestia 5084[8]).

These last three ‘minor’ judges remind us of the qualities which guard against the next major opponent of Israel: the Philistines, who represent faith without regard to charity or good works.

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